This Surah consists of 120 verses 12,464 letters and 16 Ruku's.
It takes its name from verse 112 in which the word Mai'dah occurs. Like the names of many other surahs, this name has no special relation to the subject of the Surah but has been used merely as a symbol to distinguish it from other surahs:
The theme of this Surah indicates, and traditions support it, that it was revealed after the treaty of Hudaibiyah at the end of 6 A.H. or in the beginning of 7 A.H. That is why it deals with those problems that arose from this treaty.
The Holy Prophet with 1400 Muslims went to Makkah in Zil-Qaadah 6 A.H. to perform Umrah, but the Quraish, spurred by their enmity, prevented him from its performance, though it was utterly against all the ancient religious traditions of Arabia. After a good deal of hard and harsh negotiations, a treaty was concluded at Hudaibiyah according to which it was agreed that he could perform Umrah the following year. That was a very appropriate occasion for teaching the Muslims the right way of performing a pilgrimage to Makkah with the true Islamic dignity, and enjoining that they should not prevent the disbelievers from performing pilgrimage to Makkah as a retaliation for their misbehaviour. This was not difficult at all as many disbelievers had to pass through Muslim territory on their way to Makkah. This is why the introductory verses deal with the things connected with pilgrimage to Makkah and the same theme has been resumed in vv. 101-104. The other topics of this Surah also appear to belong to the same period.
The continuity of the subject shows that most probably the whole of the surah was revealed as a single discourse at one and the same time. It is also possible that some of its verses were revealed at a later period and inserted in this Surah at different places where they fitted in. But there appears to be not the least gap anywhere in the surah to show that it might have comprised two or more discourses.
This Surah was revealed to suit the requirements of the changed conditions which were now different from those prevailing at the time of the revelation of Al-i-'Imran and An-Nisa. Then the shock of the set-back at Uhud had made the very surroundings of Al-Madinah dangerous for the Muslims, but now Islam had become an invulnerable power and the Islamic State had extended to Najd on the east, to the Red Sea on the west, to Syria on the north and to Makkah on the south. This set-back which the Muslims had suffered at Uhud had not broken their determination. It had rather spurred them to action. As a result of their continuous struggle and unparalleled sacrifices, the power of. the surrounding clans, within a radius of 200 miles or so, had been broken. The Jewish menace which was always threatening Al-Madinah had been totally removed and the Jews in the other parts of Hijaz had become tributaries of the State of Al-Madinah. The last effort of the Quraish to suppress Islam had been thwarted in the Battle of the Ditch. After this, it had become quite obvious to the Arabs that no power could suppress the Islamic movement. Now Islam was not merely a creed which ruled over the minds and hearts of the people but had also become a State which dominated over every aspect of the life of the people who lived within its boundaries. This had enabled the Muslims to live their lives without let or hindrance, in accordance with their beliefs.
Another development had also taken place during this period. The Muslim civilization developed in accordance with the principles of Islam and the Islamic viewpoint. This civilization was quite distinct from all other civilizations in all its details, and distinguished the Muslims clearly from the non Muslims in their moral, social and cultural behaviour. Mosques had been built in all territories, prayer had been established and Imam (leader) for every habitation and clan had been appointed. The Islamic civil and criminal laws had been formulated in detail and were being enforced through the Islamic courts. New and reformed ways of trade and commerce had taken the place of the old ones. The Islamic laws of marriage and divorce, of segregation of the sexes, of the punishment for adultery and calumny and the like had cast the social life of Muslims in a special mould. Their social behaviour, their conversation, their dress, their very mode of living, their culture etc., had taken a definite shape of its own. As a result of all these changes, the non-Muslims could not expect that the Muslims would ever return to their former fold. Before the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Muslims were so engaged in their struggle with the non-Muslim Quraish that they got no time to propagate their message. This hindrance was removed by what was apparently a defeat but in reality a victory at Hudaibiyah. This gave the Muslims not only peace in their own territory but also respite to spread their message in the surrounding territories. Accordingly the Holy Prophet addressed letters to the rulers of Iran, Egypt and the Roman Empire and the chiefs of Arabia, inviting them to Islam. At the same time the missionaries of Islam spread among the clans and tribes and invited them to accept the Divine Way of Allah. These were the circumstances at the time when Al-Ma'idah was revealed.
It deals with the following three main topics:
1. Commandments and instructions about the religious, cultural and political life of the Muslims. In this connection, a code of ceremonial rules concerning the journey for Hajj has been prescribed; the observance of strict respect for the emblems of Allah has been enjoined; and any kind of obstruction or interference with the pilgrims to the Kaabah has been prohibited. Definite rules and regulations have been laid down for what is lawful and unlawful in the matter of food, and self-imposed foolish restrictions of the pre-Islamic age have been abolished. Permission has been given to take food with the people of the Book and to marry their women. Rules and regulations for the performance of Wudu (ablutions) and bath and purification and tayammum (ablutions with dust) have been prescribed. Punishment for rebellion, disturbance of peace and theft have been specified. Drinking and gambling have absolutely been made unlawful. Expiation for the breaking of oath has been laid down and a few more things have been added to the law of evidence.
2. Admonition to the Muslims. Now that the Muslims had become a ruling body, it was feared that power might corrupt them. At this period of great trial, Allah had admonished them over and over again to stick to justice and to guard against the wrong behaviour of their predecessors, the people of the Book. They have been enjoined to remain steadfast to the Covenant of obedience to Allah and His Messenger, and to observe strictly their commands and prohibitions in order to save them- selves from the evil consequences which. befell the Jews and the Christians who had violated them. They have been instructed to observe the dictates of the Holy Quran in the conduct of all their affairs and warned against the attitude of hypocrisy.
3. Admonition to the Jews and the Christians. As the power of the Jews had been totally weakened and almost all their habitations in north Arabia had come under the rule of the Muslims, they have been warned again about their wrong attitude and invited to follow the Right Way. At the same time a detailed invitation has also been extended to the Christians. The errors of their creeds have been clearly pointed out and they have been admonished to accept the guidance of the Holy Prophet. Incidentally, it may be noted that no direct invitation has been made to the Majusis and idolaters living in the adjoining countries, because there was no need for a separate address for them as their condition had already been covered by the addresses to the mushrik Arabs.
In continuation of the instructions about the consolidation of the Islamic Community given in Surah AN-NISA, the Muslims have been directed to observe and fulfill all their obligations: further regulations have been prescribed to train the Muslims for that purpose. They have also been particularly warned as rulers to guard against the corruption, of power and directed to observe the Covenant of the Quran. They have also been exhorted to learn lessons from the failings of their predecessors, the Jews and the Christians, who in their turn have been admonished to give up their wrong attitudes towards the Right Way and accept the guidance taught by Prophet Muhammad (God's peace be upon him).
IMPORTANT: Please note that the Digest is based upon these outstanding translations and they have been reproduced here for the benefit of serious readers of the Quríaan; the copyrights of these works are held by their respective authors/publishers from whom they can be purchased by anyone interested in acquiring them and we ardently hope that no offence will be taken by their inclusion.
Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi
5 : 1
1. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo awfoo bialAAuqoodi ohillat lakum baheematu al-anAAami illa ma yutla AAalaykum ghayra muhillee alssaydi waantum hurumun inna Allaha yahkumu ma yureedu
O those of you who believe! Honour the pledges you have made!! Lawful to you for consumption are all forms of cattle other than those that will be specified later; but game is made unlawful to you during the pilgrimage. Verily Allah ordains for you whatever pleases Him!
(Keeping promises, honouring our pledges, abiding by our word and delivering our trust are among the salient features of the Code of Conduct preached by Islam and practised by Muslims all over the world
In this verse we are admonished to honour our pledges, those we made to one another and those we made to Allah in the context of what is lawful to us and what is unlawful, not only in matters of food, but also in matters of clothing, marriages, contracts, crusades, emigration and everything else where a responsibility has been placed upon us and has been accepted by us.
Some commentators opine that the verse is addressed to the Peoples of the Scriptures who believe, and calls on them to fulfil the Covenant they made with Allah to the effect that, when the Last Prophet arrives in their midst, they would support him and co-operate with him in every way towards the accomplishment of his mission.
It is reiterated in the verse that consumption of all forms of cattle is lawful for the believers except those that will be indicated later.
Even though all animals hunted during the forbidden month of pilgrimage are unlawful, the restriction applies only to those hunted on land and not in water)
5 : 2
2. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tuhilloo shaAAa-ira Allahi wala alshshahra alharama wala alhadya wala alqala-ida wala ammeena albayta alharama yabtaghoona fadlan min rabbihim waridwanan wa-itha halaltum faistadoo wala yajrimannakum shanaanu qawmin an saddookum AAani almasjidi alharami an taAAtadoo wataAAawanoo AAala albirri waalttaqwa wala taAAawanoo AAala al-ithmi waalAAudwani waittaqoo Allaha inna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabi
O those of you who believe! Do not desecrate the symbols of Allah, nor defile the months of reverence, nor the offerings, nor the collars of identity, nor those who are proceeding to the Sacred House to attain Grace from their Lord and earn His accord! But when you have emerged from the sacrosanct region, you may go hunting. And let not the grudge you bore against a community who once obstructed you from performing pilgrimage provoke you into reprisals but encourage one another in performing righteous deeds rather than sinfulness and persecution. Render your duty to Allah, for Allah's retribution is severe.
(This verse enumerates a series of things we should do or refrain from doing:
The symbols of Allah refers to all those things Allah has made lawful or unlawful to us through these revelations and makes it incumbent upon us that we should abide by both with equal commitment.
Bloodshed during the forbidden month of pilgrimage, prohibited since the times of Paganism, was to remain prohibited under Islam, ensuring that the sanctity of the sacred month was preserved for all future generations.
It was a time honoured custom with Arab tribes to wrap around the necks of cattle sent to Mecca for oblation collars of identity so that no harm came to them in transit until they reached their destination.
In addition to ensuring safe conduct to animals wearing these collars, the Qur'aan made it incumbent on the pilgrims not to dispossess other pilgrims who have set out in pursuit of Allah's benefactions and Grace of their belongings nor to imperil their lives in any way.
Reprisals against those who had prevented the believers from performing their pilgrimage in the past were not to be perpetrated during the holy month, and certainly not within the sacred precincts of the Hallowed Mosque, making an obvious reference to the ruthless and brazen manner in which the Meccan disbelievers had obstructed the Muslims from entering the Mosque following the Treaty of Hudaybiyah.
Instead, the believers were exhorted to help each other in performing righteous deeds and in warding off evil.
According to some commentators, doing what we are commanded to do is righteousness and avoiding what we are forbidden from doing is warding off evil; and avoiding what we are commanded to do is sin and doing what we are forbidden from doing is transgression!)
5 : 3
3. Hurrimat AAalaykumu almaytatu waalddamu walahmu alkhinzeeri wama ohilla lighayri Allahi bihi waalmunkhaniqatu waalmawqoothatu waalmutaraddiyatu waalnnateehatu wama akala alssabuAAu illa ma thakkaytum wama thubiha AAala alnnusubi waan tastaqsimoo bial-azlami thalikum fisqun alyawma ya-isa allatheena kafaroo min deenikum fala takhshawhum waikhshawni alyawma akmaltu lakum deenakum waatmamtu AAalaykum niAAmatee waradeetu lakumu al-islama deenan famani idturra fee makhmasatin ghayra mutajanifin li-ithmin fa-inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
Forbidden to you for consumption are carrion and blood and flesh of swine and animals offered in sacrifice to anyone other than Allah and the strangled and those beaten to death or died from taking a fall or from wounds sustained in combat or killed by predators, except those you salvaged with consecrated slaughter. And forbidden to you are beasts sacrificed towards idol worship and those killed by divining arrows, which is an act of utter depravity. This is the day when the disbelievers are in remorse for having berated your faith so do not fear them not fear Me alone! This day, I have perfected your religion for you and consummated My favour to you and chosen for you Islam as your ultimate denomination. And let him who has been forced to breach these bounds by dint of hunger and not temptation know that verily Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful!
(Being a religion the practice of which is subjected to the concept of cleanliness in every aspect, - spiritual, physical and notional, - it is necessary that there should be guidelines on what is lawful and what is unlawful for us to eat, so that we avoid eating what has been prohibited and ensure our cleanliness from within as well as from without.
The verse prohibits the consumption of following categories of animals:
i) Carrion, which includes an animal otherwise lawful to eat after consecration but had died before it was consecrated;
ii) Blood, running or coagulated;
iii) Swine flesh;
iv) Animals slaughtered in the name of a deity other than Allah;
v) Animals who have been asphyxiated;
vi) Animals killed with a blunt instrument such as a stone or a hammer in which the death of the animal results without bleeding through the jugular vein;
vii) Animals who died as a result of a fall;
viii) Animals who died as a result of goring with horns by other animals through combat;
ix) Animals partially devoured by wild beasts, except if they are still alive and are suitable for consecrated slaughter;
x) Animals who have been slaughtered as an offering to idols;
Animals chosen for slaughter by means of divining of arrows.
This verse also contains a momentous declaration that, on the day when it was revealed, - which was a Friday as well as the day of Arafat - Allah perfected the religion of Islam, after having exhausted the list of what is lawful and what is unlawful, not only in matters of food but also in every aspect of life which governs the way in which Muslims live or ought to live. This is the reason why no other verse was ever revealed concerning what is lawful and what is unlawful, or what is allowed and what is forbidden, nor was there any revelation which superseded the existing revelations, thus streamlining the religion for good so that it lasted forever without any doubts, uncertainties, queries or alterations. SubhanAllah that it has remained intact thus far, and InshaAllah it will remain intact till the Day of Resurrection!
It is also reiterated in the same verse that no disbeliever will ever aspire to overwhelm the believers in any way, that the promise of Allah to the believers came to pass with the taking of Mecca by them, and that the religion chosen by Allah for them will flourish forever.
In the end, an important dispensation is made to the effect that, all things said and done, if it comes down to survival, we can consume the unlawful in order to save our lives, so long as we are neither relishing such food nor gorging our bellies with it.
Any future reference made to the 'lawful and the unlawful' is only by way of a response to clarifications sought by the people).
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the Prophet was asked to clarify whether game secured by employing hounds and hawks in the hunt is lawful to eat.
5 : 4
4. Yas-aloonaka matha ohilla lahum qul ohilla lakumu alttayyibatu wama AAallamtum mina aljawarihi mukallibeena tuAAallimoonahunna mimma AAallamakumu Allahu fakuloo mimma amsakna AAalaykum waothkuroo isma Allahi AAalayhi waittaqoo Allaha inna Allaha sareeAAu alhisabi
They ask you (O Mohammed) what has been made lawful for them to eat. Say:
'All clean things have been made lawful for you. And game you procured with
hunting animals whom you trained using skills given to you by Allah is lawful
for you to eat after it has been consecrated with Allah's name. And render
your duty to Allah, for verily Allah is swift at reckoning.'
(This is subject to the condition that the beasts or hounds or hawks who have been trained as hunting aids manage to fetch the game in tact, without mauling, clawing or devouring some of it or causing it undue distress along the way.
Even though game is permitted by Islam, except in the holy month and in the holy precincts of the Hallowed Mosque, causing needless distress to animals is strictly prohibited).
* * *
5 : 5
5. Alyawma ohilla lakumu alttayyibatu wataAAamu allatheena ootoo alkitaba hillun lakum wataAAamukum hillun lahum waalmuhsanatu mina almu/minati waalmuhsanatu mina allatheena ootoo alkitaba min qablikum itha ataytumoohunna ojoorahunna muhsineena ghayra musafiheena wala muttakhithee akhdanin waman yakfur bial-eemani faqad habita AAamaluhu wahuwa fee al-akhirati mina alkhasireena
This is the day when all clean things are made lawful for you. The food made lawful for the Peoples of the Scriptures is made lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. So are virtuous women from among the believers, and virtuous women from among those who received the Scripture before you, made lawful for you when you give them their agreed dowry and take them in holy wedlock, - not for fornication nor as casual mistresses. He that renounces his faith and takes to apostasy, all his toils will be wasted and he will be amongst the forsaken in the Hereafter. (R)
(The verse confirms that food made lawful for the Peoples of the Scriptures is made lawful for Muslims, including their method of slaughter, regardless of how flawed it is, so long as it has been consecrated in the name of Allah.
Swine flesh continued to be unlawful for believers because it was never made lawful for the Jews or for the Christians in their respective Scriptures.
It is also made lawful for Muslim men to marry believing women from among the Peoples of the Scripture by giving them their agreed dowries, - for the purpose of wedlock and not for fornication nor as secret mistresses for casual sex.
Muslim women, however, must not be given in marriage to Jews or to Christians. It was because, whilst the Muslims believe in their Scriptures and their Prophets as required by the Qur'aan, they reject the Qur'aan and our Prophet even though they are required by their Scriptures to believe in them.
Whereas it is not improbable for a Muslim man who has taken a Jewish or a Christian wife to persuade her to embrace Islam through preaching and reasoning, it would be well nigh impossible for a Muslim wife to influence a non Muslim husband to incline towards her faith, or even practice it herself in his house and without his consent.
Forcing a believing woman into such an implacable situation amounts to a betrayal of trust, so we must refrain from doing it)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
1. O you who believe! Fulfill (your) obligations. Lawful to you (for food) are all the beasts of cattle except that which will be announced to you (herein), game (also) being unlawful when you assume Ihr‚m for Hajj or 'Umrah (pilgrimage). Verily, All‚h commands that which He wills.
2. O you who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the Symbols of All‚h, nor of the Sacred Month, nor of the animals brought for sacrifice, nor the garlanded people or animals, etc. [Marked by the garlands on their necks made from the outer part of the tree≠stems (of Makkah) for their security], nor the people coming to the Sacred House (Makkah), seeking the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord. But when you finish the Ihr‚m (of Hajj or 'Umrah), you may hunt, and let not the hatred of some people in (once) stopping you from Al≠Masjid≠al≠Har‚m (at Makkah) lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part). Help you one another in Al≠Birr and At≠Taqwa (virtue, righteousness and piety); but do not help one another in sin and transgression. And fear All‚h. Verily, All‚h is Severe in punishment.
3. Forbidden to you (for food) are: Al-Maytatah (the dead animals - cattle-beast not slaughtered), blood, the flesh of swine, and the meat of that which has been slaughtered as a sacrifice for others than All‚h, or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., or on which All‚h's Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering, and that which has been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by the goring of horns - and that which has been (partly) eaten by a wild animal - unless you are able to slaughter it (before its death) ≠ and that which is sacrificed (slaughtered) on An≠Nusub (stone altars). (Forbidden) also is to use arrows seeking luck or decision, (all) that is Fisqun (disobedience of All‚h and sin). This day, those who disbelieved have given up all hope of your religion, so fear them not, but fear Me. This day, I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Isl‚m as your religion. But as for him who is forced by severe hunger, with no inclination to sin (such can eat these above-mentioned meats), then surely, All‚h is Oft≠Forgiving, Most Merciful.
4. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) what is lawful for them (as food ). Say: "Lawful unto you are At≠Tayyib‚t [all kind of Hal‚l (lawful≠good) foods which All‚h has made lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits, etc.)]. And those beasts and birds of prey which you have trained as hounds, training and teaching them (to catch) in the manner as directed to you by All‚h; so eat of what they catch for you, but pronounce the Name of All‚h over it, and fear All‚h. Verily, All‚h is Swift in reckoning."
5. Made lawful to you this day are At≠Tayyib‚t [all kinds of Hal‚l (lawful) foods, which All‚h has made lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, etc., milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits, etc.). The food (slaughtered cattle, eatable animals, etc.) of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time, when you have given their due Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), desiring chastity (i.e. taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as girl-friends. And whosoever disbelieves in the Oneness of All‚h and in all the other Articles of Faith [i.e. His (All‚h's), Angels, His Holy Books, His Messengers, the Day of Resurrection and Al≠Qadar (Divine Preordainments)], then fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! fulfil (all) obligations. Lawful unto you (for food) are all four-footed animals, with the exceptions named: But animals of the chase are forbidden while ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb: for Allah doth command according to His will and plan.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Fulfil your indentures. The beast of cattle is made lawful unto you (for food) except that which is announced unto you (herein), game being unlawful when ye are on the pilgrimage. Lo! Allah ordaineth that which pleaseth Him.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! fulfill the obligations. The cattle quadrupeds are allowed to you except that which is recited to you, not violating the prohibition against game when you are entering upon the performance of the pilgrimage; surely Allah orders what He desires.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Violate not the sanctity of the symbols of Allah, nor of the sacred month, nor of the animals brought for sacrifice, nor the garlands that mark out such animals, nor the people resorting to the sacred house, seeking of the bounty and good pleasure of their Lord. But when ye are clear of the sacred precincts and of pilgrim garb, ye may hunt and let not the hatred of some people in (once) shutting you out of the Sacred Mosque lead you to transgression (and hostility on your part). Help ye one another in righteousness and piety, but help ye not one another in sin and rancour: fear Allah: for Allah is strict in punishment.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Profane not Allah's monuments nor the Sacred Month nor the offerings nor the garlands, nor those repairing to the Sacred House, seeking the grace and pleasure of their Lord. But when ye have left the sacred territory, then go hunting (if ye will). And let not your hatred of a folk who (once) stopped your going to the inviolable place of worship seduce you to transgress; but help ye one another unto righteousness and pious duty. Help not one another unto sin and transgression, but keep your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is severe in punishment.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not violate the signs appointed by Allah nor the sacred month, nor (interfere with) the offerings, nor the sacrificial animals with garlands, nor those going to the sacred house seeking the grace and pleasure of their Lord; and when you are free from the obligations of the pilgrimage, then hunt, and let not hatred of a people-- because they hindered you from the Sacred Masjid-- incite you to exceed the limits, and help one another in goodness and piety, and do not help one another in sin and aggression; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is severe in requiting (evil).
YUSUFALI: Forbidden to you (for food) are: dead meat, blood, the flesh of swine, and that on which hath been invoked the name of other than Allah; that which hath been killed by strangling, or by a violent blow, or by a headlong fall, or by being gored to death; that which hath been (partly) eaten by a wild animal; unless ye are able to slaughter it (in due form); that which is sacrificed on stone (altars); (forbidden) also is the division (of meat) by raffling with arrows: that is impiety. This day have those who reject faith given up all hope of your religion: yet fear them not but fear Me. This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion. But if any is forced by hunger, with no inclination to transgression, Allah is indeed Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and blood and swineflesh, and that which hath been dedicated unto any other than Allah, and the strangled, and the dead through beating, and the dead through falling from a height, and that which hath been killed by (the goring of) horns, and the devoured of wild beasts, saving that which ye make lawful (by the death-stroke), and that which hath been immolated unto idols. And (forbidden is it) that ye swear by the divining arrows. This is an abomination. This day are those who disbelieve in despair of (ever harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you, and have chosen for you as religion al-Islam. Whoso is forced by hunger, not by will, to sin: (for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: Forbidden to you is that which dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that on which any other name than that of Allah has been invoked, and the strangled (animal) and that beaten to death, and that killed by a fall and that killed by being smitten with the horn, and that which wild beasts have eaten, except what you slaughter, and what is sacrificed on stones set up (for idols) and that you divide by the arrows; that is a transgression. This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion, so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed My favor on you and chosen for you Islam as a religion; but whoever is compelled by hunger, not inclining willfully to sin, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
YUSUFALI: They ask thee what is lawful to them (as food). Say: lawful unto you are (all) things good and pure: and what ye have taught your trained hunting animals (to catch) in the manner directed to you by Allah: eat what they catch for you, but pronounce the name of Allah over it: and fear Allah; for Allah is swift in taking account.
