This Surah consists of 11 verses, 40 sentences, 72 letters and 1 Rukuí.
It takes its name Ad-Duha from the very first word.
Its subject matter clearly indicates that it belongs to the earliest period at Makkah. Traditions also show that the revelations were suspended for a time, which caused the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) to be deeply distressed and grieved. On this account he felt very anxious that perhaps he had committed some error because of which his Lord had become angry with him and had forsaken him. Thereupon he was given the consolation that revelation had not been stopped because of some displeasure but this was necessitated by the same expediency as underlies the peace and stillness of the night after the bright day, as if to say: "If you had continuously been exposed to the intensely bright light of Revelation (Wahi) your nerves could not have endured it. Therefore, an interval was given in order to afford you peace and tranquillity." This state was experienccd by the Holy Prophet in the initial stage of the Prophethood when he was not yet accustomed to hear the intensity of Revelation. On this basis, observance of a pause in between was necessary. This we have already explained in the introduction to Surah Al Muddaththir; and in E. N. 5 of Surah Al-Muzzammil also we have explained what great burden of the coming down of Revelation he had to bear. Later, when the Holy Prophet developed the power to bear this burden, there was no longer any need for long gaps.
Its theme is to console the Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) and its object to remove his anxiety and distress, which he had been caused by the suspension of Revelation. First of all, swearing an oath by the bright morning and the stillness of night, he has been reassured, so as to say: "Your Lord has not at all forsaken you, nor is he displeased with you." Then, he has been given the good news that the hardships that he was experiencing in the initial stage of his mission, would not last long, for every later period of life for him would be better than the former period, and before long Allah would bless him so abundantly that he would be well pleased. This is one of the express prophecies of the Quran, which proved literally true, afterwards, whereas when this prophecy was made there seemed not to be the remotest chance that the helpless and powerless man who had come out to wage a war against the ignorance and paganism of the entire nation, would ever achieve such wonderful success.
Then, addressing His Holy Prophet (upon whom be peace) Allah says:"O My dear Prophet, what has caused you the anxiety and distress that your Lord has forsaken you, and that We are displeased with you? Whereas the fact is that We have been good to you with kindness after kindness ever since the day of your birth. You were born an orphan, We made the best arrangement for your upbringing and care: you were unaware of the Way, We showed you the Way; you were indigent, We made you rich. All this shows that you have been favoured by Us from the very beginning and Our grace and bounty has been constantly focussed on you." Here, one should also keep in view vv. 37-42 of Surah Ta Ha, where Allah, while sending the Prophet Moses to confront a tyrant like Pharaoh, encouraged and consoled him, saying: "We have been looking after you with kindness ever since your birth; therefore, you should be satisfied that you will not be left alone in this dreadful mission. Our bounty will constantly be with you."
In conclusion, Allah has instructed His Prophet (upon whom be peace) telling him how he should treat the creatures of God to repay for the favours He has done him and how he should render thanks for the blessings He has bestowed on him.
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when a lengthy gap ensued between revelations which enabled the idolaters to make fun of the Prophet as having been forsaken by the God in whose name he had been preaching his new religion. The revelation not only reassured the Prophet and his adherents but it also remonstrated all those who had taken undue advantage of the delay and had intensified their opposition to Islam.
93 : 1
By the morning hours, -
93 : 2
2. Waallayli itha saja
And by the night when it is at a standstill!
93 : 3
3. Ma waddaAAaka rabbuka wama qala
Your Lord has neither forsaken you nor is He displeased with you!
93 : 4
4. Walal-akhiratu khayrun laka mina al-oola
And verily the Hereafter will be better for you than this world!
93 : 5
5. Walasawfa yuAAteeka rabbuka fatarda
And verily your Lord will bless you with so much that you will be content with it!
93 : 6
6. Alam yajidka yateeman faawa
Did He not find you an orphan and protect you?
93 : 7
7. Wawajadaka dallan fahada
Did He not find you adrift and give you guidance?
93 : 8
8. Wawajadaka AAa-ilan faaghna
Did He not find you in dire need and give you wealth?
93 : 9
9. Faamma alyateema fala taqhar
Therefore, never exploit an orphan; -
93 : 10
10. Waamma alssa-ila fala tanhar
Nor turn away the beggar!
93 : 11
11. Waamma biniAAmati rabbika fahaddith
But blazon the benefactions of your Lord before all mankind! (R)
1. By the forenoon (after sun-rise);
2. And by the night when it is still (or darkens);
3. Your Lord (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) has neither forsaken you nor hated you.
4. And indeed the Hereafter is better for you than the present (life of this world).
5. And verily, your Lord will give you (all i.e. good) so that you shall be well-pleased.
6. Did He not find you (O Muhammad (Peace be upon him)) an orphan and gave you a refuge?
7. And He found you unaware (of the Qur'‚n, its legal laws, and Prophethood, etc.) and guided you?
8. And He found you poor, and made you rich (selfsufficient with selfcontentment, etc.)?
9. Therefore, treat not the orphan with oppression,
10. And repulse not the beggar;
11. And proclaim the Grace of your Lord (i.e. the Prophethood and all other Graces).
YUSUFALI: By the Glorious Morning Light,
PICKTHAL: By the morning hours
SHAKIR: I swear by the early hours of the day,
YUSUFALI: And by the Night when it is still,-
PICKTHAL: And by the night when it is stillest,
SHAKIR: And the night when it covers with darkness.
YUSUFALI: Thy Guardian-Lord hath not forsaken thee, nor is He displeased.
PICKTHAL: Thy Lord hath not forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee,
SHAKIR: Your Lord has not forsaken you, nor has He become displeased,
YUSUFALI: And verily the Hereafter will be better for thee than the present.
PICKTHAL: And verily the latter portion will be better for thee than the former,
SHAKIR: And surely what comes after is better for you than that which has gone before.
YUSUFALI: And soon will thy Guardian-Lord give thee (that wherewith) thou shalt be well-pleased.
PICKTHAL: And verily thy Lord will give unto thee so that thou wilt be content.
SHAKIR: And soon will your Lord give you so that you shall be well pleased.
YUSUFALI: Did He not find thee an orphan and give thee shelter (and care)?
PICKTHAL: Did He not find thee an orphan and protect (thee)?
SHAKIR: Did He not find you an orphan and give you shelter?
YUSUFALI: And He found thee wandering, and He gave thee guidance.
PICKTHAL: Did He not find thee wandering and direct (thee)?
SHAKIR: And find you lost (that is, unrecognized by men) and guide (them to you)?
YUSUFALI: And He found thee in need, and made thee independent.
PICKTHAL: Did He not find thee destitute and enrich (thee)?
SHAKIR: And find you in want and make you to be free from want?
YUSUFALI: Therefore, treat not the orphan with harshness,
PICKTHAL: Therefor the orphan oppress not,
SHAKIR: Therefore, as for the orphan, do not oppress (him).
YUSUFALI: Nor repulse the petitioner (unheard);
PICKTHAL: Therefor the beggar drive not away,
SHAKIR: And as for him who asks, do not chide (him),
YUSUFALI: But the bounty of the Lord - rehearse and proclaim!
PICKTHAL: Therefor of the bounty of thy Lord be thy discourse.
SHAKIR: And as for the favor of your Lord, do announce (it).