THE HOLY QUR'AAN

SURAH 63
Al-Munafiquun  (The Hypocrites)

INTRODUCTION:

This Surah consists of 11 verses, 180 sentences, 976 sentences and 2 Rukuís

Name

It is derived from the sentence idha nudiya-lis-salat-i min-yaum-il-Jumu'ati of verse 9. Although in this Surah injunctions about the Friday congregational Prayer also have been given, yet "Jumu'ah" is not the title of its subject-matter as a whole, but this name too, like the names of other Surahs, is only a symbolic title.

Period of Revelation

The period of the revelation of the first section (vv. 1-8) is A.H. 7, and probably it was sent down on the occasion of the conquest of Khaiber or soon after it. Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Nasa'i and Ibn Jarir have related on the authority of Hadrat Abu Hurairah that he and other Companions were sitting in the Holy Prophet's assembly when these verses were revealed. About Abu Hurairah it is confirmed historically that he entered Islam after the truce of Hudaibiyah and before the conquest of Khaiber, and Khaiber was conquered, according to Ibn Hisham, in Muharram, and, according to Ibn Sa'd, in Jamadi al-Awwal, A.H. 7. Thus presumably Allah might have sent down these verses, addressing the Jews, when their last stronghold had fallen to the Muslims, or these might have been revealed when, seeing the fate of Khaiber, all the Jewish settlements of northern Hijaz had surrendered to the Islamic government.

 

The second section (vv. 9-11) was sent down shortly after the emigration, for the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) had established the Friday congregational Prayer on the 5th day after his arrival at Madinah. The incident that has been referred to in the last verse of this section must have occurred at a time when the people had not yet received full training in the etiquette of religious congregations.

Theme and Subject Matter

As we have explained above, the two sections of this Surah were sent down in two different periods. That is why their themes as well as their audiences are different. Although there is a kind of harmony between them on account of which they have been put together in one Surah, yet we should understand their themes separately before we consider the question of their harmony.

 

The first section was sent down at a time when all Jewish efforts to obstruct the message of Islam during the past six years had failed. First, in Madinah as many as three of their powerful tribes had done whatever they could to frustrate the mission of the Holy Prophet, with the result that one of the tribes was completely exterminated and the other two were exiled. Then by intrigue and conspiracy they brought many of the Arab tribes together to advance on Madinah, but in the Battle of the Trench they were all repulsed. After this, Khaiber had become their stronghold, where a large number of the Jews expelled from Madinah also had taken refuge. At the time these verses were revealed, that too was taken without any extraordinary effort, and the Jews at their own request agreed to live there as tenants of the Muslims. After this final defeat the Jewish power in Arabia came to an end. Then, Wad-il-Qura, Fadak Taima', Tabuk, all surrendered one after the other, so much so that all Arabian Jews became subdued to the same Islam which they were not prepared to tolerate before. This was the occasion when Allah Almighty once again addressed them in this Surah, and probably this was the last and final address that was directed to them in the Qur'an. In this they have been reminded of three things:

1.       "You refused to believe in this Messenger only because he was born among a people whom you contemptuously call the "gentiles". You were under the false delusion that the Messenger must necessarily belong to your own community. You seemed to have been convinced that anyone who claimed to be a prophet from outside your community, must be an impostor for this office had been reserved for your race, and a messenger could never be raised among the "gentiles". But among the same gentiles Allah has raised a Messenger who is reciting His Book in front of your very eyes, is purifying souls, and showing the Right Way to the people whose misdeeds are well known to you . This is Allah's bounty, which He may bestow on anyone He may please. You have no monopoly over it so that He may bestow it over whomever you may please and may withhold it from whomever you may desire it to be withheld."

2.       "You had been made bearers of the Torah, but you did not understand your responsibility for it nor discharged it as you should have. You are like the donkey which is loaded with books, and which does not know what burden it is bearing. Rather you are worse than the donkey, for the donkey is devoid of sense, but you are intellligent. You not only shirk your responsibliity of being bearers of Allahs book, but you do not even hesitate to deny Allah's revelations deliberately. Yet, you are under the delusion that you are Allah's favourites and the blessing of apostleship has been reserved for you alone. More than that, you seem to entertain the notion that whether you fulfil the demands of Allah's message or not, Allah in any case is bound not to make any other than you the bearer of His message."

3.       "If you really were Allah's favourites and you were sure of having a place of honour and high rank reserved with Him, you would not have feared death so much as to prefer a life of disgrace to death. It is only because of this fear of death that you have suffered humiliation after humiiliation during the past few years. This condition is by itself a proof that you are fully conscious of your misdeeds, and your conscience is aware that if you die with these misdeeds, you will meet with a greater disgrace before Allah in the Hereafter than in this world."