PICKTHAL: They ask thee (O Muhammad) what is made lawful for them. Say: (all) good things are made lawful for you. And those beasts and birds of prey which ye have trained as hounds are trained, ye teach them that which Allah taught you; so eat of that which they catch for you and mention Allah's name upon it, and observe your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is swift to take account.
SHAKIR: They ask you as to what is allowed to them. Say: The good things are allowed to you, and what you have taught the beasts and birds of prey, training them to hunt-- you teach them of what Allah has taught you-- so eat of that which they catch for you and mention the name of Allah over it; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is swift in reckoning.
YUSUFALI: This day are (all) things good and pure made lawful unto you. The food of the People of the Book is lawful unto you and yours is lawful unto them. (Lawful unto you in marriage) are (not only) chaste women who are believers, but chaste women among the People of the Book, revealed before your time,- when ye give them their due dowers, and desire chastity, not lewdness, nor secret intrigues if any one rejects faith, fruitless is his work, and in the Hereafter he will be in the ranks of those who have lost (all spiritual good).
PICKTHAL: This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them. And so are the virtuous women of the believers and the virtuous women of those who received the Scripture before you (lawful for you) when ye give them their marriage portions and live with them in honour, not in fornication, nor taking them as secret concubines. Whoso denieth the faith, his work is vain and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter.
SHAKIR: This day (all) the good things are allowed to you; and the food of those who have been given the Book is lawful for you and your food is lawful for them; and the chaste from among the believing women and the chaste from among those who have been given the Book before you (are lawful for you); when you have given them their dowries, taking (them) in marriage, not fornicating nor taking them for paramours in secret; and whoever denies faith, his work indeed is of no account, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers.
5 : 6
6. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo itha qumtum ila alssalati faighsiloo wujoohakum waaydiyakum ila almarafiqi waimsahoo biruoosikum waarjulakum ila alkaAAbayni wa-in kuntum junuban faittahharoo wa-in kuntum marda aw AAala safarin aw jaa ahadun minkum mina algha-iti aw lamastumu alnnisaa falam tajidoo maan fatayammamoo saAAeedan tayyiban faimsahoo biwujoohikum waaydeekum minhu ma yureedu Allahu liyajAAala AAalaykum min harajin walakin yureedu liyutahhirakum waliyutimma niAAmatahu AAalaykum laAAallakum tashkuroona
O those of you who believe! When you prepare for offering worship, wash your faces and hands as far as the elbows and run your palms over your heads and wash your feet up to the ankles; and if there is a need for ablution, cleanse yourself thoroughly; and if you are ill or are on a journey or have visited the closet or have been in the company of women and water is not available to you for cleansing, use clean soil and rub your faces and hands with it. It is not the intention of Allah to inconvenience you but only to ensure your physical cleanliness and to consummate His blessing upon you, so that you give Him thanks.
(The topic of Wudu, a ritual cleansing performed in addition to and in spite of a bath for notional cleanliness before offering prayers or touching the Qur'aan or entering a mosque, a mausoleum, a grave-yard or any other holy place; and of Tayammum' which substitutes for 'Wudu' in the event of unavailability for water, or physical inability to make use of water, have been covered at length in Surah 2 and 4).
5 : 7
7. Waothkuroo niAAmata Allahi AAalaykum wameethaqahu allathee wathaqakum bihi ith qultum samiAAna waataAAna waittaqoo Allaha inna Allaha AAaleemun bithati alssudoori
And remember Allah's favour to you and the covenant of tacit obedience with which He did bind you when you said : 'We hear and we obey!' So discharge your duty to Allah, for He is well aware of what is hidden in the hearts of men.
(We know from revelations we have read so far, and no doubt we will read in verses yet to come, that no matter who we are, how many righteous deeds we perform, how much we spend out of that which Allah has bestowed upon us, how regular and consistent we are in offering worship, how gentle and tolerant, how equanimous and judicious, how pious and upright, nothing would avail us to the slightest extent if we are not believers; if we have not surrendered ourselves to the will of Allah; if we do not believe in all His Prophets and the Scriptures that were given to them, and in the Angels and in the Last Day!
It is, therefore, the greatest of Allah's blessings on us that we are born as believers, or we were given the incentive to become believers, because Allah guides only those whom He will. He guided us on to the right path, taught us how to be good Muslims, imbibed in us the virtues which ameliorate us, brought us from darkness into light, equipped us with endurance and tolerance and promised us His forgiveness and a goodly reward even if we err at times and deviate into forbidden pastures!
The covenant mentioned in the verse refers to the pledge of tacit obedience to His commands, without discrimination or modification, which all Muslims make in return for our salvation and forgiveness; but in particular, it refers to the pledge of allegiance given to the blessed Prophet by two groups of new converts from Madina, at al-Aqaba and then subsequently at Hudaybiyah).
5 : 8
8. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo koonoo qawwameena lillahi shuhadaa bialqisti wala yajrimannakum shanaanu qawmin AAala alla taAAdiloo iAAdiloo huwa aqrabu lilttaqwa waittaqoo Allaha inna Allaha khabeerun bima taAAmaloona
O those of you who believe! Be resolute witnesses for Allah and let not your abhorrence of a community deter you from dispensing justice. Dispense justice in equity, which is nearer to keeping your duty. And fear Allah, for verily He is aware of all your deeds!
5 : 9
9. WaAAada Allahu allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati lahum maghfiratun waajrun AAatheemun
Allah has promised those who believe and perform righteous deeds that for them there is redemption and a great reward!
5 : 10
10. Waallatheena kafaroo wakaththaboo bi-ayatina ola-ika as-habu aljaheemi
But those who disbelieve and vituperate Our revelations, they are the denizens of hell!
* * *
Context of Revelation: The following verse was revealed when an opponent of the Prophet, commissioned by the idolaters and the hypocrites to do away with him, found him unarmed and asleep and tried to slay him with his own sword, but was rendered motionless by the Archangel at the behest of Allah.
5 : 11
11. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo othkuroo niAAmata Allahi AAalaykum ith hamma qawmun an yabsutoo ilaykum aydiyahum fakaffa aydiyahum AAankum waittaqoo Allaha waAAala Allahi falyatawakkali almu/minoona
O those of you who believe! Remember Allah's favour to you how, when a certain group of men attempted to raise their hands on you, He restrained their hands! So render your duty to Allah, and let those who believe put their trust in Allah alone! (R)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
6. O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Sal‚t (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Jan‚ba (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. All‚h does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful.
7. And remember All‚h's Favour upon you and His Covenant with which He bound you when you said: "We hear and we obey." And fear All‚h. Verily, All‚h is All≠Knower of the secrets of (your) breasts.
8. O you who believe! Stand out firmly for All‚h and be just witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety, and fear All‚h. Verily, All‚h is Well≠Acquainted with what you do.
9. All‚h has promised those who believe (in the Oneness of All‚h - Isl‚mic Monotheism) and do deeds of righteousness, that for them there is forgiveness and a great reward (i.e. Paradise).
10. They who disbelieve and deny our Ay‚t (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) are those who will be the dwellers of the Hell≠fire.
11. O you who believe! Remember the Favour of All‚h unto you when some people desired (made a plan) to stretch out their hands against you, but (All‚h) withheld their hands from you. So fear All‚h. And in All‚h let believers put their trust.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! when ye prepare for prayer, wash your faces, and your hands (and arms) to the elbows; Rub your heads (with water); and (wash) your feet to the ankles. If ye are in a state of ceremonial impurity, bathe your whole body. But if ye are ill, or on a journey, or one of you cometh from offices of nature, or ye have been in contact with women, and ye find no water, then take for yourselves clean sand or earth, and rub therewith your faces and hands, Allah doth not wish to place you in a difficulty, but to make you clean, and to complete his favour to you, that ye may be grateful.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! When ye rise up for prayer, wash you faces, and your hands up to the elbows, and lightly rub your heads and (wash) your feet up to the ankles. And if ye are unclean, purify yourselves. And if ye are sick or on a journey, or one of you cometh from the closet, or ye have had contact with women, and ye find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of it. Allah would not place a burden on you, but He would purify you and would perfect His grace upon you, that ye may give thanks.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! when you rise up to prayer, wash your faces and your hands as far as the elbows, and wipe your heads and your feet to the ankles; and if you are under an obligation to perform a total ablution, then wash (yourselves) and if you are sick or on a journey, or one of you come from the privy, or you have touched the women, and you cannot find water, betake yourselves to pure earth and wipe your faces and your hands therewith, Allah does not desire to put on you any difficulty, but He wishes to purify you and that He may complete His favor on you, so that you may be grateful.
YUSUFALI: And call in remembrance the favour of Allah unto you, and His covenant, which He ratified with you, when ye said: "We hear and we obey": And fear Allah, for Allah knoweth well the secrets of your hearts.
PICKTHAL: Remember Allah's grace upon you and His covenant by which He bound you when ye said: We hear and we obey; And keep your duty to Allah. Lo! He knoweth what is in the breasts (of men).
SHAKIR: And remember the favor of Allah on you and His covenant with which He bound you firmly, when you said: We have heard and we obey, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, surely Allah knows what is in the breasts.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! stand out firmly for Allah, as witnesses to fair dealing, and let not the hatred of others to you make you swerve to wrong and depart from justice. Be just: that is next to piety: and fear Allah. For Allah is well-acquainted with all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Be steadfast witnesses for Allah in equity, and let not hatred of any people seduce you that ye deal not justly. Deal justly, that is nearer to your duty. Observe your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is Informed of what ye do.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! Be upright for Allah, bearers of witness with justice, and let not hatred of a people incite you not to act equitably; act equitably, that is nearer to piety, and he careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is Aware of what you do.
YUSUFALI: To those who believe and do deeds of righteousness hath Allah promised forgiveness and a great reward.
PICKTHAL: Allah hath promised those who believe and do good works: Theirs will be forgiveness and immense reward.
SHAKIR: Allah has promised to those who believe and do good deeds (that) they shall have forgiveness and a mighty reward.
YUSUFALI: Those who reject faith and deny our signs will be companions of Hell-fire.
PICKTHAL: And they who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, such are rightful owners of hell.
SHAKIR: And (as for) those who disbelieve and reject our communications, these are the companions of the name.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Call in remembrance the favour of Allah unto you when certain men formed the design to stretch out their hands against you, but (Allah) held back their hands from you: so fear Allah. And on Allah let believers put (all) their trust.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Remember Allah's favour unto you, how a people were minded to stretch out their hands against you but He withheld their hands from you; and keep your duty to Allah. In Allah let believers put their trust.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! remember Allah's favor on you when a people had determined to stretch forth their hands towards you, but He withheld their hands from you, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; and on Allah let the believers rely.
5 : 12
12. Walaqad akhatha Allahu meethaqa banee isra-eela wabaAAathna minhumu ithnay AAashara naqeeban waqala Allahu innee maAAakum la-in aqamtumu alssalata waataytumu alzzakata waamantum birusulee waAAazzartumoohum waaqradtumu Allaha qardan hasanan laokaffiranna AAankum sayyi-atikum walaodkhilannakum jannatin tajree min tahtiha al-anharu faman kafara baAAda thalika minkum faqad dalla sawaa alssabeeli
And verily Allah did take a covenant from the children of Israel in the past, and We chose from amongst them twelve leaders, and Allah said to them : 'I am with you! If you establish worship and give to the poor their due and believe in Our messengers and respect them and lend Allah a munificent loan, I shall remit your sins and enter you into Gardens underneath which rivers flow! But from now on, whoever among you disbelieves, he shall be deemed to have strayed away from the chosen path!'
(Allah gave Moses His word that the Children of Israel will inherit the Promised Land in Jerusalem that was forcibly occupied by a ruthless and ferocious tribe.
After Pharaoh and his armies were drowned, Moses was commanded to proceed to Jerusalem along with his people, dividing them into twelve groups and placing each group under the command of a chief who would ensure that his men abided by Allah's commandments and kept their promise of subservience they had made to Him.
Upon reaching the outskirts of the Promised Land a party of spies were sent to bring news about their adversaries, what sort of people were they, how prepared were they to take on the invaders and what were the odds against their being overwhelmed.
However, when their spies returned with the disconcerting news that the men who had taken over that land were extremely powerful, formidable in physical stature and well prepared to defend themselves against invaders, all but two of the chiefs put in charge of the twelve groups fell short of faith in Allah, retracted the promise of obedience they had made to Him and rebelled against Moses.
The two chiefs whose faith in Allah did not abate by the news were Joshua and Caleb).
5 : 13
13. Fabima naqdihim meethaqahum laAAannahum wajaAAalna quloobahum qasiyatan yuharrifoona alkalima AAan mawadiAAihi wanasoo haththan mimma thukkiroo bihi wala tazalu tattaliAAu AAala kha-inatin minhum illa qaleelan minhum faoAAfu AAanhum waisfah inna Allaha yuhibbu almuhsineena
Because of their breaking the Covenant, We put a curse on them and hardened their hearts. They change around Our words and put them out of context, disregarding much of what they were admonished. You will not cease to hear the tales of their treachery, except from a few. So disregard them and forgive them, for Allah cherishes those who are forgiving.
(The Torah was unique in the sense that it was the only Divine Revelation that was given by Allah to a Prophet in the form of the written word.
Unfortunately, either during the lifetime of Moses or shortly after his death, the Tablets on which the Commandments were inscribed were lost, with but a single copy left behind for the future generations of Jews.
Taking advantage of this situation, their priests re-wrote the entire text, with little regard to the truth or to its original contents, introducing unwarranted changes in it according to their whims, and only to serve their own vested interests.
In order to ensure that their superiority over the people midst whom they lived remained in tact for good, they erased the prophesies contained in the Torah about Jesus and the Gospel, and then about Mohammed and the Qur'aan, and refused to concede the Prophethood of several messengers sent by Allah in between, such as Joseph and Solomon.
Yet Allah admonished the Prophet to put up with their transgressions and disregard their disobedience so that He may deal with their treachery on the Day when they will have no one to intercede on their behalf, nor will they find a refuge to which they can escape.
According to some commentators, this verse was revealed with reference to a
tribe who entered into a truce with the Prophet but subsequently breached its
terms, in which case it could mean that Allah admonished the Prophet to turn a
blind eye to their treachery and to ignore them for as long as they continued to
pay the levy to which they had agreed).
5 : 14
14. Wamina allatheena qaloo inna nasara akhathna meethaqahum fanasoo haththan mimma thukkiroo bihi faaghrayna baynahumu alAAadawata waalbaghdaa ila yawmi alqiyamati wasawfa yunabbi-ohumu Allahu bima kanoo yasnaAAoona
those who said : 'We are Christians!' We took a Covenant, but they disregarded
much of what
they were admonished. Hence We sowed the seeds of mutual mistrust and hostility in their hearts to last them until the Day of Resurrection when Allah will tell them all that which they used to do.
(Although the Christians had an axe to grind over the Jews for repudiating Jesus, rejecting the Gospel, persecuting him, erecting hurdles in his path and betraying him to the Romans, it was not as if they welcomed the Prophet who followed Jesus with open arms, in spite of the fact that The Comforter was forecast in their Scripture too. They caused him no less anguish, harassed him, mocked him, scoffed him, denigrated him, embarrassed him and dismissed the Qur'aan with equal arrogance by colluding with his opponents, whether they were their friends or their enemies, whether they were Jews or idolaters.
The result was, Allah's curse landed on them with equal preponderance; they were torn into schisms; they were sent astray on the path of evil; their brotherhood shredded apart; their religion diluted, their priests lusted after wealth and pleasures of flesh, their guides gave them wrong directions and the gulf between the way of life of the man who had led them out of darkness into light and theirs widened beyond the scope of bridging).
5 : 15
15. Ya ahla alkitabi qad jaakum rasooluna yubayyinu lakum katheeran mimma kuntum tukhfoona mina alkitabi wayaAAfoo AAan katheerin qad jaakum mina Allahi noorun wakitabun mubeenun
O people of the Scripture! Now has this messenger come to you to recapitulate the things you concealed in the previous Scriptures and forgive you for that which you concealed! Now there has come to you a Light from Allah and a definitive Scripture -
5 : 16
16. Yahdee bihi Allahu mani ittabaAAa ridwanahu subula alssalami wayukhrijuhum mina alththulumati ila alnnoori bi-ithnihi wayahdeehim ila siratin mustaqeemin
Through which Allah provides guidance to those who seek peace in the name of Allah and brings them out of darkness into light, by His will, and shows them the righteous path.
5 : 17
17. Laqad kafara allatheena qaloo inna Allaha huwa almaseehu ibnu maryama qul faman yamliku mina Allahi shay-an in arada an yuhlika almaseeha ibna maryama waommahu waman fee al-ardi jameeAAan walillahi mulku alssamawati waal-ardi wama baynahuma yakhluqu ma yashao waAllahu AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
They commit blasphemy who say: 'Verily Allah Himself is the Messiah, son of Mary!' Say to them : 'What could anyone have done to Allah, if He had decided to destroy the Messiah, son of Mary, along with his mother and everyone on earth? To Allah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth and everything in between them! He can create what He will and He is Omnipotent over all things.
(Even though most Christians do harbour the misconception that Jesus is the son of God, there were also those who claimed that Jesus was the personification of Allah, or that Allah came to earth in the form of Jesus because Jesus and Allah are one and the same, - a contention deemed unviable and unacceptable by any standards.
The verse unequivocally declares that those who subscribe to such sanctimonious notions are guilty of heresy and blasphemy).
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when some Christians and Jews held a confabulation with the Prophet concerning Islam during which he warned them of dire consequences resulting from their disobedience to Allah and their repudiation of His message, but they made light of his warning, claiming that they were the 'cherished children' of Allah and therefore immune from punishment!
5 : 18
18. Waqalati alyahoodu waalnnasara nahnu abnao Allahi waahibbaohu qul falima yuAAaththibukum bithunoobikum bal antum basharun mimman khalaqa yaghfiru liman yashao wayuAAaththibu man yashao walillahi mulku alssamawati waal-ardi wama baynahuma wa-ilayhi almaseeru
The Jews and the Christians say : 'We are Allah's children and are His most cherished!' Say to them : 'Why then does He threaten you with punishment for your sins? Nay, but you are mere mortals and a part of His creation! He forgives whom He will and He punishes whom He will and to Him belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth and all that exists in between, and to Him must everything return in the end!
* * *
5 : 19
19. Ya ahla alkitabi qad jaakum rasooluna yubayyinu lakum AAala fatratin mina alrrusuli an taqooloo ma jaana min basheerin wala natheerin faqad jaakum basheerun wanatheerun waAllahu AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
O People of the Scripture! A messenger has now come to you from Us to propound Our commandments, after a prolonged suspension, lest you say : 'No one came to us either with good news or with warnings!' Hence a bearer of good news and of warnings is now in your midst. Allah is able to do all things! (R)
OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
12. Indeed All‚h took the covenant from the Children of Israel (Jews), and We appointed twelve leaders among them. And All‚h said: "I am with you if you perform As-Sal‚t (Iq‚mat-as-Sal‚t) and give Zak‚t and believe in My Messengers; honour and assist them, and lend to All‚h a good loan. Verily, I will remit your sins and admit you to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise). But if any of you after this, disbelieved, he has indeed gone astray from the Straight Path."
13. So because of their breach of their covenant, We cursed them, and made their hearts grow hard. They change the words from their (right) places and have abandoned a good part of the Message that was sent to them. And you will not cease to discover deceit in them, except a few of them. But forgive them, and overlook (their misdeeds). Verily, All‚h loves Al≠MuhsinŻn (good≠doers - see V.2:112).
14. And from those who call themselves Christians, We took their covenant, but they have abandoned a good part of the Message that was sent to them. So We planted amongst them enmity and hatred till the Day of Resurrection (when they discarded All‚h's Book, disobeyed All‚h's Messengers and His Orders and transgressed beyond bounds in All‚h's disobedience), and All‚h will inform them of what they used to do.
15. O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad SAW) explaining to you much of that which you used to hide from the Scripture and passing over (i.e. leaving out without explaining) much. Indeed, there has come to you from All‚h a light (Prophet Muhammad SAW ) and a plain Book (this Qur'‚n).
16. Wherewith All‚h guides all those who seek His Good Pleasure to ways of peace, and He brings them out of darkness by His Will unto light and guides them to a Straight Way (Isl‚mic Monotheism).
17. Surely, in disbelief are they who say that All‚h is the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary). Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Who then has the least power against All‚h, if He were to destroy the Messiah, son of Maryam (Mary), his mother, and all those who are on the earth together?" And to All‚h belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between them. He creates what He wills. And All‚h is Able to do all things.
18. And (both) the Jews and the Christians say: "We are the children of All‚h and His loved ones." Say: "Why then does He punish you for your sins?" Nay, you are but human beings, of those He has created, He forgives whom He wills and He punishes whom He wills. And to All‚h belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, and to Him is the return (of all).
19. O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Now has come to you Our Messenger (Muhammad SAW) making (things) clear unto you, after a break in (the series of) Messengers, lest you say: "There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings and no warner." But now has come unto you a bringer of glad tidings and a warner. And All‚h is Able to do all things.
YUSUFALI: Allah did aforetime take a covenant from the Children of Israel, and we appointed twelve captains among them. And Allah said: "I am with you: if ye (but) establish regular prayers, practise regular charity, believe in my messengers, honour and assist them, and loan to Allah a beautiful loan, verily I will wipe out from you your evils, and admit you to gardens with rivers flowing beneath; but if any of you, after this, resisteth faith, he hath truly wandered from the path or rectitude."
PICKTHAL: Allah made a covenant of old with the Children of Israel and We raised among them twelve chieftains, and Allah said: Lo! I am with you. If ye establish worship and pay the poor-due, and believe in My messengers and support them, and lend unto Allah a kindly loan, surely I shall remit your sins, and surely I shall bring you into Gardens underneath which rivers flow. Whoso among you disbelieveth after this will go astray from a plain road.
SHAKIR: And certainly Allah made a covenant with the children of Israel, and We raised up among them twelve chieftains; and Allah said: Surely I am with you; if you keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and believe in My messengers and assist them and offer to Allah a goodly gift, I will most certainly cover your evil deeds, and I will most certainly cause you to enter into gardens beneath which rivers flow, but whoever disbelieves from among you after that, he indeed shall lose the right way.
YUSUFALI: But because of their breach of their covenant, We cursed them, and made their hearts grow hard; they change the words from their (right) places and forget a good part of the message that was sent them, nor wilt thou cease to find them- barring a few - ever bent on (new) deceits: but forgive them, and overlook (their misdeeds): for Allah loveth those who are kind.
PICKTHAL: And because of their breaking their covenant, We have cursed them and made hard their hearts. They change words from their context and forget a part of that whereof they were admonished. Thou wilt not cease to discover treachery from all save a few of them. But bear with them and pardon them. Lo! Allah loveth the kindly.