This is the subject matter of the first section. The second section that was sent down many years later, was appended to this Surah because in it Allah has bestowed Friday on the Muslims as against the Sabbath of the Jews, and Allah wanted to warn the Muslims not to treat their Friday as the Jews had treated their Sabbath. This section was sent down on an occasion when a trade caravan arrived in Madinah right at the time of the Friday congregational service and hearing its din and drum the audience, except for 12 men, left the Prophet's Mosque and rushed out to the caravan, although the Holy Prophet (upon whom be Allah's peace) at that time was delivering the Sermon. Thereupon it was enjoined that after the call is sounded for the Friday Prayer all trade and business and other occupations become forbidden. The believers should then suspend every kind of transaction and hasten to the remembrance of Allah. However, when the Prayer is over, they have the right to disperse in the land to resume their normal occupations. This section could be made an independent Surah in view of the commandments that it contains about the congregational service on Friday, and could also be included in some other Surah, but, instead, it has been included here particularly in the verses in which the Jews have been warned of the causes of their evil end. Its wisdom in our opinion is the same as we have explained above.

Maududi

 



THE HOLY QUR'AAN

 


   SURAH 63
AL-MUNAFIQOON (THE HYPOCRITES)

 

Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


Section 1.

63 : 1

1. Itha jaaka almunafiqoona qaloo nashhadu innaka larasoolu Allahi waAllahu yaAAlamu innaka larasooluhu waAllahu yashhadu inna almunafiqeena lakathiboona

When the hypocrites come to you (Mohammed) they say : 'We bear witness that you are Allah's messenger. And Allah knows that you are indeed His messenger and Allah, in turn, bears witness that the hypocrites are liars!

63 : 2

2. Ittakhathoo aymanahum junnatan fasaddoo AAan sabeeli Allahi innahum saa ma kanoo yaAAmaloona

They have made their faith a means for barring men from the way of Allah. Verily evil are the deeds which they perpetrate!

63 : 3

3. Thalika bi-annahum amanoo thumma kafaroo fatubiAAa AAala quloobihim fahum la yafqahoona

That is because they believed and then they disbelieved, therefore their hearts are sealed so that they comprehend not!

63 : 4

4. Wa-itha raaytahum tuAAjibuka ajsamuhum wa-in yaqooloo tasmaAA liqawlihim kaannahum khushubun musannadatun yahsaboona kulla sayhatin AAalayhim humu alAAaduwwu faihtharhum qatalahumu Allahu anna yu/fakoona

And when you look at them, their figures seem quite personable to the eye; but when they speak, listen carefully to what they say! They are like planks of wood propped up against a wall! They take every shout to be a shout at them; they are your foes so beware! Allah will surely strike them down, so where do they think they are going!

* * *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when an aristocrat who was a hypocrite made derogatory statements about the Muslim community of Madina in general and the Prophet in particular which caused a great deal of anguish to them and provoked some of his hot-headed associates to deal with him by means of their swords. Even though the level-headed men suggested to him to go to the Prophet and apologize to him and let him pray to Allah for his forgiveness, he turned his face away with disdain. Yet the issue was nipped in the bud because the Prophet did not wish to be seen as a man who allowed his opponents to be silenced with violence.

63 : 5

5. Wa-itha qeela lahum taAAalaw yastaghfir lakum rasoolu Allahi lawwaw ruoosahum waraaytahum yasuddoona wahum mustakbiroona

And when it is said to them : 'Come! The messenger of Allah will seek forgiveness for you!' they turn their faces away! And you will notice that they knowingly spurn you out of sheer contempt!

63 : 6

6. Sawaon AAalayhim astaghfarta lahum am lam tastaghfir lahum lan yaghfira Allahu lahum inna Allaha la yahdee alqawma alfasiqeena

Whether you seek forgiveness for them or you seek it not, Allah will never forgive them, for verily Allah does not concede not to the pernicious!

63 : 7

7. Humu allatheena yaqooloona la tunfiqoo AAala man AAinda rasooli Allahi hatta yanfaddoo walillahi khaza-inu alssamawati waal-ardi walakinna almunafiqeena la yafqahoona

They it is who say : 'Do not squander your wealth upon those who live with Allah's messenger so that they desert him and go away!' - even though to Allah belong the treasures of the heavens and of the earth! But the hypocrites do not understand it.

63 : 8

8. Yaqooloona la-in rajaAAna ila almadeenati layukhrijanna al-aAAazzu minha al-athalla walillahi alAAizzatu walirasoolihi walilmu/mineena walakinna almunafiqeena la yaAAlamoona

They say : 'If we go back to Madina, those of us who exult in status will surely be able to drive out those of them who are devoid of status!' - even though to Allah belongs the status, and to the messenger, and to the believers! But the Hypocrites know this not. (R)

 

 

Section 2.

63 : 9

9. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tulhikum amwalukum wala awladukum AAan thikri Allahi waman yafAAal thalika faola-ika humu alkhasiroona

O those of you who believe! Let not your possessions nor children deflect you from your remembrance of Allah! And those who do so, they do it to their own detriment!

63 : 10

10. Waanfiqoo min ma razaqnakum min qabli an ya/tiya ahadakumu almawtu fayaqoola rabbi lawla akhkhartanee ila ajalin qareebin faassaddaqa waakun mina alssaliheena

And spend some out of that which We have provided for you before death comes to one of you and he says : 'My Lord! If only you would reprieve me for a while longer so that I may gave alms and become of the pious!

63 : 11

 11. Walan yu-akhkhira Allahu nafsan itha jaa ajaluha waAllahu khabeerun bima taAAmaloona

But Allah reprieves no soul after its term runs out! And Allah is aware of all that which you do! (R)


MUHSIN:

1. When the hypocrites come to you (O Muhammad SAW), they say: "We bear witness that you are indeed the Messenger of All‚h." All‚h knows that you are indeed His Messenger and All‚h bears witness that the hypocrites are liars indeed.

2. They have made their oaths a screen (for their hypocrisy). Thus they hinder (men) from the Path of All‚h. Verily, evil is what they used to do.

3. That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore their hearts are sealed, so they understand not.

4. And when you look at them, their bodies please you; and when they speak, you listen to their words. They are as blocks of wood propped up. They think that every cry is against them. They are the enemies, so beware of them. May All‚h curse them! How are they denying (or deviating from) the Right Path.

5. And when it is said to them: "Come, so that the Messenger of All‚h may ask forgiveness from All‚h for you", they turn aside their heads, and you would see them turning away their faces in pride.

6. It is equal to them whether you (Muhammad SAW) ask forgiveness or ask not forgiveness for them. Verily, All‚h guides not the people who are the F‚siqÓn (rebellious, disobedient to All‚h)[] .

7. They are the ones who say: "Spend not on those who are with All‚h's Messenger, until they desert him." And to All‚h belong the treasures of the heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites comprehend not.

8.  They (hyprocrites) say: "If we return to Al-Madinah, indeed the more honourable ('AbdŻllah bin Ubai bin Salul, the chief of hyprocrites at Al≠Madinah) will expel therefrom the meaner (i.e. All‚h's Messenger SAW)." But honour, power and glory belong to All‚h, His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and to the believers, but the hypocrites know not.

9. O you who believe! Let not your properties or your children divert you from the remembrance of All‚h. And whosoever does that, then they are the losers.

10. And spend (in charity) of that with which We have provided you, before death comes to one of you and he says: "My Lord! If only You would give me respite for a little while (i.e. return to the worldly life), then I should give Sadaqah (i.e. Zak‚t) of my wealth[] , and be among the righteous [i.e. perform Hajj (pilgrimage to Makkah)].

11. And All‚h grants respite to none when his appointed time (death) comes. And All‚h is All-Aware of what you do.


 063.001
YUSUFALI: When the Hypocrites come to thee, they say, "We bear witness that thou art indeed the Messenger of Allah." Yea, Allah knoweth that thou art indeed His Messenger, and Allah beareth witness that the Hypocrites are indeed liars.
PICKTHAL: When the hypocrites come unto thee (O Muhammad), they say: We bear witness that thou art indeed Allah's messenger. And Allah knoweth that thou art indeed His messenger, and Allah beareth witness that the hypocrites indeed are speaking falsely.
SHAKIR: When the hypocrites come to you, they say: We bear witness that you are most surely Allah's Messenger; and Allah knows that you are most surely His Messenger, and Allah bears witness that the hypocrites are surely liars.

063.002
YUSUFALI: They have made their oaths a screen (for their misdeeds): thus they obstruct (men) from the Path of Allah: truly evil are their deeds.
PICKTHAL: They make their faith a pretext so that they may turn (men) from the way of Allah. Verily evil is that which they are wont to do,
SHAKIR: They make their oaths a shelter, and thus turn away from Allah's way; surely evil is that which they do.