SHAKIR: But on account of their breaking their covenant We cursed them and made their hearts hard; they altered the words from their places and they neglected a portion of what they were reminded of; and you shall always discover treachery in them excepting a few of them; so pardon them and turn away; surely Allah loves those who do good (to others).
YUSUFALI: From those, too, who call themselves Christians, We did take a covenant, but they forgot a good part of the message that was sent them: so we estranged them, with enmity and hatred between the one and the other, to the day of judgment. And soon will Allah show them what it is they have done.
PICKTHAL: And with those who say: "Lo! we are Christians," We made a covenant, but they forgot a part of that whereof they were admonished. Therefor We have stirred up enmity and hatred among them till the Day of Resurrection, when Allah will inform them of their handiwork.
SHAKIR: And with those who say, We are Christians, We made a covenant, but they neglected a portion of what they were reminded of, therefore We excited among them enmity and hatred to the day of resurrection; and Allah will inform them of what they did.
YUSUFALI: O people of the Book! There hath come to you our Messenger, revealing to you much that ye used to hide in the Book, and passing over much (that is now unnecessary): There hath come to you from Allah a (new) light and a perspicuous Book, -
PICKTHAL: O People of the Scripture! Now hath Our messenger come unto you, expounding unto you much of that which ye used to hide in the Scripture, and forgiving much. now hath come unto you light from Allah and plain Scripture,
SHAKIR: O followers of the Book! indeed Our Messenger has come to you making clear to you much of what you concealed of the Book and passing over much; indeed, there has come to you light and a clear Book from Allah;
YUSUFALI: Wherewith Allah guideth all who seek His good pleasure to ways of peace and safety, and leadeth them out of darkness, by His will, unto the light,- guideth them to a path that is straight.
PICKTHAL: Whereby Allah guideth him who seeketh His good pleasure unto paths of peace. He bringeth them out of darkness unto light by His decree, and guideth them unto a straight path.
SHAKIR: With it Allah guides him who will follow His pleasure into the ways of safety and brings them out of utter darkness into light by His will and guides them to the right path.
YUSUFALI: In blasphemy indeed are those that say that Allah is Christ the son of Mary. Say: "Who then hath the least power against Allah, if His will were to destroy Christ the son of Mary, his mother, and all every - one that is on the earth? For to Allah belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between. He createth what He pleaseth. For Allah hath power over all things."
PICKTHAL: They indeed have disbelieved who say: Lo! Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary. Say: Who then can do aught against Allah, if He had willed to destroy the Messiah son of Mary, and his mother and everyone on earth? Allah's is the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them. He createth what He will. And Allah is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: Certainly they disbelieve who say: Surely, Allah-- He is the Messiah, son of Marium. Say: Who then could control anything as against Allah when He wished to destroy the Messiah son of Marium and his mother and all those on the earth? And Allah's is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and what is between them; He creates what He pleases; and Allah has power over all things,
YUSUFALI: (Both) the Jews and the Christians say: "We are sons of Allah, and his beloved." Say: "Why then doth He punish you for your sins? Nay, ye are but men,- of the men he hath created: He forgiveth whom He pleaseth, and He punisheth whom He pleaseth: and to Allah belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is between: and unto Him is the final goal (of all)"
PICKTHAL: The Jews and Christians say: We are sons of Allah and His loved ones. Say: Why then doth He chastise you for your sins? Nay, ye are but mortals of His creating. He forgiveth whom He will, and chastiseth whom He will. Allah's is the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them, and unto Him is the journeying.
SHAKIR: And the Jews and the Christians say: We are the sons of Allah and His beloved ones. Say: Why does He then chastise you for your faults? Nay, you are mortals from among those whom He has created, He forgives whom He pleases and chastises whom He pleases; and Allah's is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and what is between them, and to Him is the eventual coming.
YUSUFALI: O People of the Book! Now hath come unto you, making (things) clear unto you, Our Messenger, after the break in (the series of) our messengers, lest ye should say: "There came unto us no bringer of glad tidings and no warner (from evil)": But now hath come unto you a bringer of glad tidings and a warner (from evil). And Allah hath power over all things.
PICKTHAL: O People of the Scripture! Now hath Our messenger come unto you to make things plain unto you after an interval (of cessation) of the messengers, lest ye should say: There came not unto us a messenger of cheer nor any warner. Now hath a messenger of cheer and a warner come unto you. Allah is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: O followers of the Book! indeed Our Messenger has come to you explaining to you after a cessation of the (mission of the) messengers, lest you say: There came not to us a giver of good news or a warner, so indeed there has come to you a giver of good news and a warner; and Allah has power over all things.
5 : 20
20. Wa-ith qala moosa liqawmihi ya qawmi othkuroo niAAmata Allahi AAalaykum ith jaAAala feekum anbiyaa wajaAAalakum mulookan waatakum ma lam yu/ti ahadan mina alAAalameena
And (remember) when Moses said to his people : 'O my people! Reflect on Allah's favour to you who made some of you Prophets and some of you Rulers and gave you that which He has never given to anyone else!
5 : 21
21. Ya qawmi odkhuloo al-arda almuqaddasata allatee kataba Allahu lakum wala tartaddoo AAala adbarikum fatanqaliboo khasireena
'O my people! Enter the Promised Land that Allah has set aside for you and turn not in flight, for then you will return empty handed!
5 : 22
22. Qaloo ya moosa inna feeha qawman jabbareena wa-inna lan nadkhulaha hatta yakhrujoo minha fa-in yakhrujoo minha fa-inna dakhiloona
They said : 'O Moses! Verily that land is inhabited by people who are quite formidable in strength and we dare not enter it until they are driven out of there. But when they are, we will enter it.'
5 : 23
23. Qala rajulani mina allatheena yakhafoona anAAama Allahu AAalayhima odkhuloo AAalayhimu albaba fa-itha dakhaltumoohu fa-innakum ghaliboona waAAala Allahi fatawakkaloo in kuntum mu/mineena
Among them were two men who feared their Lord, and Allah had been gracious to them. They said : 'Enter through the front doorway! If you thus enter, then verily victory is yours. So put your trust in Allah, if you truly believe in Him! '
5 : 24
24. Qaloo ya moosa inna lan nadkhulaha abadan ma damoo feeha fa-ithhab anta warabbuka faqatila inna hahuna qaAAidoona
They said : 'O Moses! We will not enter that land until those people are driven out. So, you go there, - you and your Lord, - and do the fighting. We will wait here!'
(Joshua and Caleb urged their people to enter the gates of the city with daring, bearing in mind that Allah will ensure them a victory because He promised it to Moses, and Allah's promise would surely come to pass, but to the Children of Israel the assurance given by the two God fearing men was not reliable in the light of conflicting news brought by the rest of the ten. So, they rebelled and nearly stoned Moses, Aaron, Joshua and Caleb to death in order to avoid the risks of confronting their formidable enemy).
5 : 25
25. Qala rabbi innee la amliku illa nafsee waakhee faofruq baynana wabayna alqawmi alfasiqeena
He said : 'O Lord! I have control over none except myself and my brother, so seclude us from these gutless folks!'
5 : 26
26. Qala fa-innaha muharramatun AAalayhim arbaAAeena sanatan yateehoona fee al-ardi fala ta/sa AAala alqawmi alfasiqeena
Their Lord said : 'In that case, this land is surely forbidden to them for forty years during which time they will wander around the earth in complete bewilderment. And sympathize not with the disobedient folks (R)
OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
20. And (remember) when MŻsa (Moses) said to his people: "O my people! Remember the Favour of All‚h to you, when He made Prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not given to any other among the 'AlamÓn (mankind and jinns, in the past)."
21. "O my people! Enter the holy land (Palestine) which All‚h has assigned to you, and turn not back (in flight) for then you will be returned as losers."
22. They said: "O MŻsa (Moses)! In it (this holy land) are a people of great strength, and we shall never enter it, till they leave it; when they leave, then we will enter."
23. Two men of those who feared (All‚h and) on whom All‚h had bestowed His Grace [they were Ūś‘ŕ ś Ŗ«Š» YŻsha' (Joshua) and K‚lab (Caleb)] said: "Assault them through the gate, for when you are in, victory will be yours, and put your trust in All‚h if you are believers indeed."
24. They said: "O MŻsa (Moses)! We shall never enter it as long as they are there. So go you and your Lord and fight you two, we are sitting right here."
25. He [MŻsa (Moses)] said: "O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother, so separate us from the people who are the F‚siqŻn (rebellious and disobedient to All‚h)!"
26. (All‚h) said: "Therefore it (this holy land) is forbidden to them for forty years; in distraction they will wander through the land. So be not sorrowful over the people who are the F‚siqŻn (rebellious and disobedient to All‚h)."
YUSUFALI: Remember Moses said to his people: "O my people! Call in remembrance the favour of Allah unto you, when He produced prophets among you, made you kings, and gave you what He had not given to any other among the peoples.
PICKTHAL: And (remember) when Moses said unto his people: O my people! Remember Allah's favour unto you, how He placed among you prophets, and He made you kings, and gave you that (which) He gave not to any (other) of (His) creatures.
SHAKIR: And when Musa said to his people: O my people! remember the favor of Allah upon you when He raised prophets among you and made you kings and gave you what He had not given to any other among the nations.
YUSUFALI: "O my people! Enter the holy land which Allah hath assigned unto you, and turn not back ignominiously, for then will ye be overthrown, to your own ruin."
PICKTHAL: O my people! Go into the holy land which Allah hath ordained for you. Turn not in flight, for surely ye turn back as losers:
SHAKIR: O my people! enter the holy land which Allah has prescribed for you and turn not on your backs for then you will turn back losers.
YUSUFALI: They said: "O Moses! In this land are a people of exceeding strength: Never shall we enter it until they leave it: if (once) they leave, then shall we enter."
PICKTHAL: They said: O Moses! Lo! a giant people (dwell) therein and lo! we go not in till they go forth from thence. When they go forth from thence, then we will enter (not till then).
SHAKIR: They said: O Musa! surely there is a strong race in it, and we will on no account enter it until they go out from it, so if they go out from it, then surely we will enter.
YUSUFALI: (But) among (their) Allah-fearing men were two on whom Allah had bestowed His grace: They said: "Assault them at the (proper) Gate: when once ye are in, victory will be yours; But on Allah put your trust if ye have faith."
PICKTHAL: Then out spake two of those who feared (their Lord, men) unto whom Allah had been gracious: Enter in upon them by the gate, for if ye enter by it, lo! ye will be victorious. So put your trust (in Allah) if ye are indeed believers.
SHAKIR: Two men of those who feared, upon both of whom Allah had bestowed a favor, said: Enter upon them by the gate, for when you have entered it you shall surely be victorious, and on Allah should you rely if you are believers.
YUSUFALI: They said: "O Moses! while they remain there, never shall we be able to enter, to the end of time. Go thou, and thy Lord, and fight ye two, while we sit here (and watch)."
PICKTHAL: They said: O Moses! We will never enter (the land) while they are in it. So go thou and thy Lord and fight! We will sit here.
SHAKIR: They said: O Musa! we shall never enter it so long as they are in it; go therefore you and your Lord, then fight you both surely we will here sit down.
YUSUFALI: He said: "O my Lord! I have power only over myself and my brother: so separate us from this rebellious people!"
PICKTHAL: He said: My Lord! I have control of none but myself and my brother, so distinguish between us and the wrong-doing folk.
SHAKIR: He said: My Lord! Surely I have no control (upon any) but my own self and my brother; therefore make a separation between us and the nation of transgressors.
YUSUFALI: Allah said: "Therefore will the land be out of their reach for forty years: In distraction will they wander through the land: But sorrow thou not over these rebellious people.
PICKTHAL: (Their Lord) said: For this the land will surely be forbidden them for forty years that they will wander in the earth, bewildered. So grieve not over the wrongdoing folk.
SHAKIR: He said: So it shall surely be forbidden to them for forty years, they shall wander about in the land, therefore do not grieve for the nation of transgressors.
5 : 27
27. Waotlu AAalayhim nabaa ibnay adama bialhaqqi ith qarraba qurbanan fatuqubbila min ahadihima walam yutaqabbal mina al-akhari qala laaqtulannaka qala innama yataqabbalu Allahu mina almuttaqeena
'But narrate to them the story of the two sons of Adam how, when both of them offered a sacrifice to Allah, one was accepted but the other was rejected; and he whose offering was rejected said to the other : 'I swear I will kill you for this!' and the other replied : 'Allah accepts the offering from only those that are abstemious!
5 : 28
28. La-in basatta ilayya yadaka litaqtulanee ma ana bibasitin yadiya ilayka li-aqtulaka innee akhafu Allaha rabba alAAalameena
'Even if you raise your hand on me in order to kill me, I will not raise mine on you in order to kill you, for I revere Allah who is the Lord of the Worlds!'
5 : 29
29. Innee oreedu an taboo-a bi-ithmee wa-ithmika fatakoona min as-habi alnnari wathalika jazao alththalimeena
'I would rather that the burden of guilt for both of us fell on your shoulders and rendered you hell bound, for there is no better punishment for the iniquitous than that!'
5 : 30
30. FatawwaAAat lahu nafsuhu qatla akheehi faqatalahu faasbaha mina alkhasireena
But as the other's selfish soul prevailed over him, he slew his brother and became one with the losers!
5 : 31
31. FabaAAatha Allahu ghuraban yabhathu fee al-ardi liyuriyahu kayfa yuwaree saw-ata akheehi qala ya waylata aAAajaztu an akoona mithla hatha alghurabi faowariya saw-ata akhee faasbaha mina alnnadimeena
Then a raven flew in by Allah's command and raked the earth with its claws to show him how to bury his brother's body. Only then did remorse strike him and he said : 'How pitiful of me that I am not as wise as even that raven to know how to conceal my brother's body! And he became penitent.
(This is the Qur'aanic version of the story of Cane and Abel, the two sons of Adam attributed with the commission of the first cardinal sin on earth by human hands, which takes us back to Genesis when Allah said to the angels that He was going to create man out of dust and make him His regent upon the earth, and the angels said : 'Are you going to place him as your regent upon earth who would desecrate it with bloodshed?' The desecration to which the angels had alluded was perpetrated by the hands of these two brothers for the first time, motivated by conceit on one hand and jealousy on the other, a despicable trait of human nature that is at the root of so much misery and suffering, so many betrayals and treacheries, so many sacrifices and capitulations, that the hand shudders to recount them.
Thus Allah made an example out of them for the benefit of their own seed that jealousy begets jealousy, conceit yields conceit, persecution triggers retaliation, hatred exacerbates abrasion, animosity provokes dissension and seeds of malice yield only a harvest of crime!
At the same time it was also proved that the real strength of man lies in his weakness: that if he is weak enough to capitulate, he is also strong enough to relent; that the hand which rose to slay a brother was also the hand which laid him to rest in peace; that the human spirit is as susceptible to sin as it is capable of redemption).
5 : 32
32. Min ajli thalika katabna AAala banee isra-eela annahu man qatala nafsan bighayri nafsin aw fasadin fee al-ardi fakaannama qatala alnnasa jameeAAan waman ahyaha fakaannama ahya alnnasa jameeAAan walaqad jaat-hum rusuluna bialbayyinati thumma inna katheeran minhum baAAda thalika fee al-ardi lamusrifoona
Hence We decreed it for the Children of Israel that whoever kills one human being for any reason other than retaliation for murder or persecution in land, it would be as if he has killed all mankind; and whoever saves the life of one human being, it would be as if he has saved all mankind! But even though there came to them many a messenger in the past with clear portents from Us, most of them resorted to transgression regardless!
(This verse is of phenomenal significance because it lays down an eclectic principle for all mankind about the value of human life and the culpability of those who trifle with it for no justifiable reason, that the flame Allah has ignited, no one has the right to put it out; that each time an innocent man breaths his last at the hands of his merciless assailant, the whole of mankind sustains lacerations and begins to bleed; that every breath unjustly stifled blatantly muffles the voice of justice; and that every step taken in the direction of drawing innocent blood is a step taken in the direction of hell-fire.
On the other side of the coin it contends that, every time an innocent life is saved, the Kingdom of Allah is reasserted on His earth; every time the right of man to live in peace is defended, the kingdom of the devil on earth is obliterated; every time a battle is waged in support of the meek, the forces of evil are evicted from Paradise all over again; and every step taken in the direction of protecting the defenceless is a step taken in the direction of the gates of heaven!)
* * *
Context of Revelation: The following verse was revealed when a group of people from a neighbouring tribe came to Madina to embrace Islam, but on their way back stole a few camels and subsequently tortured to death an emissary of the Prophet who was sent by him to recover the stolen livestock.
5 : 33
33. Innama jazao allatheena yuhariboona Allaha warasoolahu wayasAAawna fee al-ardi fasadan an yuqattaloo aw yusallaboo aw tuqattaAAa aydeehim waarjuluhum min khilafin aw yunfaw mina al-ardi thalika lahum khizyun fee alddunya walahum fee al-akhirati AAathabun AAatheemun
The most appropriate punishment for those who wage a war on Allah and on His messenger and cause upheaval in the land is execution, or crucifixion, or severing of an arm and a foot on alternate sides, or expulsion from the land. For them is humiliation in this world and an acerbic stricture in the Hereafter!
5 : 34
34. Illa allatheena taboo min qabli an taqdiroo AAalayhim faiAAlamoo anna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
But those who repent before they are captured, let them know that Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful (R)
(The above verses make a significant contribution to the Criminal Justice System preached by the Qur'aan and widely practised by most Islamic states where both rulers as well as the ruled subscribe to the same denomination, so that there are no voices raised against justice and its dispensation through legitimate institutions such as Courts, Tribunals, Forums and Fatwas
Even though deemed primitive and barbaric by the Western civilizations, it cannot be denied that all corporal crimes deserve corporal punishment in order to level the scales of justice tilted by the commission of such a crime, which is the reason why the Qur'aan tends to lean towards extreme measures such as hanging, stoning, severing of limbs and lashing so that the marks of punishment last longer than the ramifications of the crime perpetrated.
No doubt, the intrinsic nature of punishment is harsh, but the Qur'aan balances it out with an unequivocal emphasis on other elements of justice such as mercy and compassion in return for remorse and penitence, but above all, a fear of Divine chastisement and faith in Divine exculpation, as mentioned in verse 34.
It is also worth noting that the culprit in question arrived in Madina feigning belief, became a Muslim at the noblest pair of hands he could ever wish for, stole the property of others with blatant disregard for their feelings and, when a man was deputized by the Prophet to recover the stolen property, he tortured him to death! If such a despicable crime was committed in certain States of the US, he would be charged with first degree murder and locked away inside a high security prison, condemned to spend a harrowing period of wait, torn between hope and despair, expectation and disappointment, and then 'fried').
OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR FURTHER READING:
27. And (O Muhammad SAW) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam [H‚bil (Abel) and Q‚bil (Cain)] in truth; when each offered a sacrifice (to All‚h), it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former: "I will surely kill you." The former said: "Verily, All‚h accepts only from those who are Al-MuttaqŻn (the pious - see V.2:2)."
28. "If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me, I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear All‚h; the Lord of the 'AlamÓn (mankind, jinns, and all that exists)."
29. "Verily, I intend to let you draw my sin on yourself as well as yours, then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Z‚limŻn (polytheists and wrong≠doers)."
30. So the Nafs (self) of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair≠seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers.
31. Then All‚h sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: "Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?" Then he became one of those who regretted.
32. Because of that We ordained for the Children of Israel that if anyone killed a person not in retaliation of murder, or (and) to spread mischief in the land - it would be as if he killed all mankind, and if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all mankind. And indeed, there came to them Our Messengers with clear proofs, evidences, and signs, even then after that many of them continued to exceed the limits (e.g. by doing oppression unjustly and exceeding beyond the limits set by All‚h by committing the major sins) in the land!.
33. The recompense of those who wage war against All‚h and His Messenger and do mischief in the land is only that they shall be killed or crucified or their hands and their feet be cut off on the opposite sides, or be exiled from the land. That is their disgrace in this world, and a great torment is theirs in the Hereafter.
34. Except for those who (having fled away and then) came back (as Muslims) with repentance before they fall into your power; in that case, know that All‚h is Oft≠Forgiving, Most Merciful.
YUSUFALI: Recite to them the truth of the story of the two sons of Adam. Behold! they each presented a sacrifice (to Allah): It was accepted from one, but not from the other. Said the latter: "Be sure I will slay thee." "Surely," said the former, "Allah doth accept of the sacrifice of those who are righteous.
PICKTHAL: But recite unto them with truth the tale of the two sons of Adam, how they offered each a sacrifice, and it was accepted from the one of them and it was not accepted from the other. (The one) said: I will surely kill thee. (The other) answered: Allah accepteth only from those who ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: And relate to them the story of the two sons of Adam with truth when they both offered an offering, but it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. He said: I I will most certainly slay you. (The other) said: Allah only accepts from those who guard (against evil).
YUSUFALI: "If thou dost stretch thy hand against me, to slay me, it is not for me to stretch my hand against thee to slay thee: for I do fear Allah, the cherisher of the worlds.
PICKTHAL: Even if thou stretch out thy hand against me to kill me, I shall not stretch out my hand against thee to kill thee, lo! I fear Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.
SHAKIR: If you will stretch forth your hand towards me to slay me, I am not one to stretch forth my hand towards you to slay you surely I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds:
YUSUFALI: "For me, I intend to let thee draw on thyself my sin as well as thine, for thou wilt be among the companions of the fire, and that is the reward of those who do wrong."
PICKTHAL: Lo! I would rather thou shouldst bear the punishment of the sin against me and thine own sin and become one of the owners of the fire. That is the reward of evil-doers.
SHAKIR: Surely I wish that you should bear the sin committed against me and your own sin, and so you would be of the inmates of the fire, and this is the recompense of the unjust.
YUSUFALI: The (selfish) soul of the other led him to the murder of his brother: he murdered him, and became (himself) one of the lost ones.
PICKTHAL: But (the other's) mind imposed on him the killing of his brother, so he slew him and became one of the losers.
SHAKIR: Then his mind facilitated to him the slaying of his brother so he slew him; then he became one of the losers
YUSUFALI: Then Allah sent a raven, who scratched the ground, to show him how to hide the shame of his brother. "Woe is me!" said he; "Was I not even able to be as this raven, and to hide the shame of my brother?" then he became full of regrets-
PICKTHAL: Then Allah sent a raven scratching up the ground, to show him how to hide his brother's naked corpse. He said: Woe unto me! Am I not able to be as this raven and so hide my brother's naked corpse? And he became repentant.
SHAKIR: Then Allah sent a crow digging up the earth so that he might show him how he should cover the dead body of his brother. He said: Woe me! do I lack the strength that I should be like this crow and cover the dead body of my brother? So he became of those who regret.
YUSUFALI: On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if any one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. Then although there came to them Our messengers with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land.
PICKTHAL: For that cause We decreed for the Children of Israel that whosoever killeth a human being for other than manslaughter or corruption in the earth, it shall be as if he had killed all mankind, and whoso saveth the life of one, it shall be as if he had saved the life of all mankind. Our messengers came unto them of old with clear proofs (of Allah's Sovereignty), but afterwards lo! many of them became prodigals in the earth.