063.003
YUSUFALI: That is because they believed, then they rejected Faith: So a seal was set on their hearts: therefore they understand not.
PICKTHAL: That is because they believed, then disbelieved, therefore their hearts are sealed so that they understand not.
SHAKIR: That is because they believe, then disbelieve, so a seal is set upon their hearts so that they do not understand.

063.004
YUSUFALI: When thou lookest at them, their exteriors please thee; and when they speak, thou listenest to their words. They are as (worthless as hollow) pieces of timber propped up, (unable to stand on their own). They think that every cry is against them. They are the enemies; so beware of them. The curse of Allah be on them! How are they deluded (away from the Truth)!
PICKTHAL: And when thou seest them their figures please thee; and if they speak thou givest ear unto their speech. (They are) as though they were blocks of wood in striped cloaks. They deem every shout to be against them. They are the enemy, so beware of them. Allah confound them! How they are perverted!
SHAKIR: And when you see them, their persons will please you, and If they speak, you will listen to their speech; (they are) as if they were big pieces of wood clad with garments; they think every cry to be against them. They are the enemy, therefore beware of them; may Allah destroy them, whence are they turned back?

063.005
YUSUFALI: And when it is said to them, "Come, the Messenger of Allah will pray for your forgiveness", they turn aside their heads, and thou wouldst see them turning away their faces in arrogance.
PICKTHAL: And when it is said unto them: Come! The messenger of Allah will ask forgiveness for you! they avert their faces and thou seest them turning away, disdainful.
SHAKIR: And when it is said to them: Come, the Messenger of Allah will ask forgiveness for you, they turn back their heads and you may see them turning away while they are big with pride.

063.006
YUSUFALI: It is equal to them whether thou pray for their forgiveness or not. Allah will not forgive them. Truly Allah guides not rebellious transgressors.
PICKTHAL: Whether thou ask forgiveness for them or ask not forgiveness for them is all one for them; Allah will not forgive them. Lo! Allah guideth not the evil-living folk.
SHAKIR: It is alike to them whether you beg forgiveness for them or do not beg forgiveness for them; Allah will never forgive them; surely Allah does not guide the transgressing people.

063.007
YUSUFALI: They are the ones who say, "Spend nothing on those who are with Allah's Messenger, to the end that they may disperse (and quit Medina)." But to Allah belong the treasures of the heavens and the earth; but the Hypocrites understand not.
PICKTHAL: They it is who say: Spend not on behalf of those (who dwell) with Allah's messenger that they may disperse (and go away from you); when Allah's are the treasures of the heavens and the earth; but the hypocrites comprehend not.
SHAKIR: They it is who say: Do not spend upon those who are with the Messenger of Allah until they break up. And Allah's are the treasures of the heavens and the earth, but the hypocrites do not understand.

063.008
YUSUFALI: They say, "If we return to Medina, surely the more honourable (element) will expel therefrom the meaner." But honour belongs to Allah and His Messenger, and to the Believers; but the Hypocrites know not.
PICKTHAL: They say: Surely, if we return to Al-Madinah the mightier will soon drive out the weaker; when might belongeth to Allah and to His messenger and to the believers; but the hypocrites know not.
SHAKIR: They say: If we return to Medina, the mighty will surely drive out the meaner therefrom; and to Allah belongs the might and to His Messenger and to the believers, but the hypocrites do not know.

063.009
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Let not your riches or your children divert you from the remembrance of Allah. If any act thus, the loss is their own.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Let not your wealth nor your children distract you from remembrance of Allah. Those who do so, they are the losers.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! let not your wealth, or your children, divert you from the remembrance of Allah; and whoever does that, these are the losers.

063.010
YUSUFALI: and spend something (in charity) out of the substance which We have bestowed on you, before Death should come to any of you and he should say, "O my Lord! why didst Thou not give me respite for a little while? I should then have given (largely) in charity, and I should have been one of the doers of good".
PICKTHAL: And spend of that wherewith We have provided you before death cometh unto one of you and he saith: My Lord! If only thou wouldst reprieve me for a little while, then I would give alms and be among the righteous.
SHAKIR: And spend out of what We have given you before death comes to one of you, so that he should say: My Lord! why didst Thou not respite me to a near term, so that I should have given alms and been of the doers of good deeds?

063.011
YUSUFALI: But to no soul will Allah grant respite when the time appointed (for it) has come; and Allah is well acquainted with (all) that ye do.
PICKTHAL: But Allah reprieveth no soul when its term cometh, and Allah is Informed of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And Allah does not respite a soul when its appointed term has come, and Allah is Aware of what you do.

 Index

 SURAH 64