SHAKIR: For this reason did We prescribe to the children of Israel that whoever slays a soul, unless it be for manslaughter or for mischief in the land, it is as though he slew all men; and whoever keeps it alive, it is as though he kept alive all men; and certainly Our messengers came to them with clear arguments, but even after that many of them certainly act extravagantly in the land.
YUSUFALI: The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His Messenger, and strive with might and main for mischief through the land is: execution, or crucifixion, or the cutting off of hands and feet from opposite sides, or exile from the land: that is their disgrace in this world, and a heavy punishment is theirs in the Hereafter;
PICKTHAL: The only reward of those who make war upon Allah and His messenger and strive after corruption in the land will be that they will be killed or crucified, or have their hands and feet on alternate sides cut off, or will be expelled out of the land. Such will be their degradation in the world, and in the Hereafter theirs will be an awful doom;
SHAKIR: The punishment of those who wage war against Allah and His messenger and strive to make mischief in the land is only this, that they should be murdered or crucified or their hands and their feet should be cut off on opposite sides or they should be imprisoned; this shall be as a disgrace for them in this world, and in the hereafter they shall have a grievous chastisement,
YUSUFALI: Except for those who repent before they fall into your power: in that case, know that Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Save those who repent before ye overpower them. For know that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: Except those who repent before you have them in your power; so know that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
35. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo ittaqoo Allaha waibtaghoo ilayhi alwaseelata wajahidoo fee sabeelihi laAAallakum tuflihoona
O those of you who believe! Discharge your duty to Allah and seek a benevolent source through whom to approach Him and take up arms for His cause so that you might attain salvation.
(The first and foremost requisite for attaining salvation of our souls is to discharge our duty to Allah and then to be ready to take up arms for His Cause at all times.
Another issue which we learn from this verse is, even though the Creator is always within reach of the Creation and there are no barriers which distance the One from the other, it is preferable to approach Him through the medium of a 'benevolent source', such as a Saint whose piety has endeared him to his Lord and has earned him His propinquity as well as the prerogative to intercede on behalf of a grieving soul, - by His leave).
5 : 36
36. Inna allatheena kafaroo law anna lahum ma fee al-ardi jameeAAan wamithlahu maAAahu liyaftadoo bihi min AAathabi yawmi alqiyamati ma tuqubbila minhum walahum AAathabun aleemun
As for those who disbelieve, if whatever is on the earth belonged to them, plus twice as much with which to ransom themselves from the doom of Judgement Day, it would not be accepted from them. For them is nothing but an awesome castigation!
5 : 37
37. Yureedoona an yakhrujoo mina alnnari wama hum bikharijeena minha walahum AAathabun muqeemun
No matter how hard they try to emerge from hell, they would never be able to emerge from it and their punishment will last forever.
5 : 38
38. Waalssariqu waalssariqatu faiqtaAAoo aydiyahuma jazaan bima kasaba nakalan mina Allahi waAllahu AAazeezun hakeemun
And as for those who commit theft, be it a man or a woman, sever their arms. This is in retaliation for their own misdeeds and an appropriate punishment from Allah. Allah is Ubiquitous and Wise.
5 : 39
39. Faman taba min baAAdi thulmihi waaslaha fa-inna Allaha yatoobu AAalayhi inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
But whoever repents over his deleterious deed and restitutes, verily Allah will forgive him, for Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful!
(Like verses 33 and 34, the above verses also make a similar contribution to the Penal Code practised in many Islamic states across the world where both the rulers as well as the ruled accept and uphold the Criminal Justice system laid down by the Qur'aan.
The felony referred to here could be petty theft, or burglary, or grand larceny, by means of which innocent people are deprived of what is rightfully theirs, either by force or by stealth.
Once again the punishment for such felonies is dire, - severing the hand with which the crime was perpetrated so that it is never again used for a repetition of the same or any other offence, and to deter those who might be thinking of following in the footsteps of the felon.
The alternative to these sort of offences prevalent in most modern secular democracies is imprisonment, which is not without its critics, who argue, - and rightly so - that locking up criminals behind bars along with other criminals is the least desirable way of making them pay the debt they owe to society for having embarked upon a trail of anti-social activities and caused the law-abiding people a great deal of distress by breaking the law; if anything, many criminals thrive in prisons, consorting with others like themselves, exchanging ideas and learning new ways of repeating crimes after they are set free. Just like vermin which breed faster in the quagmire of filth, the criminal element is harnessed nowhere else better than it is inside the contaminated environment prisons have to offer to their inmates. Condemned by Law and ostracized by society, the emotional and spiritual lacerations they sustain are in no way less cruel than the corporal punishment inflicted upon their bodies under the Qur'aanic Law. Sooner or later, the wounds sustained by the body are bound to heal, but those sustained by the soul seldom do.
dispensation of justice in these countries is based strictly upon the letter of
the Law which can so often be manipulated by the skill of lawyers, against the
defendant or in favour of the defendant, - and Judges are gridlock by the
intricacies of procedures, - no Judge in an Islamic country would punish a
culprit for not satisfying the letter of the Law or Procedures, if there is satisfactory
evidence to suggest that the penitence and restitution offered by him satisfies
Divine requirements. In other words, no Judge in
Islamic countries would dare punish a man whom Allah is willing to forgive!)
5 : 40
40. Alam taAAlam anna Allaha lahu mulku alssamawati waal-ardi yuAAaththibu man yashao wayaghfiru liman yashao waAllahu AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
Know you not that to Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and that He punishes whom He will and He forgives whom He will and that He is Omnipotent over all things?
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a married man belonging to a neighbouring Jewish tribe committed adultery with a married woman, but their folks were reluctant to impose the maximum penalty of stoning them to death, as is stipulated in the Torah, and brought the matter to the Prophet in the hope that he might commute the sentence to something lesser. But when he decreed that the same penalty is prescribed in the Qur'aan too, and that the offenders should therefore be stoned to death, the Jews did not agree with him because his verdict went against their wishes and brought in a Jewish pedagogue to review it all over again.
5 : 41
41. Ya ayyuha alrrasoolu la yahzunka allatheena yusariAAoona fee alkufri mina allatheena qaloo amanna bi-afwahihim walam tu/min quloobuhum wamina allatheena hadoo sammaAAoona lilkathibi sammaAAoona liqawmin akhareena lam ya/tooka yuharrifoona alkalima min baAAdi mawadiAAihi yaqooloona in ooteetum hatha fakhuthoohu wa-in lam tu/tawhu faihtharoo waman yuridi Allahu fitnatahu falan tamlika lahu mina Allahi shay-an ola-ika allatheena lam yuridi Allahu an yutahhira quloobahum lahum fee alddunya khizyun walahum fee al-akhirati AAathabun AAatheemun
O Messenger! Let not those who race with each other in heresy grieve you, for when they say with their mouths : 'We believe', their hearts seldom acquiesce to it. And there are some amongst the Jews who listen to lies, and to the people who do not consort with you but only change the word of Allah out of its context saying : 'If this is the word, accept it; but if that is the word, then beware!' Those whom Allah sends astray, you will never be able to intercede on their behalf. These are they whose hearts Allah does not to wish to cleanse and for them there is only disgrace in this world and chastisement in the Hereafter!
5 : 42
42. SammaAAoona lilkathibi akkaloona lilssuhti fa-in jaooka faohkum baynahum aw aAArid AAanhum wa-in tuAArid AAanhum falan yadurrooka shay-an wa-in hakamta faohkum baynahum bialqisti inna Allaha yuhibbu almuqsiteena
They accept the unacceptable and swallow the unlawful. If they come to you for resolving their disputes, either judge between them or refuse to interfere. If you refuse, they can do you no harm; but if you judge, then judge fairly, for Allah cherishes those who are fair.
5 : 43
43. Wakayfa yuhakkimoonaka waAAindahumu alttawratu feeha hukmu Allahi thumma yatawallawna min baAAdi thalika wama ola-ika bialmu/mineena
Why come to you for adjudication when they can resort to the Torah, which contains all the commandments of Allah? But from it, they turn their faces away! They are not the sort who would become believers! (R)
(Even though the Torah itself is a genuine revelation of Allah bestowed on Moses for his people to follow, containing a full exposition of Allah's Commandments on every aspect of life, whenever an issue arises which is at odds with its tenets, they take the mater to others for adjudication hoping that a verdict might be given by them in tune with their own wishes rather than in accordance with the contents of their Scripture. Is this not proof enough that they have no confidence in the verity of the document which they claim to be the Torah because, deep inside their hearts, they know that the Scripture they hold is not in reality the Scripture revealed to their Prophet but a concoction conjured up by a few crooked minds, determined to exploit it for their own selfish ends?)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
35. O you who believe! Do your duty to All‚h and fear Him. Seek the means of approach to Him, and strive hard in His Cause as much as you can. So that you may be successful.
36. Verily, those who disbelieve, if they had all that is in the earth, and as much again therewith to ransom themselves thereby from the torment on the Day of Resurrection, it would never be accepted of them, and theirs would be a painful torment.
37. They will long to get out of the Fire, but never will they get out therefrom, and theirs will be a lasting torment.
38. Cut off (from the wrist joint) the (right) hand of the thief, male or female, as a recompense for that which they committed, a punishment by way of example from All‚h. And All‚h is All≠Powerful, All≠Wise.
39. But whosoever repents after his crime and does righteous good deeds (by obeying All‚h), then verily, All‚h will pardon him (accept his repentance). Verily, All‚h is Oft≠Forgiving, Most Merciful.
40. Know you not that to All‚h (Alone) belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth! He punishes whom He wills and He forgives whom He wills. And All‚h is Able to do all things.
41. O Messenger (Muhammad SAW)! Let not those who hurry to fall into disbelief grieve you, of such who say: "We believe" with their mouths but their hearts have no faith. And of the Jews are men who listen much and eagerly to lies - listen to others who have not come to you. They change the words from their places; they say, "If you are given this, take it, but if you are not given this, then beware!" And whomsoever All‚h wants to put in Al≠Fitnah [error, because of his rejecting the Faith], you can do nothing for him against All‚h. Those are the ones whose hearts All‚h does not want to purify (from disbelief and hypocrisy); for them there is a disgrace in this world, and in the Hereafter a great torment.
42. (They like to) listen to falsehood, to devour anything forbidden. So if they come to you (O Muhammad SAW), either judge between them, or turn away from them. If you turn away from them, they cannot hurt you in the least. And if you judge, judge with justice between them. Verily, All‚h loves those who act justly.
43. But how do they come to you for decision while they have the Taur‚t (Torah), in which is the (plain) Decision of All‚h; yet even after that, they turn away. For they are not (really) believers.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Do your duty to Allah, seek the means of approach unto Him, and strive with might and main in his cause: that ye may prosper.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Be mindful of your duty to Allah, and seek the way of approach unto Him, and strive in His way in order that ye may succeed.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to) Allah and seek means of nearness to Him and strive hard in His way that you may be successful.
YUSUFALI: As to those who reject Faith,- if they had everything on earth, and twice repeated, to give as ransom for the penalty of the Day of Judgment, it would never be accepted of them, theirs would be a grievous penalty.
PICKTHAL: As for those who disbelieve, lo! if all that is in the earth were theirs, and as much again therewith, to ransom them from the doom on the Day of Resurrection, it would not be accepted from them. Theirs will be a painful doom.
SHAKIR: Surely (as for) those who disbelieve, even if they had what is in the earth, all of it, and the like of it with it, that they might ransom themselves with it from the punishment of the day of resurrection, it shall not be accepted from them, and they shall have a painful punishment.
YUSUFALI: Their wish will be to get out of the Fire, but never will they get out therefrom: their penalty will be one that endures.
PICKTHAL: They will wish to come forth from the Fire, but they will not come forth from it. Theirs will be a lasting doom.
SHAKIR: They would desire to go forth from the fire, and they shall not go forth from it, and they shall have a lasting punishment.
YUSUFALI: As to the thief, Male or female, cut off his or her hands: a punishment by way of example, from Allah, for their crime: and Allah is Exalted in power.
PICKTHAL: As for the thief, both male and female, cut off their hands. It is the reward of their own deeds, an exemplary punishment from Allah. Allah is Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: And (as for) the man who steals and the woman who steals, cut off their hands as a punishment for what they have earned, an exemplary punishment from Allah; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.
YUSUFALI: But if the thief repents after his crime, and amends his conduct, Allah turneth to him in forgiveness; for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: But whoso repenteth after his wrongdoing and amendeth, lo! Allah will relent toward him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: But whoever repents after his iniquity and reforms (himself), then surely Allah will turn to him (mercifully); surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
YUSUFALI: Knowest thou not that to Allah (alone) belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth? He punisheth whom He pleaseth, and He forgiveth whom He pleaseth: and Allah hath power over all things.
PICKTHAL: Knowest thou not that unto Allah belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth? He punisheth whom He will, and forgiveth whom He will. Allah is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: Do you not know that Allah-- His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth; He chastises whom He pleases; and forgives whom He pleases and Allah has power over all things.
YUSUFALI: O Messenger! let not those grieve thee, who race each other into unbelief: (whether it be) among those who say "We believe" with their lips but whose hearts have no faith; or it be among the Jews,- men who will listen to any lie,- will listen even to others who have never so much as come to thee. They change the words from their (right) times and places: they say, "If ye are given this, take it, but if not, beware!" If any one's trial is intended by Allah, thou hast no authority in the least for him against Allah. For such - it is not Allah's will to purify their hearts. For them there is disgrace in this world, and in the Hereafter a heavy punishment.
PICKTHAL: O Messenger! Let not them grieve thee who vie one with another in the race to disbelief, of such as say with their mouths: "We believe," but their hearts believe not, and of the Jews: listeners for the sake of falsehood, listeners on behalf of other folk who come not unto thee, changing words from their context and saying: If this be given unto you, receive it, but if this be not given unto you, then beware! He whom Allah doometh unto sin, thou (by thine efforts) wilt avail him naught against Allah. Those are they for whom the Will of Allah is that He cleanse not their hearts. Theirs in the world will be ignominy, and in the Hereafter an awful doom;
SHAKIR: O Messenger! let not those grieve you who strive together in hastening to unbelief from among those who say with their mouths: We believe, and their hearts do not believe, and from among those who are Jews; they are listeners for the sake of a lie, listeners for another people who have not come to you; they alter the words from their places, saying: If you are given this, take it, and if you are not given this, be cautious; and as for him whose temptation Allah desires, you cannot control anything for him with Allah. Those are they for whom Allah does not desire that He should purify their hearts; they shall have disgrace in this world, and they shall have a grievous chastisement in the hereafter.
YUSUFALI: (They are fond of) listening to falsehood, of devouring anything forbidden. If they do come to thee, either judge between them, or decline to interfere. If thou decline, they cannot hurt thee in the least. If thou judge, judge in equity between them. For Allah loveth those who judge in equity.
PICKTHAL: Listeners for the sake of falsehood! Greedy for illicit gain! If then they have recourse unto thee (Muhammad) judge between them or disclaim jurisdiction. If thou disclaimest jurisdiction, then they cannot harm thee at all. But if thou judgest, judge between them with equity. Lo! Allah loveth the equitable.
SHAKIR: (They are) listeners of a lie, devourers of what is forbidden; therefore if they come to you, judge between them or turn aside from them, and if you turn aside from them, they shall not harm you in any way; and if you judge, judge between them with equity; surely Allah loves those who judge equitably.
YUSUFALI: But why do they come to thee for decision, when they have (their own) law before them?- therein is the (plain) command of Allah; yet even after that, they would turn away. For they are not (really) People of Faith.
PICKTHAL: How come they unto thee for judgment when they have the Torah, wherein Allah hath delivered judgment (for them)? Yet even after that they turn away. Such (folk) are not believers.
SHAKIR: And how do they make you a judge and they have the Taurat wherein is Allah's judgment? Yet they turn back after that, and these are not the believers.
5 : 44
44. Inna anzalna alttawrata feeha hudan wanoorun yahkumu biha alnnabiyyoona allatheena aslamoo lillatheena hadoo waalrrabbaniyyoona waal-ahbaru bima istuhfithoo min kitabi Allahi wakanoo AAalayhi shuhadaa fala takhshawoo alnnasa waikhshawni wala tashtaroo bi-ayatee thamanan qaleelan waman lam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faola-ika humu alkafiroona
We did reveal the Torah containing Guidance and Light. Prophets obedient to Allah governed the Jews by its dictums and their priests and rabbis were ordained to be guardians of the Scripture of Allah and to be its witnesses. So fear not the mortals but fear Me and do not trade away My revelations for trivial gains! Whoever abide not by that which Allah has revealed, they are disbelievers!
(The whole of this verse is aimed at the Jews, emphatically reminding them that the Torah is a genuine testament of Allah revealed to Moses who, in turn, charged their priests and pedants to preserve it in their hearts and minds so that the word of Allah is not diminished nor diluted by the passage of time and so that the Guidance contained in it reached generations yet to come and its Light carried on flooding the darkness in the future too with its enduring effulgence.
The verse concludes with a note of caution to the priests and pedants who were entrusted with this noble responsibility never to change the message, whether they are pressurized into altering it, or they find it expedient to alter it, or they find it profitable to alter it).
5 : 45
45. Wakatabna AAalayhim feeha anna alnnafsa bialnnafsi waalAAayna bialAAayni waal-anfa bial-anfi waalothuna bialothuni waalssinna bialssinni waaljurooha qisasun faman tasaddaqa bihi fahuwa kaffaratun lahu waman lam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faola-ika humu alththalimoona
And We ordained in it for them to retaliate with a life for a life and an eye for an eye and a nose for a nose and an ear for an ear and a tooth for a tooth and retaliation also for wounds sustained. But, if the offender offers to restitute the wrong done without waiting to be avenged, it would be an act of atonement for him. And those who abide not by that which Allah has revealed, they surely are invidious.
(Under the Criminal Justice System preached by the Qur'aan, as has been explained earlier, retaliation is at the crux of survival and self-preservation. If we have been wronged, we are given the right to balance it out with a penalty that at least equals the infringement we suffered, even if it does not exceed it. Not only was this prescribed in the Torah, it was also re-asserted in the Qur'aan to protect the Muslims living in the teeth of opposition, - an enemy next door and an enemy around the corner, - all but waiting to pounce upon the hapless neighbour. By sanctioning the right to seek a tooth for a tooth and an eye for an eye, the Qur'aan put in their hands an indomitable weapon to defend themselves and their loved ones.
At the other end of the wedge, the verse lays down that if the perpetrator realizes his error and offers to restitute to the full satisfaction of the victim without waiting to be retaliated or avenged, it is deemed an expiation for his crime.
The words those who abide not by that which Allah has revealed mentioned here in the context of the Torah recur once again in verse 47 in the context of the Gospel).
5 : 46
46. Waqaffayna AAala atharihim biAAeesa ibni maryama musaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi mina alttawrati waataynahu al-injeela feehi hudan wanoorun wamusaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi mina alttawrati wahudan wamawAAithatan lilmuttaqeena
And We sent Jesus, son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps and confirm that which was revealed before him, and We bestowed on him the Gospel which contains Guidance and Light and confirms that which was revealed before him in the Torah, - a Guidance and an Admonition for all those who ward off evil!
5 : 47
47. Walyahkum ahlu al-injeeli bima anzala Allahu feehi waman lam yahkum bima anzala Allahu faola-ika humu alfasiqoona
And let those who follow the Gospel also abide by that which Allah has revealed therein, for those who abide not by that which Allah has revealed are iniquitous!
(Whilst verse 44 contains a confirmation by Allah that He did reveal the Torah, providing guidance and light for all mankind, and verse 45 elaborates upon some aspects of its tenets, verse 46 contains a similar confirmation by Allah that He did likewise reveal the Gospel too which provides guidance and light for all mankind.
According to certain commentators, the word guidance mentioned in verse 46 in the first instance refers to guidance in a more general way, and in the second instance refers to the Prophethood of Mohammed, may Allah's peace be on him, exhorting the followers of the Gospel to bear in mind that the prophesy it contains regarding the arrival of the Comforter is not to be overlooked, backed up by a terse warning in verse 47 that those who abide not by what Allah has revealed are iniquitous).
5 : 48
48. Waanzalna ilayka alkitaba bialhaqqi musaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi mina alkitabi wamuhayminan AAalayhi faohkum baynahum bima anzala Allahu wala tattabiAA ahwaahum AAamma jaaka mina alhaqqi likullin jaAAalna minkum shirAAatan waminhajan walaw shaa Allahu lajaAAalakum ommatan wahidatan walakin liyabluwakum feema atakum faistabiqoo alkhayrati ila Allahi marjiAAukum jameeAAan fayunabbi-okum bima kuntum feehi takhtalifoona
To you (O Mohammed) We have revealed a Scripture with the truth confirming all the preceding Scriptures and appointed you its guardian. So judge between them by that which Allah has revealed and follow not their whims at the expense of the Truth that has come to you. For each one of you We have assigned a spiritual code and a righteous path. If Allah had willed, He would have brought you all under one fold, but it is a matter of Divine Providence that you should be tested by means of that which you have are awarded. So race with each other in the performance of righteous deeds! It is to Allah that all must return in the end and He will explicate to you everything over which you used to differ.
5 : 49
49. Waani ohkum baynahum bima anzala Allahu wala tattabiAA ahwaahum waihtharhum an yaftinooka AAan baAAdi ma anzala Allahu ilayka fa-in tawallaw faiAAlam annama yureedu Allahu an yuseebahum bibaAAdi thunoobihim wa-inna katheeran mina alnnasi lafasiqoona
So judge between them only by that which Allah has revealed to you and follow not their desires lest they trick you into erring in some part of that which Allah has revealed to you! And if they persist in turning their faces away, it is a clear sign that Allah is determined to punish them for their sins. Verily many among mankind are iniquitous!
(In the above verses the spot-light is on the Qur'aan with a clear confirmation that it is a Divine revelation containing guidance and light for mankind, firmly admonishing the Prophet to be its guardian; to judge between people by that which Allah has revealed in it; to beware of those who might try to tempt him into overlooking a part of it for their own benefit and to bear in mind that those who turn away from Allah's revelations do so to their own detriment.
Verse 48 expounds that, although the rudiments of faith, the criteria of right and wrong, the collation of crime and punishment, the susceptibility of the soul to capitulate and the ability of the self to emancipate it have remained the same since the times of Adam, the ground rules for bringing about a balance between good and evil through Divine guidance have changed from generation to generation, depending upon and dictated by the changes resulting from the passage of time. For instance, there is no denying the fact that, during the early stages of man's habitation on earth, the need for proliferation being the topmost priority, the rules governing the process of procreation could not have been the same as they are now, or they were during the times of Abraham and Noah.
This is why it is emphasized in this verse that Allah has assigned for each of us a different spiritual Code, given us clear guidance on how to practice it and ensured that we are tested only on the strength of what has been awarded to us. The spiritual Code for the Children of Adam was different from the spiritual Code for the Children of Israel, and the spiritual Code for the Children of Israel was different from the spiritual Code for the Children of Ishmael).
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed regarding a disagreement between two neighbouring factions of Jews over the amount of ransom payable for murders committed as a result of their mutual feuds. When the dispute was brought to the Prophet for arbitration, and he ruled that both sides were liable to pay the same amount, according to the Torah and according to the Qur'aan, those bent on demanding a higher ransom rejected his ruling.
5 : 50
50. Afahukma aljahiliyyati yabghoona waman ahsanu mina Allahu hukman liqawmin yooqinoona
Seek they the judgement that was prevalent during the bygone days of Paganism? There can be no judgement better than the judgement of Allah for those who believe! (R)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
44. Verily, We did send down the Taur‚t (Torah) [to MŻsa (Moses)], therein was guidance and light, by which the Prophets, who submitted themselves to All‚h's Will, judged the Jews. And the rabbis and the priests [too judged the Jews by the Taur‚t (Torah) after those Prophets] for to them was entrusted the protection of All‚h's Book, and they were witnesses thereto. Therefore fear not men but fear Me (O Jews) and sell not My Verses for a miserable price. And whosoever does not judge by what All‚h has revealed, such are the K‚firŻn (i.e. disbelievers - of a lesser degree as they do not act on All‚h's Laws).
45. And We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose for nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if anyone remits the retaliation by way of charity, it shall be for him an expiation. And whosoever does not judge by that which All‚h has revealed, such are the Z‚limŻn (polytheists and wrong≠doers - of a lesser degree).
46. And in their footsteps, We sent 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), confirming the Taur‚t (Torah) that had come before him, and We gave him the Injeel (Gospel), in which was guidance and light and confirmation of the Taur‚t (Torah) that had come before it, a guidance and an admonition for Al-MuttaqŻn (the pious - see V.2:2).
47. Let the people of the Injeel (Gospel) judge by what All‚h has revealed therein. And whosoever does not judge by what All‚h has revealed (then) such (people) are the F‚siqŻn (the rebellious i.e. disobedient (of a lesser degree) to All‚h.
48. And We have sent down to you (O Muhammad SAW) the Book (this Qur'‚n) in truth, confirming the Scripture that came before it and Mohayminan (trustworthy in highness and a witness) over it (old Scriptures). So judge between them by what All‚h has revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging away from the truth that has come to you. To each among you, We have prescribed a law and a clear way. If All‚h willed, He would have made you one nation, but that (He) may test you in what He has given you; so strive as in a race in good deeds. The return of you (all) is to All‚h; then He will inform you about that in which you used to differ.
49. And so judge (you O Muhammad SAW) between them by what All‚h has revealed and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they turn you (O Muhammad SAW) far away from some of that which All‚h has sent down to you. And if they turn away, then know that All‚h's Will is to punish them for some sins of theirs. And truly, most of men are F‚siqŻn (rebellious and disobedient to All‚h).
50. Do they then seek the judgement of (the Days of) Ignorance? And who is better in judgement than All‚h for a people who have firm Faith.
YUSUFALI: It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah's will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah's book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) Unbelievers.
PICKTHAL: Lo! We did reveal the Torah, wherein is guidance and a light, by which the prophets who surrendered (unto Allah) judged the Jews, and the rabbis and the priests (judged) by such of Allah's Scripture as they were bidden to observe, and thereunto were they witnesses. So fear not mankind, but fear Me. And My revelations for a little gain. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are disbelievers.
SHAKIR: Surely We revealed the Taurat in which was guidance and light; with it the prophets who submitted themselves (to Allah) judged (matters) for those who were Jews, and the masters of Divine knowledge and the doctors, because they were required to guard (part) of the Book of Allah, and they were witnesses thereof; therefore fear not the people and fear Me, and do not take a small price for My communications; and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unbelievers.
YUSUFALI: We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (No better than) wrong-doers.
PICKTHAL: And We prescribed for them therein: The life for the life, and the eye for the eye, and the nose for the nose, and the ear for the ear, and the tooth for the tooth, and for wounds retaliation. But whoso forgoeth it (in the way of charity) it shall be expiation for him. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are wrong-doers.
SHAKIR: And We prescribed to them in it that life is for life, and eye for eye, and nose for nose, and ear for ear, and tooth for tooth, and (that there is) reprisal in wounds; but he who foregoes it, it shall be an expiation for him; and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unjust.
YUSUFALI: And in their footsteps We sent Jesus the son of Mary, confirming the Law that had come before him: We sent him the Gospel: therein was guidance and light, and confirmation of the Law that had come before him: a guidance and an admonition to those who fear Allah.
PICKTHAL: And We caused Jesus, son of Mary, to follow in their footsteps, confirming that which was (revealed) before him in the Torah, and We bestowed on him the Gospel wherein is guidance and a light, confirming that which was (revealed) before it in the Torah - a guidance and an admonition unto those who ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: And We sent after them in their footsteps Isa, son of Marium, verifying what was before him of the Taurat and We gave him the Injeel in which was guidance and light, and verifying what was before it of Taurat and a guidance and an admonition for those who guard (against evil).
YUSUFALI: Let the people of the Gospel judge by what Allah hath revealed therein. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (no better than) those who rebel.
PICKTHAL: Let the People of the Gospel judge by that which Allah hath revealed therein. Whoso judgeth not by that which Allah hath revealed: such are evil-livers.
SHAKIR: And the followers of the Injeel should have judged by what Allah revealed in it; and whoever did not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the transgressors.
YUSUFALI: To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scripture that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, diverging from the Truth that hath come to thee. To each among you have we prescribed a law and an open way. If Allah had so willed, He would have made you a single people, but (His plan is) to test you in what He hath given you: so strive as in a race in all virtues. The goal of you all is to Allah; it is He that will show you the truth of the matters in which ye dispute;
PICKTHAL: And unto thee have We revealed the Scripture with the truth, confirming whatever Scripture was before it, and a watcher over it. So judge between them by that which Allah hath revealed, and follow not their desires away from the truth which hath come unto thee. For each We have appointed a divine law and a traced-out way. Had Allah willed He could have made you one community. But that He may try you by that which He hath given you (He hath made you as ye are). So vie one with another in good works. Unto Allah ye will all return, and He will then inform you of that wherein ye differ.
SHAKIR: And We have revealed to you the Book with the truth, verifying what is before it of the Book and a guardian over it, therefore judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires (to turn away) from the truth that has come to you; for every one of you did We appoint a law and a way, and if Allah had pleased He would have made you (all) a single people, but that He might try you in what He gave you, therefore strive with one another to hasten to virtuous deeds; to Allah is your return, of all (of you), so He will let you know that in which you differed;
YUSUFALI: And this (He commands): Judge thou between them by what Allah hath revealed, and follow not their vain desires, but beware of them lest they beguile thee from any of that (teaching) which Allah hath sent down to thee. And if they turn away, be assured that for some of their crime it is Allah's purpose to punish them. And truly most men are rebellious.
PICKTHAL: So judge between them by that which Allah hath revealed, and follow not their desires, but beware of them lest they seduce thee from some part of that which Allah hath revealed unto thee. And if they turn away, then know that Allah's Will is to smite them for some sin of theirs. Lo! many of mankind are evil-livers.
SHAKIR: And that you should judge between them by what Allah has revealed, and do not follow their low desires, and be cautious of them, lest they seduce you from part of what Allah has revealed to you; but if they turn back, then know that Allah desires to afflict them on account of some of their faults; and most surely many of the people are transgressors.
YUSUFALI: Do they then seek after a judgment of (the days of) ignorance? But who, for a people whose faith is assured, can give better judgment than Allah?
PICKTHAL: Is it a judgment of the time of (pagan) ignorance that they are seeking? Who is better than Allah for judgment to a people who have certainty (in their belief)?
SHAKIR: Is it then the judgment of (the times of) ignorance that they desire? And who is better than Allah to judge for a people who are sure?
Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when an outwardly believing but inwardly still a hypocritical associate of the Prophet told him that he had many friends among the Jews and the Christians whom he dared not forsake in case he needed their help when the chips are down!
5 : 51
51. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tattakhithoo alyahooda waalnnasara awliyaa baAAduhum awliyao baAAdin waman yatawallahum minkum fa-innahu minhum inna Allaha la yahdee alqawma alththalimeena
O those of you who believe! Take not the Jews or the Christians as your friends, for they are friends of each other. And whoever among you takes them for friends will be deemed one with them. Verily Allah guides not the iniquitous.
5 : 52
52. Fatara allatheena fee quloobihim maradun yusariAAoona feehim yaqooloona nakhsha an tuseebana da-iratun faAAasa Allahu an ya/tiya bialfathi aw amrin min AAindihi fayusbihoo AAala ma asarroo fee anfusihim nadimeena
And you will see those in whose hearts is a disease run towards them saying : 'We have a premonition that something awful is about to befall us!' It may well be that Allah will bless you with a victory over them, or send a revelation which is favourable to you, so that they regret over what they have kept hidden inside their hearts.
5 : 53
53. Wayaqoolu allatheena amanoo ahaola-i allatheena aqsamoo biAllahi jahda aymanihim innahum lamaAAakum habitat aAAmaluhum faasbahoo khasireena
Then will the believers say to the People of the Scripture : 'Are these the people who had sworn their most solemn oaths in the name of Allah that they would be resolute in their allegiance to you?' All their toils will come to a naught and they will emerge as the worst of losers!
(It is an often repeated admonition to the Muslims in the Qur'aan not to treat, nor to trust the Jews and the Christians as dependable friends or allies because, when it comes to Islam, they would unite in their opposition to it regardless of the academics of right and wrong, even though all three communities are believers in the Scriptures of Allah.
The feeling of mistrust between them is so intense that it has lasted over the centuries and filtered into modern times, evident in the Arab Emirates more than anywhere else from the fact that most Arab traders refuse to stock or sell in their shops products supplied by the Jews; and in some cases, even reading works of fiction written by Jewish authors is disapproved.
In view of the strong words of caution contained in verse 51, many prominent believers who employed either Jews or Christians to handle their business affairs were advised by their well-wishers to remove them, no matter how loyal they were, how efficient their performance and how indispensable their contribution.
Omar, a cherished companion of the Prophet, advised a prominent friend of his
who relied upon a Jewish employee for handling his important affairs to think of
him 'as though he were dead' and replace him with a believer).
* * *
5 : 54
54. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo man yartadda minkum AAan deenihi fasawfa ya/tee Allahu biqawmin yuhibbuhum wayuhibboonahu athillatin AAala almu/mineena aAAizzatin AAala alkafireena yujahidoona fee sabeeli Allahi wala yakhafoona lawmata la-imin thalika fadlu Allahi yu/teehi man yashao waAllahu wasiAAun AAaleemun
O those of you who believe! Let those who renounce their religion know that Allah will replace them with a new generation of people; a people whom He cherishes and who cherish Him; who are gentle towards the believers and stern towards the disbelievers; and who strive in the way of Allah and who do not fear the acrimony of the acrimonious. This is the Grace of Allah that He bestows upon whom He will. Allah is Profound and Erudite!
(There are several traditions regarding the people referred to in this verse. According to some, they were a group of staunch Muslims under the leadership of Abu Bakr who took up arms against the disbelievers when they renounced Islam after the death of the Prophet and refused to pay Zakaat; according to some, the Prophet himself said that it was aimed at the followers of Abu Moosa Ashari; and according to some they were a group of Muslims from Yemen whose loyalty to Islam was unprecedented, while according to others they were the Ansar, whose dedication to the Prophet throughout his lifetime was exemplary.
Whoever they be, they measured up to the qualities described in the verse without leaving much to be desired).
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a recent convert from a Jewish tribe came to the Prophet and complained to him that, on account of his embracing Islam, he was ostracized by his entire tribe, who were refusing to stay in the same tent in which he was.
5 : 55
55. Innama waliyyukumu Allahu warasooluhu waallatheena amanoo allatheena yuqeemoona alssalata wayu/toona alzzakata wahum rakiAAoona
You need no more friends other than Allah and His messenger and those who believe and establish regular worship and give to the poor their due and bow down before Allah in total submission.
5 : 56
56. Waman yatawalla Allaha warasoolahu waallatheena amanoo fa-inna hizba Allahi humu alghaliboona
Let those who consider Allah and His messenger and their fellow believers to be their friends rest assured that the group who is with Allah is the group who will triumph in the end! (R)
(After having dwelled at length on categorizing those with whom it is undesirable for the Muslims to consort or to rely on even in a professional capacity, it is only reasonable that the categories of those upon whom it is desirable for the Muslims to rely and to make friends with are outlined here.
The closest, the most sincere, the most dependable, the most concerned, the most caring and watchful friends a believer could ever expect to have are those mentioned in verse 55 : Allah, His messenger and their fellow believers)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
51. O you who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians as Auliy‚' (friends, protectors, helpers, etc.), they are but Auliy‚' to one another. And if any amongst you takes them as Auliy‚', then surely he is one of them. Verily, All‚h guides not those people who are the Z‚limŻn (polytheists and wrong≠doers and unjust).
52. And you see those in whose hearts there is a disease (of hypocrisy), they hurry to their friendship, saying: "We fear lest some misfortune of a disaster may befall us." Perhaps All‚h may bring a victory or a decision according to His Will. Then they will become regretful for what they have been keeping as a secret in themselves.
53. And those who believe will say: "Are these the men (hypocrites) who swore their strongest oaths by All‚h that they were with you (Muslims)?" All that they did has been in vain (because of their hypocrisy), and they have become the losers.
54. O you who believe! Whoever from among you turns back from his religion (Isl‚m), All‚h will bring a people whom He will love and they will love Him; humble towards the believers, stern towards the disbelievers, fighting in the Way of All‚h, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of All‚h which He bestows on whom He wills. And All‚h is All≠Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All≠Knower.
55. Verily, your WalÓ (Protector or Helper) is All‚h, His Messenger, and the believers, - those who perform As-Sal‚t (Iq‚mat-as-Sal‚t), and give Zak‚t, and they bow down (submit themselves with obedience to All‚h in prayer).
56. And whosoever takes All‚h, His Messenger, and those who have believed, as Protectors, then the party of All‚h will be the victorious.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! take not the Jews and the Christians for your friends and protectors: They are but friends and protectors to each other. And he amongst you that turns to them (for friendship) is of them. Verily Allah guideth not a people unjust.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Take not the Jews and the Christians for friends. They are friends one to another. He among you who taketh them for friends is (one) of them. Lo! Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not take the Jews and the Christians for friends; they are friends of each other; and whoever amongst you takes them for a friend, then surely he is one of them; surely Allah does not guide the unjust people.
YUSUFALI: Those in whose hearts is a disease - thou seest how eagerly they run about amongst them, saying: "We do fear lest a change of fortune bring us disaster." Ah! perhaps Allah will give (thee) victory, or a decision according to His will. Then will they repent of the thoughts which they secretly harboured in their hearts.
PICKTHAL: And thou seest those in whose heart is a disease race toward them, saying: We fear lest a change of fortune befall us. And it may happen that Allah will vouchsafe (unto thee) the victory, or a commandment from His presence. Then will they repent them of their secret thoughts.
SHAKIR: But you will see those in whose hearts is a disease hastening towards them, saying: We fear lest a calamity should befall us; but it may be that Allah will bring the victory or a punish ment from Himself, so that they shall be regretting on account of what they hid in their souls.
YUSUFALI: And those who believe will say: "Are these the men who swore their strongest oaths by Allah, that they were with you?" All that they do will be in vain, and they will fall into (nothing but) ruin.
PICKTHAL: Then will the believers say (unto the people of the Scripture): are these they who swore by Allah their most binding oaths that they were surely with you? Their works have failed, and they have become the losers.
SHAKIR: And those who believe will say: Are these they who swore by Allah with the most forcible of their oaths that they were most surely with you? Their deeds shall go for nothing, so they shall become losers.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! if any from among you turn back from his Faith, soon will Allah produce a people whom He will love as they will love Him,- lowly with the believers, mighty against the rejecters, fighting in the way of Allah, and never afraid of the reproaches of such as find fault. That is the grace of Allah, which He will bestow on whom He pleaseth. And Allah encompasseth all, and He knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Whoso of you becometh a renegade from his religion, (know that in his stead) Allah will bring a people whom He loveth and who love Him, humble toward believers, stern toward disbelievers, striving in the way of Allah, and fearing not the blame of any blamer. Such is the grace of Allah which He giveth unto whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! whoever from among you turns back from his religion, then Allah will bring a people, He shall love them and they shall love Him, lowly before the believers, mighty against the unbelievers, they shall strive hard in Allah's way and shall not fear the censure of any censurer; this is Allah's Face, He gives it to whom He pleases, and Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.
YUSUFALI: Your (real) friends are (no less than) Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- those who establish regular prayers and regular charity, and they bow down humbly (in worship).
PICKTHAL: Your guardian can be only Allah; and His messenger and those who believe, who establish worship and pay the poordue, and bow down (in prayer).
SHAKIR: Only Allah is your Vali and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay the poor-rate while they bow.
YUSUFALI: As to those who turn (for friendship) to Allah, His Messenger, and the (fellowship of) believers,- it is the fellowship of Allah that must certainly triumph.
PICKTHAL: And whoso taketh Allah and His messenger and those who believe for guardian (will know that), lo! the party of Allah, they are the victorious.
SHAKIR: And whoever takes Allah and His messenger and those who believe for a guardian, then surely the party of Allah are they that shall be triumphant.
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed with reference to two men who embraced Islam but later on renounced it, nevertheless maintaining cordial relationship with Muslim friends who also positively reciprocated towards them. The verse warns them not to fraternize with people who treat their religion as if it were a jest, which tantamounts to casting aspersions upon the Eminence of Allah.
5 : 57
57. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tattakhithoo allatheena ittakhathoo deenakum huzuwan walaAAiban mina allatheena ootoo alkitaba min qablikum waalkuffara awliyaa waittaqoo Allaha in kuntum mu/mineena
O those of you who believe! Form no friendly links with such of them among the People who received the Scripture before you, or among the disbelievers who treat your religion as though it were a joke. But keep your duty to Allah, if you are true believers!
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed in response to the way in which Jews and Christians used to burst into contemptuous laughter whenever they heard the Call of the Mo'azzan rising from mosques to summon the believers to congregate for worship.
5 : 58
And when the Call for worship echoes, they make fun of it! This is because they are utter imbeciles.
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a group of Jews asked the Prophet to name the messengers in whom he believed, surreptitiously indicating that, if he did not include Jesus among them, they might even consider conversion. But the Prophet told them that he believed in all the divine messengers without discrimination, as a result of which they turned away from him.
5 : 59
59. Qul ya ahla alkitabi hal tanqimoona minna illa an amanna biAllahi wama onzila ilayna wama onzila min qablu waanna aktharakum fasiqoona
Say to them : 'O Peoples of the Scriptures! What is it about us that makes you uncomfortable to such an extent? Is it because we believe in Allah and in that which is revealed to us and in that which was revealed before us, and because we consider most of you to be sinful?'
5 : 60
60. Qul hal onabbi-okum bisharrin min thalika mathoobatan AAinda Allahi man laAAanahu Allahu waghadiba AAalayhi wajaAAala minhumu alqiradata waalkhanazeera waAAabada alttaghooti ola-ika sharrun makanan waadallu AAan sawa-i alssabeeli
Say to them : 'Shall I tell you about those who are on a worse level than you in the eyes of Allah? About those upon whom Allah put a curse, and upon whom His wrath has landed? About those whom He turned into apes and pigs, and into idol worshippers?' Their plight is much worse and they have strayed too far away from the right path!
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a group of Jews came to the Prophet with a great show of empathy towards Islam, all the while hiding inside their hearts their real sense of resentment towards it.
5 : 61
61. Wa-itha jaookum qaloo amanna waqad dakhaloo bialkufri wahum qad kharajoo bihi waAllahu aAAlamu bima kanoo yaktumoona
And when they come to you they say : We are true believes! Disbelievers were they when they came and disbelievers were they when they left! And Allah is well aware of that which they hide!!
* * *
5 : 62
62. Watara katheeran minhum yusariAAoona fee al-ithmi waalAAudwani waaklihimu alssuhta labi/sa ma kanoo yaAAmaloona
And you will see how most of them compete with one another in sinfulness and in transgression and in swallowing that which has been deemed illicit. Verily they commit atrocious deeds!
(Some commentators interpret the word sinfulness as hiding what is written in the Torah, and the word transgression as adding what is not written in the Torah, and the word illicit as referring to bribes and usury which they never ceased to swallow).
5 : 63
63. Lawla yanhahumu alrrabbaniyyoona waal-ahbaru AAan qawlihimu al-ithma waaklihimu alssuhta labi/sa ma kanoo yasnaAAoona
And why is it that their rabbis and priests do not prevent them from uttering profanities and swallowing gains made by unfair means? Verily evil are the deeds in which they engage!
(The Qur'aan emphatically states that the most important duty of priests and learned men is to give proper guidance to people who follow them, believe in them and need them and rely on them for moral uplifting and spiritual purification).
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when, shortly after the advent of Islam, there came about a sharp decline in the fortunes of Jews, otherwise an exceptionally prosperous community, and they began to blame it upon Allah.
5 : 64
64. Waqalati alyahoodu yadu Allahi maghloolatun ghullat aydeehim waluAAinoo bima qaloo bal yadahu mabsootatani yunfiqu kayfa yashao walayazeedanna katheeran minhum ma onzila ilayka min rabbika tughyanan wakufran waalqayna baynahumu alAAadawata waalbaghdaa ila yawmi alqiyamati kullama awqadoo naran lilharbi atfaaha Allahu wayasAAawna fee al-ardi fasadan waAllahu la yuhibbu almufsideena
The Jews say : 'Allah's hands are tied!' It is their hands that are tied and they are accursed for saying so. Nay, but His hands are full of generosity and He bestows it upon whom He will. Whilst that which has been revealed to you from your Lord is bound to exacerbate rancour and obstinacy in most of them, the feelings of mutual dissension and discord which We have instilled in them will last until the very Day of Resurrection! Whenever they set ablaze the flame of conflict, Allah puts it out. Their intention is to cause feud in the land, whereas Allah cherishes not those who cause feuds!
* * *
5 : 65
65. Walaw anna ahla alkitabi amanoo waittaqaw lakaffarna AAanhum sayyi-atihim walaadkhalnahum jannati alnnaAAeemi
If the Peoples of the Scriptures had become believers and moderated their behaviour, We would certainly have remitted their sins and entered them in Gardens of tranquillity!
5 : 66
66. Walaw annahum aqamoo alttawrata waal-injeela wama onzila ilayhim min rabbihim laakaloo min fawqihim wamin tahti arjulihim minhum ommatun muqtasidatun wakatheerun minhum saa ma yaAAmaloona
And had they preserved the Torah and the Gospel and whatever else was revealed to them by their Lord, they would have been blessed with plenitude from above their heads as well as from below their feet! Even if there are some amongst them who are abstemious, most of them are recusants! (R)
(If the People of the Scriptures had believed in Allah; in revelations contained in their respective Scriptures; in the messages delivered by their messengers; in the inevitability of the Last Day; in their accountability to their Creator; in the academics of right and wrong; in the criteria of truth and falsehood; in the concept of punishment and reward; in heaven and hell; in probity and solecism; if people in general believed in the universal brotherhood of man; in the right to live and the obligation to let live; in the need to succeed and in the will to sacrifice; in the wisdom of sharing and in the evils of depriving; in emerging from the past and looking to the future; in the richness of love and in the penury of hatred; in winning more than in losing; in building rather than in destroying; in friendship rather than in enmity, in resilience rather than in inflexibility; in peace rather than in tumult; in cosmos rather than in chaos; this world would indeed have been a better place for all of us to live in, - a paradise on earth and a worthy goal at the end of an honest race!
But we humans who have acquired the knack of hiding the hand riddled with the gore of blood behind our backs and extending the other to negotiate terms of peace are not in the market for revivals and retrievals, for renaissance and for reawakening!
It is worth noting that believing in Allah and in the messengers of Allah and in the Scriptures revealed to them without reservations and without discrimination, - as the Muslims are required to do by the Qur'aan, - improves our sources of livelihood from all directions, from above in the form of adequate rainfall; and from below in the form of mineral reserves such as Oil).
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
57. O you who believe! Take not for Auliy‚' (protectors and helpers) those who take your religion for a mockery and fun from among those who received the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before you, nor from among the disbelievers; and fear All‚h if you indeed are true believers.
58. And when you proclaim the call for As-Sal‚t [call for the prayer (Adh‚n)], they take it (but) as a mockery and fun; that is because they are a people who understand not.
59. Say: "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Do you criticize us for no other reason than that we believe in All‚h, and in (the revelation) which has been sent down to us and in that which has been sent down before (us), and that most of you are F‚siqŻn [rebellious and disobedient (to All‚h)]?"
60. Say (O Muhammad SAW to the people of the Scripture): "Shall I inform you of something worse than that, regarding the recompense from All‚h: those (Jews) who incurred the Curse of All‚h and His Wrath, those of whom (some) He transformed into monkeys and swines, those who worshipped T‚ghŻt (false deities); such are worse in rank (on the Day of Resurrection in the Hell≠fire), and far more astray from the Right Path (in the life of this world)."
61. When they come to you, they say: "We believe." But in fact they enter with (an intention of) disbelief and they go out with the same. And All‚h knows all what they were hiding.
62. And you see many of them (Jews) hurrying for sin and transgression, and eating illegal things [as bribes and Rib‚ (usury), etc.]. Evil indeed is that which they have been doing.
63. Why do not the rabbis and the religious learned men forbid them from uttering sinful words and from eating illegal things. Evil indeed is that which they have been performing.
64. The Jews say: "All‚h's Hand is tied up (i.e. He does not give and spend of His Bounty)." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for what they uttered. Nay, both His Hands are widely outstretched. He spends (of His Bounty) as He wills. Verily, the Revelation that has come to you from All‚h increases in most of them their obstinate rebellion and disbelief. We have put enmity and hatred amongst them till the Day of Resurrection. Every time they kindled the fire of war, All‚h extinguished it; and they (ever) strive to make mischief on earth. And All‚h does not like the MufsidŻn (mischief≠makers).
65. And if only the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) had believed (in Muhammad SAW) and warded off evil (sin, ascribing partners to All‚h) and had become Al≠MuttaqŻn (the pious - see V.2:2) We would indeed have blotted out their sins and admitted them to Gardens of pleasure (in Paradise).
66. And if only they had acted according to the Taur‚t (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel), and what has (now) been sent down to them from their Lord (the Qur'‚n), they would surely have gotten provision from above them and from underneath their feet. There are from among them people who are on the right course (i.e. they act on the revelation and believe in Prophet Muhammad SAW like 'Abdull‚h bin Sal‚m —÷ž <> <>), but many of them do evil deeds.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! take not for friends and protectors those who take your religion for a mockery or sport,- whether among those who received the Scripture before you, or among those who reject Faith; but fear ye Allah, if ye have faith (indeed).
PICKTHAL: O Ye who believe! Choose not for guardians such of those who received the Scripture before you, and of the disbelievers, as make a jest and sport of your religion. But keep your duty to Allah if ye are true believers.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not take for guardians those who take your religion for a mockery and a joke, from among those who were given the Book before you and the unbelievers; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah if you are believers.
YUSUFALI: When ye proclaim your call to prayer they take it (but) as mockery and sport; that is because they are a people without understanding.
PICKTHAL: And when ye call to prayer they take it for a jest and sport. That is because they are a folk who understand not.
SHAKIR: And when you call to prayer they make it a mockery and a joke; this is because they are a people who do not understand.
YUSUFALI: Say: "O people of the Book! Do ye disapprove of us for no other reason than that we believe in Allah, and the revelation that hath come to us and that which came before (us), and (perhaps) that most of you are rebellious and disobedient?"
PICKTHAL: Say: O People of the Scripture! Do ye blame us for aught else than that we believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed aforetime, and because most of you are evil-livers?
SHAKIR: Say: O followers of the Book! do you find fault with us (for aught) except that we believe in Allah and in what has been revealed to us and what was revealed before, and that most of you are transgressors?
YUSUFALI: Say: "Shall I point out to you something much worse than this, (as judged) by the treatment it received from Allah? those who incurred the curse of Allah and His wrath, those of whom some He transformed into apes and swine, those who worshipped evil;- these are (many times) worse in rank, and far more astray from the even path!"
PICKTHAL: Shall I tell thee of a worse (case) than theirs for retribution with Allah? (Worse is the case of him) whom Allah hath cursed, him on whom His wrath hath fallen and of whose sort Allah hath turned some to apes and swine, and who serveth idols. Such are in worse plight and further astray from the plain road.
SHAKIR: Say: Shall I inform you of (him who is) worse than this in retribution from Allah? (Worse is he) whom Allah has cursed and brought His wrath upon, and of whom He made apes and swine, and he who served the Shaitan; these are worse in place and more erring from the straight path.
YUSUFALI: When they come to thee, they say: "We believe": but in fact they enter with a mind against Faith, and they go out with the same but Allah knoweth fully all that they hide.
PICKTHAL: When they come unto you (Muslims), they say: We believe; but they came in unbelief and they went out in the same; and Allah knoweth best what they were hiding.
SHAKIR: And when they come to you, they say: We believe; and indeed they come in with unbelief and indeed they go forth with it; and Allah knows best what they concealed.
YUSUFALI: Many of them dost thou see, racing each other in sin and rancour, and their eating of things forbidden. Evil indeed are the things that they do.
PICKTHAL: And thou seest many of them vying one with another in sin and transgression and their devouring of illicit gain. Verily evil is what they do.
SHAKIR: And you will see many of them striving with one another to hasten in sin and exceeding the limits, and their eating of what is unlawfully acquired; certainly evil is that which they do.
YUSUFALI: Why do not the rabbis and the doctors of Law forbid them from their (habit of) uttering sinful words and eating things forbidden? Evil indeed are their works.
PICKTHAL: Why do not the rabbis and the priests forbid their evil-speaking and their devouring of illicit gain? Verily evil is their handiwork.
SHAKIR: Why do not the learned men and the doctors of law prohibit them from their speaking of what is sinful and their eating of what is unlawfully acquired? Certainly evil is that which they work.
YUSUFALI: The Jews say: "Allah's hand is tied up." Be their hands tied up and be they accursed for the (blasphemy) they utter. Nay, both His hands are widely outstretched: He giveth and spendeth (of His bounty) as He pleaseth. But the revelation that cometh to thee from Allah increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. Amongst them we have placed enmity and hatred till the Day of Judgment. Every time they kindle the fire of war, Allah doth extinguish it; but they (ever) strive to do mischief on earth. And Allah loveth not those who do mischief.
PICKTHAL: The Jews say: Allah's hand is fettered. Their hands are fettered and they are accursed for saying so. Nay, but both His hands are spread out wide in bounty. He bestoweth as He will. That which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord is certain to increase the contumacy and disbelief of many of them, and We have cast among them enmity and hatred till the Day of Resurrection. As often as they light a fire for war, Allah extinguisheth it. Their effort is for corruption in the land, and Allah loveth not corrupters.
SHAKIR: And the Jews say: The hand of Allah is tied up! Their hands shall be shackled and they shall be cursed for what they say. Nay, both His hands are spread out, He expends as He pleases; and what has been revealed to you from your Lord will certainly make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; and We have put enmity and hatred among them till the day of resurrection; whenever they kindle a fire for war Allah puts it out, and they strive to make mischief in the land; and Allah does not love the mischief-makers.
YUSUFALI: If only the People of the Book had believed and been righteous, We should indeed have blotted out their iniquities and admitted them to gardens of bliss.
PICKTHAL: If only the People of the Scripture would believe and ward off (evil), surely We should remit their sins from them and surely We should bring them into Gardens of Delight.
SHAKIR: And if the followers of the Book had believed and guarded (against evil) We would certainly have covered their evil deeds and We would certainly have made them enter gardens of bliss
YUSUFALI: If only they had stood fast by the Law, the Gospel, and all the revelation that was sent to them from their Lord, they would have enjoyed happiness from every side. There is from among them a party on the right course: but many of them follow a course that is evil.
PICKTHAL: If they had observed the Torah and the Gospel and that which was revealed unto them from their Lord, they would surely have been nourished from above them and from beneath their feet. Among them there are people who are moderate, but many of them are of evil conduct.
SHAKIR: And if they had kept up the Taurat and the Injeel and that which was revealed to them from their Lord, they would certainly have eaten from above them and from beneath their feet there is a party of them keeping to the moderate course, and (as for) most of them, evil is that which they do
5 : 67
67. Ya ayyuha alrrasoolu balligh ma onzila ilayka min rabbika wa-in lam tafAAal fama ballaghta risalatahu waAllahu yaAAsimuka mina alnnasi inna Allaha la yahdee alqawma alkafireena
O Messenger! Deliver to them that which has been revealed to you from your Lord, for if you do this not, it would mean that you failed to convey His message. Allah will guard you from mankind. Verily Allah will never guide the disbelievers!
(The protection guaranteed by Allah to the Prophet through this verse was against some of his ferocious enemies who were constantly at pains to murder him. Until the revelation of this verse, he and his house were regularly guarded by his staunch supporters and dedicated adherents, but after it was revelled, the vigil was brought to an end and at his own behest. There is no need to guard those who are being guarded by Allah!).
5 : 68
68. Qul ya ahla alkitabi lastum AAala shay-in hatta tuqeemoo alttawrata waal-injeela wama onzila ilaykum min rabbikum walayazeedanna katheeran minhum ma onzila ilayka min rabbika tughyanan wakufran fala ta/sa AAala alqawmi alkafireena
Say to them : 'O people of the Scripture! You will accomplish nothing unless you follow the Torah and the Gospel and that which has been revealed to you from your Lord!' And that which has been revealed to you from your Lord (Mohammed) is bound to exacerbate rancour and resentment in most of them. But do not be distressed by the attitude of the disbelieving folks.
5 : 69
69. Inna allatheena amanoo waallatheena hadoo waalssabi-oona waalnnasara man amana biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri waAAamila salihan fala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona
Verily those who believe in the Qur'aan, and those amongst the Jews and the Sabaeans and the Christians who believe in Allah and in the Last Day and perform righteous deeds, they have no cause for concern nor for distress!
(Embracing Islam is a turning point in the lives of those that are resolute in their convictions, regardless of which denomination they ascribed to until then; it ushers in a new beginning for them and gives them a fresh start in life).
5 : 70
70. Laqad akhathna meethaqa banee isra-eela waarsalna ilayhim rusulan kullama jaahum rasoolun bima la tahwa anfusuhum fareeqan kaththaboo wafareeqan yaqtuloona
Verily We made a Covenant with the Children of Israel in the past and sent towards them Our messengers. But whenever there came a messenger in their midst with a message that did not match the desires of their hearts, they rebelled against them. Some they repudiated and some they slew!
5 : 71
71. Wahasiboo alla takoona fitnatun faAAamoo wasammoo thumma taba Allahu AAalayhim thumma AAamoo wasammoo katheerun minhum waAllahu baseerun bima yaAAmaloona
Harbouring the illusion that they are immune from punishment, they consciously became blind and deaf. But since Allah forgave them once, most of them have consciously become blind and deaf once again! Allah is perusing all their deeds.
5 : 72
72. Laqad kafara allatheena qaloo inna Allaha huwa almaseehu ibnu maryama waqala almaseehu ya banee isra-eela oAAbudoo Allaha rabbee warabbakum innahu man yushrik biAllahi faqad harrama Allahu AAalayhi aljannata wama/wahu alnnaru wama lilththalimeena min ansarin
Those who say : 'Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary!' disbelieve, since the Messiah himself had declared : 'O Children of Israel! Worship Allah who is my Lord and also your Lord!' Whoever ascribes partners to Allah, paradise is forbidden to him! Hell is his abode and the invidious shall not have any acolytes!
5 : 73
73. Laqad kafara allatheena qaloo inna Allaha thalithu thalathatin wama min ilahin illa ilahun wahidun wa-in lam yantahoo AAamma yaqooloona layamassanna allatheena kafaroo minhum AAathabun aleemun
Those who say : 'Allah is one of Three!' disbelieve, since there is no God except One God. And if they do not refrain from committing blasphemy, a grievous castigation will be meted out to those who blaspheme.
5 : 74
74. Afala yatooboona ila Allahi wayastaghfiroonahu waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun
Why not turn repent to Allah and seek forgiveness from Him, since Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful?
5 : 75
75. Ma almaseehu ibnu maryama illa rasoolun qad khalat min qablihi alrrusulu waommuhu siddeeqatun kana ya/kulani alttaAAama onthur kayfa nubayyinu lahumu al-ayati thumma onthur anna yu/fakoona
The Messiah, son of Mary, was only a messenger - one of many messengers who came before him, - whose mother was a virtuous woman and they both ate the same food which mortals eat! See how clearly We elucidate Our revelations and yet see how they capitulate!
(The Qur'aan considers it imperative that the far-fetched myth about Jesus being the Son of God or personification of God should be eliminated because it goes against the very fabric of religions based upon Divine Scriptures according to which God is One and He has no consorts nor offspring. The departure the Gospel makes from this concept, or is contrived to make by its adherents is inexplicable, to say the least, unless it was a deliberate attempt by its opponents to discredit its authenticity, or some of its adherents to exaggerate its proclivity. Although the birth of Jesus without a father was miraculous, it was a miracle of Allah! The orb of the sun is a miracle of Allah; the flux of the clouds is a miracle of Allah; the glamorous wings of the butterfly, the exhilarating fragrance of the jasmines, the symmetrical corolla of the roses, the melodious song of the cuckoo, the striations on the sheath of the sea-shell are all miracles of Allah, as is the birth of Jesus without a biological father!
What stronger argument can one expect to encounter in support of this assertion than that, for Him who created Adam and Eve without a father or a mother, why should the birth of Jesus without a father be such an impossible feat to accomplish?
All said and done, is it not true that Jesus and Mary did survive on bread and goat milk like the rest of mankind do, and not on Ambrosia to sustain them?)
5 : 76
76. Qul ataAAbudoona min dooni Allahi ma la yamliku lakum darran wala nafAAan waAllahu huwa alssameeAAu alAAaleemu
Say to them : 'Worship you in the place of Allah those who can neither harm you nor can profit you?' Allah hears everything and knows everything?'
5 : 77
77. Qul ya ahla alkitabi la taghloo fee deenikum ghayra alhaqqi wala tattabiAAoo ahwaa qawmin qad dalloo min qablu waadalloo katheeran wadalloo AAan sawa-i alssabeeli
Say : 'O People of the Scripture! Exceed not the bounds laid out in your religion nor follow the misguided desires of those who erred in the past and have sent many a people astray by deflecting them from the right path! (R)
(The Jews transgressed the perimeters of their religion when they repudiated Jesus and the Christians transgressed too likewise when they apotheosized Jesus.
The Qur'aan exhorts them not to perpetrate such transgressions knowingly, nor to follow in the footsteps of those who transgressed and sent their forthcoming generations astray)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
67. O Messenger (Muhammad SAW)! Proclaim (the Message) which has been sent down to you from your Lord. And if you do not, then you have not conveyed His Message. All‚h will protect you from mankind. Verily, All‚h guides not the people who disbelieve.
68. Say (O Muhammad SAW) "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! You have nothing (as regards guidance) till you act according to the Taur‚t (Torah), the Injeel (Gospel), and what has (now) been sent down to you from your Lord (the Qur'‚n)." Verily, that which has been sent down to you (Muhammad SAW) from your Lord increases in many of them their obstinate rebellion and disbelief. So be not sorrowful over the people who disbelieve.
69. Surely, those who believe (in the Oneness of All‚h, in His Messenger Muhammad SAW and all that was revealed to him from All‚h), those who are the Jews and the Sabians and the Christians, - whosoever believed in All‚h and the Last Day, and worked righteousness, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
70. Verily, We took the covenant of the Children of Israel and sent them Messengers. Whenever there came to them a Messenger with what they themselves desired not - a group of them they called liars, and others among them they killed.
71. They thought there will be no Fitnah (trial or punishment), so they became blind and deaf; after that All‚h turned to them (with Forgiveness); yet again many of them became blind and deaf. And All‚h is the All≠Seer of what they do.
72. Surely, they have disbelieved who say: "All‚h is the Messiah ['Iesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary)." But the Messiah ['Iesa (Jesus)] said: "O Children of Israel! Worship All‚h, my Lord and your Lord." Verily, whosoever sets up partners in worship with All‚h, then All‚h has forbidden Paradise for him, and the Fire will be his abode. And for the Z‚limŻn (polytheists and wrong≠doers) there are no helpers.
73. Surely, disbelievers are those who said: "All‚h is the third of the three (in a Trinity)." But there is no il‚h (god) (none who has the right to be worshipped) but One Il‚h (God -All‚h). And if they cease not from what they say, verily, a painful torment will befall the disbelievers among them.
74. Will they not repent to All‚h and ask His Forgiveness? For All‚h is Oft≠Forgiving, Most Merciful.
75. The Messiah ['Iesa (Jesus)], son of Maryam (Mary), was no more than a Messenger; many were the Messengers that passed away before him. His mother [Maryam (Mary)] was a Siddiqah [i.e. she believed in the words of All‚h and His Books (see Verse 66:12)]. They both used to eat food (as any other human being, while All‚h does not eat). Look how We make the Ay‚t (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to them, yet look how they are deluded away (from the truth).
76. Say (O Muhammad SAW to mankind): "How do you worship besides All‚h something which has no power either to harm or to benefit you? But it is All‚h Who is the All≠Hearer, All≠Knower."
77. Say (O Muhammad SAW): "O people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians)! Exceed not the limits in your religion (by believing in something) other than the truth, and do not follow the vain desires of people who went astray in times gone by, and who misled many, and strayed (themselves) from the Right Path."
YUSUFALI: O Messenger! proclaim the (message) which hath been sent to thee from thy Lord. If thou didst not, thou wouldst not have fulfilled and proclaimed His mission. And Allah will defend thee from men (who mean mischief). For Allah guideth not those who reject Faith.
PICKTHAL: O Messenger! Make known that which hath been revealed unto thee from thy Lord, for if thou do it not, thou wilt not have conveyed His message. Allah will protect thee from mankind. Lo! Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk.
SHAKIR: O Messenger! deliver what bas been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.
YUSUFALI: Say: "O People of the Book! ye have no ground to stand upon unless ye stand fast by the Law, the Gospel, and all the revelation that has come to you from your Lord." It is the revelation that cometh to thee from thy Lord, that increaseth in most of them their obstinate rebellion and blasphemy. But sorrow thou not over (these) people without Faith.
PICKTHAL: Say O People of the Scripture! Ye have naught (of guidance) till ye observe the Torah and the Gospel and that which was revealed unto you from your Lord. That which is revealed unto thee (Muhammad) from thy Lord is certain to increase the contumacy and disbelief of many of them. But grieve not for the disbelieving folk.
SHAKIR: Say: O followers of the Book! you follow no good till you keep up the Taurat and the Injeel and that which is revealed to you from your Lord; and surely that which has been revealed to you from your Lord shall make many of them increase in inordinacy and unbelief; grieve not therefore for the unbelieving people.
YUSUFALI: Those who believe (in the Qur'an), those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Sabians and the Christians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness,- on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
PICKTHAL: Lo! those who believe, and those who are Jews, and Sabaeans, and Christians - Whosoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right - there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
SHAKIR: Surely those who believe and those who are Jews and the Sabians and the Christians whoever believes in Allah and the last day and does good-- they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve.
YUSUFALI: We took the covenant of the Children of Israel and sent them messengers, every time, there came to them a messenger with what they themselves desired not - some (of these) they called impostors, and some they (go so far as to) slay.
PICKTHAL: We made a covenant of old with the Children of Israel and We sent unto them messengers. As often as a messenger came unto them with that which their souls desired not (they became rebellious). Some (of them) they denied and some they slew.
SHAKIR: Certainly We made a covenant with the children of Israel and We sent to them messengers; whenever there came to them an messenger with what that their souls did not desire, some (of them) did they call liars and some they slew.
YUSUFALI: They thought there would be no trial (or punishment); so they became blind and deaf; yet Allah (in mercy) turned to them; yet again many of them became blind and deaf. But Allah sees well all that they do.
PICKTHAL: They thought no harm would come of it, so they were wilfully blind and deaf. And afterward Allah turned (in mercy) toward them. Now (even after that) are many of them wilfully blind and deaf. Allah is Seer of what they do.
SHAKIR: And they thought that there would be no affliction, so they became blind and deaf; then Allah turned to them mercifully, but many of them became blind and deaf; and Allah is well seeing what they do.
YUSUFALI: They do blaspheme who say: "Allah is Christ the son of Mary." But said Christ: "O Children of Israel! worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord." Whoever joins other gods with Allah,- Allah will forbid him the garden, and the Fire will be his abode. There will for the wrong-doers be no one to help.
PICKTHAL: They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the Messiah, son of Mary. The Messiah (himself) said: O Children of Israel, worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Lo! whoso ascribeth partners unto Allah, for him Allah hath forbidden paradise. His abode is the Fire. For evil-doers there will be no helpers.
SHAKIR: Certainly they disbelieve who say: Surely Allah, He is the Messiah, son of Marium; and the Messiah said: O Children of Israel! serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord. Surely whoever associates (others) with Allah, then Allah has forbidden to him the garden, and his abode is the fire; and there shall be no helpers for the unjust.
YUSUFALI: They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah. If they desist not from their word (of blasphemy), verily a grievous penalty will befall the blasphemers among them.
PICKTHAL: They surely disbelieve who say: Lo! Allah is the third of three; when there is no Allah save the One Allah. If they desist not from so saying a painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve.
SHAKIR: Certainly they disbelieve who say: Surely Allah is the third (person) of the three; and there is no god but the one Allah, and if they desist not from what they say, a painful chastisement shall befall those among them who disbelieve.
YUSUFALI: Why turn they not to Allah, and seek His forgiveness? For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Will they not rather turn unto Allah and seek forgiveness of Him? For Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: Will they not then turn to Allah and ask His forgiveness? And Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
YUSUFALI: Christ the son of Mary was no more than a messenger; many were the messengers that passed away before him. His mother was a woman of truth. They had both to eat their (daily) food. See how Allah doth make His signs clear to them; yet see in what ways they are deluded away from the truth!
PICKTHAL: The Messiah, son of Mary, was no other than a messenger, messengers (the like of whom) had passed away before him. And his mother was a saintly woman. And they both used to eat (earthly) food. See how We make the revelations clear for them, and see how they are turned away!
SHAKIR: The Messiah, son of Marium is but a messenger; messengers before him have indeed passed away; and his mother was a truthful woman; they both used to eat food. See how We make the communications clear to them, then behold, how they are turned away.
YUSUFALI: Say: "Will ye worship, besides Allah, something which hath no power either to harm or benefit you? But Allah,- He it is that heareth and knoweth all things."
PICKTHAL: Say: Serve ye in place of Allah that which possesseth for you neither hurt nor use? Allah it is Who is the Hearer, the Knower.
SHAKIR: Say: Do you serve besides Allah that which does not control for you any harm, or any profit? And Allah-- He is the Hearing, the Knowing.
YUSUFALI: Say: "O people of the Book! exceed not in your religion the bounds (of what is proper), trespassing beyond the truth, nor follow the vain desires of people who went wrong in times gone by,- who misled many, and strayed (themselves) from the even way.
PICKTHAL: Say: O People of the Scripture! Stress not in your religion other than the truth, and follow not the vain desires of folk who erred of old and led many astray, and erred from a plain road.
SHAKIR: Say: O followers of the Book! be not unduly immoderate in your religion, and do not follow the low desires of people who went astray before and led many astray and went astray from the right path.
5 : 78
78. LuAAina allatheena kafaroo min banee isra-eela AAala lisani dawooda waAAeesa ibni maryama thalika bima AAasaw wakanoo yaAAtadoona
Those among the Children of Israel who strayed away were cursed by the tongue of David and of Jesus, the son of Mary, in retaliation for their disobedience and belligerence.
(There are several interpretations by commentators about the Ďcurse of David and Jesusí upon the Children of Israel when they renounced their faith and became disbelievers. According to some, the curse of David landed on them when they broke the Sabbath, as a result of which they were turned into apes; according to some, the curse of Jesus landed upon them when they betrayed him to the Romans after partaking in the Last Supper which was sent down from heaven by the Lord; according to some, the verse was revealed in response to the boastful claims made by Jews that they were the descendants of illustrious Prophets and Oracles in order to point out to them that the very Prophets and Oracles to whom they so proudly trace their lineage had also cursed them for their intransigence; and according to others, both David and Jesus delivered to the Jews the tidings of the Last Prophet and cursed only those who refused to believe in him).
5 : 79
79. Kanoo la yatanahawna AAan munkarin faAAaloohu labi/sa ma kanoo yafAAaloona
Those who do not restrain others from committing wicked deeds, they are as guilty as those who commit them.
5 : 80
80. Tara katheeran minhum yatawallawna allatheena kafaroo labi/sa ma qaddamat lahum anfusuhum an sakhita Allahu AAalayhim wafee alAAathabi hum khalidoona
You will notice that many of them prefer to become friends of disbelievers. Verily evil is what they send ahead of them for which they will incur Allah's wrath and their damnation will last forever.
5 : 81
81. Walaw kanoo yu/minoona biAllahi waalnnabiyyi wama onzila ilayhi ma ittakhathoohum awliyaa walakinna katheeran minhum fasiqoona
Had they believed in Allah and in the Prophet and in that which has been revealed to him, they would not have chosen to be friends with the agnostics! But a vast majority of them are perpetrators of evil!
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when a small group of converts emigrated to Abyssinia at the behest of the Prophet to escape persecution from the Meccan enemies of Islam. Upon coming to know about this, the Meccans sent a delegation there to try and persuade the Christian Emperor of Ethiopia to extradite them to Mecca, as though they were 'enemies of state', but he turned down their request and offered his hosts a safe haven in his land.
5 : 82
82. Latajidanna ashadda alnnasi AAadawatan lillatheena amanoo alyahooda waallatheena ashrakoo walatajidanna aqrabahum mawaddatan lillatheena amanoo allatheena qaloo inna nasara thalika bi-anna minhum qisseeseena waruhbanan waannahum la yastakbiroona
You will find the most inflexible in resentment towards the believers to be the Jews and the idolaters; and you will find the nearest in affection towards the believers to be those who say : 'Verily we are Christians!' That is because amongst them are many a priest and monk who are not conceited!
5 : 83
83. Wa-itha samiAAoo ma onzila ila alrrasooli tara aAAyunahum tafeedu mina alddamAAi mimma AAarafoo mina alhaqqi yaqooloona rabbana amanna faoktubna maAAa alshshahideena
When they listen to that which has been revealed to the messenger, tears come streaming down their eyes because they recognize the truth and say :'Our Lord! We believe! So let us be among those who bear witness!
5 : 84
84. Wama lana la nu/minu biAllahi wama jaana mina alhaqqi wanatmaAAu an yudkhilana rabbuna maAAa alqawmi alssaliheena
'Why should we not believe in Allah and in the Truth which has come to us and why must we not hope that our Lord will enter us amongst the righteous!
5 : 85
85. Faathabahumu Allahu bima qaloo jannatin tajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideena feeha wathalika jazao almuhsineena
Allah has rewarded them for saying so with Gardens underneath which rivers flow wherein they shall abide forever! Such indeed is the reward for the righteous!
5 : 86
86. Waallatheena kafaroo wakaththaboo bi-ayatina ola-ika as-habu aljaheemi
But those who disbelieve and repudiate Our ordinances, they are the denizens of hell! (R)
(It should be borne in mind that, when a reference is made to Christians in the above verse, it is aimed only at those Christians who believe in the hegemony Allah, and all His messengers and all His Scriptures; who acknowledge that the message in the Qur'aan is the truth; who take pride in the fact that they are the truthful adherents of the faith preached to them by Jesus, a cherished Prophet of Allah and not His son nor His personification; who agree that his birth to the Blessed Virgin was no more than a miracle of Allah and whose affection for their Muslim brethren stems from a sense of affiliation which they feel towards them from the depths of their hearts and not from the tips of their tongues.
No doubt, the Emperor of Ethiopia did offer asylum to the Muslim migrants who fled to his land in order to escape persecution, and he and the Christian priests surrounding him were touched by Surah Miriam recited in the Royal Court, it does not mean that all Christians across the board felt, - or feel - the same towards Islam and the Muslims.
Since the revelation of these verses, a lot of water has flown under the bridge; Muslims and Christians confronted one another in battle-fields which fell into the category of holy wars, or Crusades, all aimed at decimating the Muslims and trouncing their faith; the Christians have continued to dismiss Prophet Mohammed as a messenger of Allah and give credibility to the Qur'aan as a Divine Scripture; the Muslims refuse to accept that Jesus was impaled on the Cross while the Christians insist that he was; the Muslims deny that Jesus was the Son of God while the Christians insist that he was; the Muslims refuse to touch wine and swine and blood because they are forbidden for them while Christian palate often includes swine flesh and congealed blood, and wine is treated as synonymous to 'the blood of Jesus' and drunk inside churches as well as on most auspicious occasions
There are very few similarities between the Christians to whom these verses allude and modern-day Christians amidst whom some of us have come to live, as economic migrants if not as religious migrants!
It should be noted that verse 84 contains the reply a group of Christians gave to the Meccan agnostics when they were ridiculed by them for embracing Islam, which coincided with the emigration of the party of Muslims to Ethiopia.
When set against the pith and core of Islam, the reward of 'the Garden' mentioned in verse 85 can only be for those who not only say the things that earn them the greatest of rewards one could hope for, but also mean them from the bottom of their hearts as well as put into practice without any reservations)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
78. Those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved were cursed by the tongue of DawŻd (David) and 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary). That was because they disobeyed (All‚h and the Messengers) and were ever transgressing beyond bounds.
79. They used not to forbid one another from the Munkar (wrong, evil≠doing, sins, polytheism, disbelief, etc.) which they committed. Vile indeed was what they used to do.
80. You see many of them taking the disbelievers as their Auliy‚' (protectors and helpers). Evil indeed is that which their ownselves have sent forward before them, for that (reason) All‚h's Wrath fell upon them and in torment they will abide.
81. And had they believed in All‚h, and in the Prophet (Muhammad SAW) and in what has been revealed to him, never would they have taken them (the disbelievers) as Auliy‚' (protectors and helpers), but many of them are the F‚siqŻn (rebellious, disobedient to All‚h).
82. Verily, you will find the strongest among men in enmity to the believers (Muslims) the Jews and those who are Al-MushrikŻn (see V.2:105), and you will find the nearest in love to the believers (Muslims) those who say: "We are Christians." That is because amongst them are priests and monks, and they are not proud.
83. And when they (who call themselves Christians) listen to what has been sent down to the Messenger (Muhammad SAW), you see their eyes overflowing with tears because of the truth they have recognised. They say: "Our Lord! We believe; so write us down among the witnesses.
84. "And why should we not believe in All‚h and in that which has come to us of the truth (Isl‚mic Monotheism)? And we wish that our Lord will admit us (in Paradise on the Day of Resurrection) along with the righteous people (Prophet Muhammad SAW and his Companions —÷ž <> <>„)."
85. So because of what they said, All‚h rewarded them Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise), they will abide therein forever. Such is the reward of good≠doers.
86. But those who disbelieved and belied Our Ay‚t (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), they shall be the dwellers of the (Hell) Fire.
YUSUFALI: Curses were pronounced on those among the Children of Israel who rejected Faith, by the tongue of David and of Jesus the son of Mary: because they disobeyed and persisted in excesses.
PICKTHAL: Those of the Children of Israel who went astray were cursed by the tongue of David, and of Jesus, son of Mary. That was because they rebelled and used to transgress.
SHAKIR: Those who disbelieved from among the children of Israel were cursed by the tongue of Dawood and Isa, son of Marium; this was because they disobeyed and used to exceed the limit.
YUSUFALI: Nor did they (usually) forbid one another the iniquities which they committed: evil indeed were the deeds which they did.
PICKTHAL: They restrained not one another from the wickedness they did. Verily evil was that they used to do!
SHAKIR: They used not to forbid each other the hateful things (which) they did; certainly evil was that which they did.
YUSUFALI: Thou seest many of them turning in friendship to the Unbelievers. Evil indeed are (the works) which their souls have sent forward before them (with the result), that Allah's wrath is on them, and in torment will they abide.
PICKTHAL: Thou seest many of them making friends with those who disbelieve. Surely ill for them is that which they themselves send on before them: that Allah will be wroth with them and in the doom they will abide.
SHAKIR: You will see many of them befriending those who disbelieve; certainly evil is that which their souls have sent before for them, that Allah became displeased with them and in chastisement shall they abide.
YUSUFALI: If only they had believed in Allah, in the Prophet, and in what hath been revealed to him, never would they have taken them for friends and protectors, but most of them are rebellious wrong-doers.
PICKTHAL: If they believed in Allah and the Prophet and that which is revealed unto him, they would not choose them for their friends. But many of them are of evil conduct.
SHAKIR: And had they believed in Allah and the prophet and what was revealed to him, they would not have taken them for friends but! most of them are transgressors.
YUSUFALI: Strongest among men in enmity to the believers wilt thou find the Jews and Pagans; and nearest among them in love to the believers wilt thou find those who say, "We are Christians": because amongst these are men devoted to learning and men who have renounced the world, and they are not arrogant.
PICKTHAL: Thou wilt find the most vehement of mankind in hostility to those who believe (to be) the Jews and the idolaters. And thou wilt find the nearest of them in affection to those who believe (to be) those who say: Lo! We are Christians. That is because there are among them priests and monks, and because they are not proud.
SHAKIR: Certainly you will find the most violent of people in enmity for those who believe (to be) the Jews and those who are polytheists, and you will certainly find the nearest in friendship to those who believe (to be) those who say: We are Christians; this is because there are priests and monks among them and because they do not behave proudly.
YUSUFALI: And when they listen to the revelation received by the Messenger, thou wilt see their eyes overflowing with tears, for they recognise the truth: they pray: "Our Lord! we believe; write us down among the witnesses.
PICKTHAL: When they listen to that which hath been revealed unto the messengers, thou seest their eyes overflow with tears because of their recognition of the Truth. They say: Our Lord, we believe. Inscribe us as among the witnesses.
SHAKIR: And when they hear what has been revealed to the messenger you will see their eyes overflowing with tears on account of the truth that they recognize; they say: Our Lord! we believe, so write us down with the witnesses (of truth).
YUSUFALI: "What cause can we have not to believe in Allah and the truth which has come to us, seeing that we long for our Lord to admit us to the company of the righteous?"
PICKTHAL: How should we not believe in Allah and that which hath come unto us of the Truth. And (how should we not) hope that our Lord will bring us in along with righteous folk?
SHAKIR: And what (reason) have we that we should not believe in Allah and in the truth that has come to us, while we earnestly desire that our Lord should cause us to enter with the good people?
YUSUFALI: And for this their prayer hath Allah rewarded them with gardens, with rivers flowing underneath,- their eternal home. Such is the recompense of those who do good.
PICKTHAL: Allah hath rewarded them for that their saying - Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide for ever. That is the reward of the good.
SHAKIR: Therefore Allah rewarded them on account of what they said, with gardens in which rivers flow to abide in them; and this is the reward of those who do good (to others).
YUSUFALI: But those who reject Faith and belie our Signs,- they shall be companions of Hell-fire.
PICKTHAL: But those who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, they are owners of hell-fire.
SHAKIR: And (as for) those who disbelieve and reject Our communications, these are the companions of the flame.
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when some of the Prophet's close associates became so moved by an inspirational sermon he delivered that they resolved to renounce all earthly pleasures and comforts, even though they were not forbidden for them by Allah.
5 : 87
87. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tuharrimoo tayyibati ma ahalla Allahu lakum wala taAAtadoo inna Allaha la yuhibbu almuAAtadeena
O those of you who believe! Do not make unlawful for yourselves the clean things that Allah has made lawful for you and be not excessive in what you do, for Allah cherishes not those who exceed their bounds
5 : 88
88. Wakuloo mimma razaqakumu Allahu halalan tayyiban waittaqoo Allaha allathee antum bihi mu/minoona
And eat of whatever Allah has given you as food, all that which is lawful and salubrious, and render your duty to Allah in Whom you solemnly believe!
(Following a memorable sermon the Prophet preached on the subject of moderation and rationalization of earthly comforts, several of his associates gathered at the residence of Uthman ibn Maz'un and made an emotional resolve to renounce all earthly comforts by being clad in rough garments, spending their days in fasting and nights in worship, never to sleep on soft beds nor to consume meat products, nor consort with the opposite sex, nor wear perfume.
When the Prophet came to know about it from the revelation of the above two verses, he summoned them at once and stopped them from denying themselves the salubrious things which Allah has made lawful for them because it shows disrespect and contempt towards the Divine benefactions and it tantamounts to thanklessness).
* * *
5 : 89
89. La yu-akhithukumu Allahu biallaghwi fee aymanikum walakin yu-akhithukum bima AAaqqadtumu al-aymana fakaffaratuhu itAAamu AAasharati masakeena min awsati ma tutAAimoona ahleekum aw kiswatuhum aw tahreeru raqabatin faman lam yajid fasiyamu thalathati ayyamin thalika kaffaratu aymanikum itha halaftum waihfathoo aymanakum kathalika yubayyinu Allahu lakum ayatihi laAAallakum tashkuroona
Allah binds you not fir oaths that you have unintentionally taken, but He does bind you for oaths which you have knowingly reaffirmed. The expiation for such oaths is to feed ten destitutes with food similar in quality to that with which you feed your family, or give them clothes, or set free one slave. But those who cannot afford it, let them fast for three consecutive days. Although there is an expiation for breaking your oaths, it is better for you that you honour them. Thus does Allah elucidate His revelations so that you give thanks!
5 : 90
90. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo innama alkhamru waalmaysiru waal-ansabu waal-azlamu rijsun min AAamali alshshaytani faijtaniboohu laAAallakum tuflihoona
O those of you who believe! Intoxication, games of chance, sculpturing of idols and prognostication are all unwholesome pastimes and an entrapment of the devil. So, keep away from them in the hope that you may attain redemption.
5 : 91
91. Innama yureedu alshshaytanu an yooqiAAa baynakumu alAAadawata waalbaghdaa fee alkhamri waalmaysiri wayasuddakum AAan thikri Allahi waAAani alssalati fahal antum muntahoona
Satan endeavours only to create tensions and animosity between you through inebriation and gambling and he endeavours to prevent you from remembering Allah and offering worship. So, should you not keep away from these?
5 : 92
92. WaateeAAoo Allaha waateeAAoo alrrasoola waihtharoo fa-in tawallaytum faiAAlamoo annama AAala rasoolina albalaghu almubeenu
And obey Allah and obey His Messenger and be on your guard. But if you turn your face away, then bear in mind that Our messenger's duty is only to convey Our message to you.
(Islam prohibited consumption of intoxicants in three stages : first by cutting down on permissible levels of alcohol on grounds that there is more harm in it than there is good; then by forbidding believers from attending congregations in mosques, offering worship at home, coming into physical contact with the Qur'aan and even its oral recitation while they are under the influence of alcohol on the grounds that it could tend to make them commit errors; and then finally banning it altogether, along with the other vices to which the pagan Arabs were addicted, such as those mentioned in verse 90, on the grounds that they are an entrapment of the devil; that they cause enmity between friends, ruin family life, affect social status, destroy credibility and reliability, lead to penury and indebtedness; but above all they cause the addicts to neglect worship, to abscond from visiting mosques and abandon their moral and spiritual obligations.
Verse 92 draws attention to spiritual aspect of its consequences by warning those who neglect to obey the command of Allah and His messenger that, once the message has been delivered to mankind by the messenger, his duty comes to an end and He takes over from there, - He, whom no one can avoid nor dodge).
* * *
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed after intoxicants were forbidden for all believers which stirred uneasy concerns in the hearts of the Prophet's close associates for those who had died prior to the banning, and they asked him about it.
5 : 93
93. Laysa AAala allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati junahun feema taAAimoo itha ma ittaqaw waamanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati thumma ittaqaw waamanoo thumma ittaqaw waahsanoo waAllahu yuhibbu almuhsineena
Those who became believers and performed righteous deeds, there is no burden of sin on them for what they may have eaten in the past. But be mindful of your duty to Allah and be resolute in your faith and perform righteous deeds; and again, be mindful of your duty and be resolute in your faith and perform righteous deeds; and again, be mindful of your duty and be resolute in your faith and perform righteous deeds, for Allah cherishes those who are righteous! (R)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
87. O you who believe! Make not unlawful the Taiyib‚t (all that is good as regards foods, things, deeds, beliefs, persons, etc.) which All‚h has made lawful to you, and transgress not. Verily, All‚h does not like the transgressors.
88. And eat of the things which All‚h has provided for you, lawful and good, and fear All‚h in Whom you believe.
89. All‚h will not punish you for what is uninentional in your oaths, but He will punish you for your deliberate oaths; for its expiation (a deliberate oath) feed ten Mas‚kin (poor persons), on a scale of the average of that with which you feed your own families; or clothe them; or manumit a slave. But whosoever cannot afford (that), then he should fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths when you have sworn. And protect your oaths (i.e. do not swear much). Thus All‚h make clear to you His Ay‚t (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) that you may be grateful.
90. O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), gambling, Al≠Ans‚b, and Al≠Azl‚m (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Shait‚n's (Satan) handiwork. So avoid (strictly all) that (abomination) in order that you may be successful.
91. Shait‚n (Satan) wants only to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants (alcoholic drinks) and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of All‚h and from As-Sal‚t (the prayer). So, will you not then abstain?
92. And obey All‚h and the Messenger (Muhammad SAW), and beware (of even coming near to drinking or gambling or Al≠Ans‚b, or Al≠Azl‚m, etc.) and fear All‚h. Then if you turn away, you should know that it is Our Messenger's duty to convey (the Message) in the clearest way.
93. Those who believe and do righteous good deeds, there is no sin on them for what they ate (in the past), if they fear All‚h (by keeping away from His forbidden things), and believe and do righteous good deeds, and again fear All‚h and believe, and once again fear All‚h and do good deeds with Ihs‚n (perfection). And All‚h loves the good≠doers.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! make not unlawful the good things which Allah hath made lawful for you, but commit no excess: for Allah loveth not those given to excess.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Forbid not the good things which Allah hath made lawful for you, and transgress not, Lo! Allah loveth not transgressors.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not forbid (yourselves) the good things which Allah has made lawful for you and do not exceed the limits; surely Allah does not love those who exceed the limits.
YUSUFALI: Eat of the things which Allah hath provided for you, lawful and good; but fear Allah, in Whom ye believe.
PICKTHAL: Eat of that which Allah hath bestowed on you as food lawful and good, and keep your duty to Allah in Whom ye are believers.
SHAKIR: And eat of the lawful and good (things) that Allah has given you, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, in Whom you believe.
YUSUFALI: Allah will not call you to account for what is futile in your oaths, but He will call you to account for your deliberate oaths: for expiation, feed ten indigent persons, on a scale of the average for the food of your families; or clothe them; or give a slave his freedom. If that is beyond your means, fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths ye have sworn. But keep to your oaths. Thus doth Allah make clear to you His signs, that ye may be grateful.
PICKTHAL: Allah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will take you to task for the oaths which ye swear in earnest. The expiation thereof is the feeding of ten of the needy with the average of that wherewith ye feed your own folk, or the clothing of them, or the liberation of a slave, and for him who findeth not (the wherewithal to do so) then a three days' fast. This is the expiation of your oaths when ye have sworn; and keep your oaths. Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His revelations in order that ye may give thanks.
SHAKIR: Allah does not call you to account for what is vain in your oaths, but He calls you to account for the making of deliberate oaths; so its expiation is the feeding of ten poor men out of the middling (food) you feed your families with, or their clothing, or the freeing of a neck; but whosoever cannot find (means) then fasting for three days; this is the expiation of your oaths when you swear; and guard your oaths. Thus does Allah make clear to you His communications, that you may be Fateful.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Intoxicants and gambling, (dedication of) stones, and (divination by) arrows, are an abomination,- of Satan's handwork: eschew such (abomination), that ye may prosper.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Strong drink and games of chance and idols and divining arrows are only an infamy of Satan's handiwork. Leave it aside in order that ye may succeed.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! intoxicants and games of chance and (sacrificing to) stones set up and (dividing by) arrows are only an uncleanness, the Shaitan's work; shun it therefore that you may be successful.
YUSUFALI: Satan's plan is (but) to excite enmity and hatred between you, with intoxicants and gambling, and hinder you from the remembrance of Allah, and from prayer: will ye not then abstain?
PICKTHAL: Satan seeketh only to cast among you enmity and hatred by means of strong drink and games of chance, and to turn you from remembrance of Allah and from (His) worship. Will ye then have done?
SHAKIR: The Shaitan only desires to cause enmity and hatred to spring in your midst by means of intoxicants and games of chance, and to keep you off from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. Will you then desist?
YUSUFALI: Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and beware (of evil): if ye do turn back, know ye that it is Our Messenger's duty to proclaim (the message) in the clearest manner.
PICKTHAL: Obey Allah and obey the messenger, and beware! But if ye turn away, then know that the duty of Our messenger is only plain conveyance (of the message).
SHAKIR: And obey Allah and obey the messenger and be cautious; but if you turn back, then know that only a clear deliverance of the message is (incumbent) on Our messenger.
YUSUFALI: On those who believe and do deeds of righteousness there is no blame for what they ate (in the past), when they guard themselves from evil, and believe, and do deeds of righteousness,- (or) again, guard themselves from evil and believe,- (or) again, guard themselves from evil and do good. For Allah loveth those who do good.
PICKTHAL: There shall be no sin (imputed) unto those who believe and do good works for what they may have eaten (in the past). So be mindful of your duty (to Allah), and believe, and do good works; and again: be mindful of your duty, and believe; and once again: be mindful of your duty, and do right. Allah loveth the good.
SHAKIR: On those who believe and do good there is no blame for what they eat, when they are careful (of their duty) and believe and do good deeds, then they are careful (of their duty) and believe, then they are careful (of their duty) and do good (to others), and Allah loves those who do good (to others).
5 : 94
94. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo layabluwannakumu Allahu bishay-in mina alssaydi tanaluhu aydeekum warimahukum liyaAAlama Allahu man yakhafuhu bialghaybi famani iAAtada baAAda thalika falahu AAathabun aleemun
O those of you who believe! Allah will test your integrity in matters of game that are within easy reach of your hands and spears, so that He may ascertain who among you truly fears Him from within. Whoever transgresses after this, for him awaits a dire punishment.
(The reference is to the year in which the Treaty of Hudaybiyah was signed and the Muslims arrived in Mecca with the Prophet in the hope that they would also be able to perform their pilgrimage at the same time.
While they were clad in appropriate garments for the auspicious occasion, birds and beasts usually caught with hands or hunted with spears as game but were forbidden in the season of pilgrimage gathered around them in large numbers and in close proximity, by way of a test from Allah to see who would resist the temptation and refrain from indulging in the game, fearing Allah from within, and who would overlook the command and surrender to temptation).
5 : 95
95. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la taqtuloo alssayda waantum hurumun waman qatalahu minkum mutaAAammidan fajazaon mithlu ma qatala mina alnnaAAami yahkumu bihi thawa AAadlin minkum hadyan baligha alkaAAbati aw kaffaratun taAAamu masakeena aw AAadlu thalika siyaman liyathooqa wabala amrihi AAafa Allahu AAamma salafa waman AAada fayantaqimu Allahu minhu waAllahu AAazeezun thoo intiqamin
O those of you who believe! Do not indulge in hunting wild beasts while you are in a state of consecration. For him who hunts them intentionally, the redress is a similar animal from his live-stock, selected by two honest men and the offering sent to Ka'ba; or, towards its expiation, feeding of destitutes or fasting for an appropriate number of days so that he may taste the poignancy of his deed. Allah has forgiven that which happened in the past, but whoever resorts to it in the future, He will seek retribution from him. Allah is Mighty and is able to requite.
(In view of the fact that the Ka'ba and its Holy Precincts are a haven of peace for all living beings, the Qur'aan does impose restrictions on hunting wild beasts during the season of Pilgrimage with considerable effectiveness. For those who knowingly ignore them and draw the blood of a beast, there are penalties to pay so that the poignancy of what they have done comes home to them.
Whilst Qur'aan imposes penalties upon those who intentionally flout the command of Allah governing the prohibition of game, the Ahadith of the Prophet go one step further and impose the same penalties upon those who commit such sacrilege even unintentionally.
The redress for the offence is an animal of equal value chosen from his own livestock by two honest men, preferably belonging to the area where the offence was perpetrated, or its neighbourhood, and sent to Ka'ba as an oblation along with other sacrificial animals.
Equal value means the flesh of the beast killed and the flesh of the animal oblated should fetch roughly the same price in the market, if the beast had been lawfully hunted and sold, - a choice placed in the hands of two reliable men.
The expiation, which would replace redress if the circumstances justify is : either to feed a number of destitutes, the cost of which equals the market price of the beast killed, or to fast for a number of days until the offender realizes the poignancy of his evil deed.
Since rabid dogs, rats, crows, eagles, scorpions, snakes wolves and hyenas do not fall into the category of wild beasts, killing them is not prohibited).
5 : 96
96. Ohilla lakum saydu albahri wataAAamuhu mataAAan lakum walilssayyarati wahurrima AAalaykum saydu albarri ma dumtum huruman waittaqoo Allaha allathee ilayhi tuhsharoona
Lawful for you is hunting and consuming sea food, a wholesome provision for you and for other sea-farers. It is hunting overland game in course of pilgrimage that is forbidden for you, so be mindful of your duty to Allah to Whom you will be gathered in the end.
5 : 97
97. JaAAala Allahu alkaAAbata albayta alharama qiyaman lilnnasi waalshshahra alharama waalhadya waalqala-ida thalika litaAAlamoo anna Allaha yaAAlamu ma fee alssamawati wama fee al-ardi waanna Allaha bikulli shay-in AAaleemun
Allah has appointed Ka'ba a Sacred House for all mankind and made the month for Pilgrimage sacrosanct, together with all the oblations and the animals wearing collars of identification. This has been done so that you know Allah is aware of whatever is there in the heavens and whatever is there upon the earth and that Allah's knowledge extends to all things.
5 : 98
98. IAAlamoo anna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabi waanna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun
Know that, whereas Allah is acerbic in punishment, He is also Magnanimous and Merciful!
5 : 99
99. Ma AAala alrrasooli illa albalaghu waAllahu yaAAlamu ma tubdoona wama taktumoona
The Messenger is under no obligation other than to deliver the message. Allah is aware of that which you express and of that which you suppress.
5 : 100
100. Qul la yastawee alkhabeethu waalttayyibu walaw aAAjabaka kathratu alkhabeethi faittaqoo Allaha ya olee al-albabi laAAallakum tuflihoona
Say: 'The evil and the chaste are not alike, though you might be impressed by the staggering numbers of those who are evil! So, O men of understanding, be fearful of Allah in order that you may attain salvation! (R)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
94. O you who believe! All‚h will certainly make a trial of you with something in (the matter of) the game that is well within reach of your hands and your lances, that All‚h may test who fears Him unseen. Then whoever transgresses thereafter, for him there is a painful torment.
95. O you who believe! Kill not game while you are in a state of Ihr‚m for Hajj or 'Umrah (pilgrimage), and whosoever of you kills it intentionally, the penalty is an offering, brought to the Ka'bah, of an eatable animal (i.e. sheep, goat, cow, etc.) equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; or, for expiation, he should feed Mas‚kin (poor persons), or its equivalent in Saum (fasting), that he may taste the heaviness (punishment) of his deed. All‚h has forgiven what is past, but whosoever commits it again, All‚h will take retribution from him. And All‚h is All≠Mighty, All-Able of Retribution.
96. Lawful to you is (the pursuit of) water≠game and its use for food - for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel, but forbidden is (the pursuit of) land≠game as long as you are in a state of Ihr‚m (for Hajj or 'Umrah). And fear All‚h to Whom you shall be gathered back.
97. All‚h has made the Ka'bah, the Sacred House, an asylum of security and Hajj and 'Umrah (pilgrimage) for mankind, and also the Sacred Month and the animals of offerings and the garlanded (people or animals, etc. marked with the garlands on their necks made from the outer part of the stem of the Makkah trees for their security), that you may know that All‚h has knowledge of all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth, and that All‚h is the All≠Knower of each and everything.
98. Know that All‚h is Severe in punishment and that All‚h is Oft≠Forgiving, Most Merciful.
99. The Messenger's duty [i.e. Our Messenger Muhammad SAW whom We have sent to you, (O mankind)] is but to convey (the Message). And All‚h knows all that you reveal and all that you conceal.
100. Say (O Muhammad SAW): "Not equal are Al≠KhabÓth (all that is evil and bad as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.) and At≠Taiyib (all that is good as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.), even though the abundance of Al-KhabÓth (evil) may please you." So fear All‚h much [(abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love All‚h much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)], O men of understanding in order that you may be successful.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Allah doth but make a trial of you in a little matter of game well within reach of game well within reach of your hands and your lances, that He may test who feareth him unseen: any who transgress thereafter, will have a grievous penalty.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Allah will surely try you somewhat (in the matter) of the game which ye take with your hands and your spears, that Allah may know him who feareth Him in secret. Whoso transgresseth after this, for him there is a painful doom.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! Allah will certainly try you in respect of some game which your hands and your lances can reach, that Allah might know who fears Him in secret; but whoever exceeds the limit after this, he shall have a painful punishment.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Kill not game while in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. If any of you doth so intentionally, the compensation is an offering, brought to the Ka'ba, of a domestic animal equivalent to the one he killed, as adjudged by two just men among you; or by way of atonement, the feeding of the indigent; or its equivalent in fasts: that he may taste of the penalty of his deed. Allah forgives what is past: for repetition Allah will exact from him the penalty. For Allah is Exalted, and Lord of Retribution.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Kill no wild game while ye are on the pilgrimage. Whoso of you killeth it of set purpose he shall pay its forfeit in the equivalent of that which he hath killed, of domestic animals, the judge to be two men among you known for justice, (the forfeit) to be brought as an offering to the Ka'bah; or, for expiation, he shall feed poor persons, or the equivalent thereof in fasting, that he may taste the evil consequences of his deed. Allah forgiveth whatever (of this kind) may have happened in the past, but whoso relapseth, Allah will take retribution from him. Allah is Mighty, Able to Requite (the wrong).
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not kill game while you are on pilgrimage, and whoever among you shall kill it intentionally, the compensation (of it) is the like of what he killed, from the cattle, as two just persons among you shall judge, as an offering to be brought to the Kaaba or the expiation (of it) is the feeding of the poor or the equivalent of it in fasting, that he may taste the unwholesome result of his deed; Allah has pardoned what is gone by; and whoever returns (to it), Allah will inflict retribution on him; and Allah is Mighty, Lord of Retribution.
YUSUFALI: Lawful to you is the pursuit of water-game and its use for food,- for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel; but forbidden is the pursuit of land-game;- as long as ye are in the sacred precincts or in pilgrim garb. And fear Allah, to Whom ye shall be gathered back.
PICKTHAL: To hunt and to eat the fish of the sea is made lawful for you, a provision for you and for seafarers; but to hunt on land is forbidden you so long as ye are on the pilgrimage. Be mindful of your duty to Allah, unto Whom ye will be gathered.
SHAKIR: Lawful to you is the game of the sea and its food, a provision for you and for the travellers, and the game of the land is forbidden to you so long as you are on pilgrimage, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, to Whom you shall be gathered.
YUSUFALI: Allah made the Ka'ba, the Sacred House, an asylum of security for men, as also the Sacred Months, the animals for offerings, and the garlands that mark them: That ye may know that Allah hath knowledge of what is in the heavens and on earth and that Allah is well acquainted with all things.
PICKTHAL: Allah hath appointed the Ka'bah, the Sacred House, a standard for mankind, and the Sacred Month and the offerings and the garlands. That is so that ye may know that Allah knoweth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and that Allah is Knower of all things.
SHAKIR: Allah has made the Kaaba, the sacred house, a maintenance for the people, and the sacred month and the offerings and the sacrificial animals with garlands; this is that you may know that Allah knows whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth, and that Allah is the Knower of all things.
YUSUFALI: Know ye that Allah is strict in punishment and that Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Know that Allah is severe in punishment, but that Allah (also) is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: Know that Allah is severe in requiting (evil) and that Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
YUSUFALI: The Messenger's duty is but to proclaim (the message). But Allah knoweth all that ye reveal and ye conceal.
PICKTHAL: The duty of the messenger is only to convey (the message). Allah knoweth what ye proclaim and what ye hide.
SHAKIR: Nothing is (incumbent) on the Messenger but to deliver (the message), and Allah knows what you do openly and what you hide.
YUSUFALI: Say: "Not equal are things that are bad and things that are good, even though the abundance of the bad may dazzle thee; so fear Allah, O ye that understand; that (so) ye may prosper."
PICKTHAL: Say: The evil and the good are not alike even though the plenty of the evil attract thee. So be mindful of your duty to Allah, O men of understanding, that ye may succeed.
SHAKIR: Say: The bad and the good are not equal, though the abundance of the bad may please you; so be careful of (your duty to) Allah, O men of understanding, that you may be successful.
Context of Revelation: The following verse was revealed when a man who was attending a congregation held by the Prophet requested him to publicly disclose the identity of his real father, and the Prophet had no choice but to disclose the name of a person who was different from the person to whom his mother was married at the time of his birth, it being the truth.
5 : 101
101. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tas-aloo AAan ashyaa in tubda lakum tasu/kum wa-in tas-aloo AAanha heena yunazzalu alqur-anu tubda lakum AAafa Allahu AAanha waAllahu ghafoorun haleemun
O those of you who believe! Do not ask about matters likely to hurt your feelings if they are disclosed to you. If you ask about them when the Qur'aan is being revealed, they will be truthfully disclosed to you, even though Allah has forgiven them. And Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful!
5 : 102
102. Qad saalaha qawmun min qablikum thumma asbahoo biha kafireena
Others before you also asked of their prophets similar questions, but when they were told the truth, they rejected it.
* * *
5 : 103
103. Ma jaAAala Allahu min baheeratin wala sa-ibatin wala waseelatin wala hamin walakinna allatheena kafaroo yaftaroona AAala Allahi alkathiba waaktharuhum la yaAAqiloona
It was not Allah who gave the names BAHIRAH or SAIBAH or WASILAH or HAMI to the animals It is the disbelievers who invent such names and then assign them to Allah. And a vast majority of them are utterly moronic!
(It was an age-old custom amongst the pagan Arabs according to which if a she camel gave birth five times, and the fifth time there was a male in her brood, they used to dedicate her to their gods, slit her ears and let her loose, not to be slaughtered for consumption nor to he hampered from grazing in their fields. Such an animal was called Bahirah.
If a person fell ill, or was embarking upon a perilous journey, he would vow to free a she camel upon his recovery or upon his safe return. Such an animal was called Saibah, and treated likewise.
If a nanny goat gave birth seven times, and on the seventh time she gave birth to twins, one of them a male and the other a female, they slaughtered the male and dedicated the female to their gods. Such an animal was called Wasila
If a camel sired ten times, he too was set free as their offering to their gods, never to be slaughtered nor ridden nor hampered from grazing. Such an animal was called Hami
These, and many other similar rituals and customs were practised by the Arabs throughout the dark days of Paganism and ignorance, until they were proscribed by the Qur'aan in the above verse).
5 : 104
104. Wa-itha qeela lahum taAAalaw ila ma anzala Allahu wa-ila alrrasooli qaloo hasbuna ma wajadna AAalayhi abaana awa law kana abaohum la yaAAlamoona shay-an wala yahtadoona
And when it is said to them : 'Come to that which Allah has revealed and to the messenger, they say : 'That towards which we found our forefathers inclined suffices us!' What! Even if their forefathers neither had the right knowledge nor the right guidance?
5 : 105
105. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo AAalaykum anfusakum la yadurrukum man dalla itha ihtadaytum ila Allahi marjiAAukum jameeAAan fayunabbi-okum bima kuntum taAAmaloona
O those of you who believe! Take charge of your own souls. Those who have gone astray cannot corrupt you, if you are on the right path. To Allah must you all return one Day and He will inform you of what you used to do!
(The admonition contained in this verse was intended for the believers who often felt sorry for those who disbelieved at the manner and the extent to which they were encumbering their souls out of utter ignorance, out of obstinacy and out of inflexibility. Redemption was theirs for the asking and yet they were wasting a golden opportunity for ameliorating themselves, refusing to accept that messengers of Allah come once in a way, and that those to whom they bring the message of Allah are bequeathed with a rare fortune.
Whilst their concern for the spiritual well being of their brethren was laudable, they have been reassured in this verse that they have done their best in terms of giving them sound counsel and should concentrate upon the purification of their own souls. After all, it is for Allah to decide who walks aright and who goes astray; who gets the key to the doors that lead to everlasting bliss and who gets tossed in the flames of hell to burn forever; who is absolved and who is damned; who is rewarded and who is requited; who is given the deposition of his deeds in his right hand and who is given his in the left; who rises from his grave on the Day of Resurrection with radiant faces and who rises with soiled faces!)
* * *
Context of Revelation :The following verse was revealed when a man fell seriously ill in course of his journey and requested a close friend who was also travelling with him to pass on all his possessions to members of his family in the event of his death. But, unaware that the dying man had already prepared an inventory of his belongings and hidden it away, his friend was less than honest in discharging his trust and got caught later on.
5 : 106
106. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo shahadatu baynikum itha hadara ahadakumu almawtu heena alwasiyyati ithnani thawa AAadlin minkum aw akharani min ghayrikum in antum darabtum fee al-ardi faasabatkum museebatu almawti tahbisoonahuma min baAAdi alssalati fayuqsimani biAllahi ini irtabtum la nashtaree bihi thamanan walaw kana tha qurba wala naktumu shahadata Allahi inna ithan lamina al-athimeena
O those of you who believe! Let there be witnesses present when the moment of death is upon you and you wish to make a bequest, - two honest men from your own brotherhood, or from any other tribe, if you are travelling in the land at the time of your death. Assemble them after prayers and, if you are not sure of their integrity, ask them to swear upon Allah saying : 'We will not betray our trust by accepting bribes even if it was for the benefit of a close relative, nor will we hide the testimony of Allah, for if we do so, verily we would be of the sinners.
5 : 107
107. Fa-in AAuthira AAala annahuma istahaqqa ithman faakharani yaqoomani maqamahuma mina allatheena istahaqqa AAalayhimu al-awlayani fayuqsimani biAllahi lashahadatuna ahaqqu min shahadatihima wama iAAtadayna inna ithan lamina alththalimeena
If it came to light that the two witnesses had been impugned with dishonesty in the past, let two different witnesses come forward on behalf of his next of kin and swear on Allah saying : 'Our testimony is truer than their testimony and we have never transgressed before, for if we had transgressed, then we would be of the pernicious.
5 : 108
108. Thalika adna an ya/too bialshshahadati AAala wajhiha aw yakhafoo an turadda aymanun baAAda aymanihim waittaqoo Allaha waismaAAoo waAllahu la yahdee alqawma alfasiqeena
Such a course of action is more likely to ensure that they will bear truthful testimony from fear that after they have taken their oaths, the oaths of others might be taken to verify the veracity of theirs. So, render your duty to Allah and obey His command, for Allah guides not the disobedient! (R)
(In the light of what had happened, clear guidelines were provided through this verse for all believers who encountered similar circumstances so that no rightful heirs or beneficiaries of a wayfarer unexpectedly overtaken by death in transit are deprived of what is theirs, or what is intended to be theirs)
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
101. O you who believe! Ask not about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble. But if you ask about them while the Qur'‚n is being revealed, they will be made plain to you. All‚h has forgiven that, and All‚h is Oft≠Forgiving, Most Forbearing.
102. Before you, a community asked such questions, then on that account they became disbelievers.
103. All‚h has not instituted things like BahÓrah (a she≠camel whose milk was spared for the idols and nobody was allowed to milk it) or a S‚'ibah (a she≠camel let loose for free pasture for their false gods, e.g. idols, etc., and nothing was allowed to be carried on it), or a WasÓlah (a she≠camel set free for idols because it has given birth to a she≠camel at its first delivery and then again gives birth to a she≠camel at its second delivery) or a H‚m (a stallion≠camel freed from work for their idols, after it had finished a number of copulations assigned for it, all these animals were liberated in honour of idols as practised by pagan Arabs in the pre≠Isl‚mic period). But those who disbelieve invent lies against All‚h, and most of them have no understanding.
104. And when it is said to them: "Come to what All‚h has revealed and unto the Messenger (Muhammad SAW for the verdict of that which you have made unlawful)." They say: "Enough for us is that which we found our fathers following," even though their fathers had no knowledge whatsoever and no guidance.
105. O you who believe! Take care of your ownselves, [do righteous deeds, fear All‚h much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love All‚h much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)]. If you follow the right guidance and enjoin what is right (Isl‚mic Monotheism and all that Isl‚m orders one to do) and forbid what is wrong (polytheism, disbelief and all that Isl‚m has forbidden) no hurt can come to you from those who are in error. The return of you all is to All‚h, then He will inform you about (all) that which you used to do.
106. O you who believe! When death approaches any of you, and you make a bequest, then take the testimony of two just men of your own folk or two others from outside, if you are travelling through the land and the calamity of death befalls you. Detain them both after As-Sal‚t (the prayer), (then) if you are in doubt (about their truthfulness), let them both swear by All‚h (saying): "We wish not for any worldly gain in this, even though he (the beneficiary) be our near relative. We shall not hide Testimony of All‚h, for then indeed we should be of the sinful."
107. If then it gets known that these two had been guilty of sin, let two others stand forth in their places, nearest in kin from among those who claim a lawful right. Let them swear by All‚h (saying): "We affirm that our testimony is truer than that of both of them, and that we have not trespassed (the truth), for then indeed we should be of the wrong≠doers."
108. That should make it closer (to the fact) that their testimony would be in its true nature and shape (and thus accepted), or else they would fear that (other) oaths would be admitted after their oaths. And fear All‚h and listen ( with obedience to Him). And All‚h guides not the people who are Al-F‚siqŻn (the rebellious and disobedient).
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Ask not questions about things which, if made plain to you, may cause you trouble. But if ye ask about things when the Qur'an is being revealed, they will be made plain to you, Allah will forgive those: for Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Forbearing.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Ask not of things which, if they were made unto you, would trouble you; but if ye ask of them when the Qur'an is being revealed, they will be made known unto you. Allah pardoneth this, for Allah is Forgiving, Clement.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not put questions about things which if declared to you may trouble you, and if you question about them when the Quran is being revealed, they shall be declared to you; Allah pardons this, and Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing.
YUSUFALI: Some people before you did ask such questions, and on that account lost their faith.
PICKTHAL: A folk before you asked (for such disclosures) and then disbelieved therein.
SHAKIR: A people before you indeed asked such questions, and then became disbelievers on account of them.
YUSUFALI: It was not Allah who instituted (superstitions like those of) a slit-ear she-camel, or a she-camel let loose for free pasture, or idol sacrifices for twin-births in animals, or stallion-camels freed from work: It is blasphemers who invent a lie against Allah; but most of them lack wisdom.
PICKTHAL: Allah hath not appointed anything in the nature of a Bahirah or a Sa'ibah or a Wasilah or a Hami, but those who disbelieve invent a lie against Allah. Most of them have no sense.
SHAKIR: Allah has not ordained (the making of) a bahirah or a saibah or a wasilah or a hami but those who disbelieve fabricate a lie against Allah, and most of them do not understand.
YUSUFALI: When it is said to them: "Come to what Allah hath revealed; come to the Messenger": They say: "Enough for us are the ways we found our fathers following." what! even though their fathers were void of knowledge and guidance?
PICKTHAL: And when it is said unto them: Come unto that which Allah hath revealed and unto the messenger, they say: Enough for us is that wherein we found our fathers. What! Even though their fathers had no knowledge whatsoever, and no guidance?
SHAKIR: And when it is said to them, Come to what Allah has revealed and to the Messenger, they say: That on which we found our fathers is sufficient for us. What! even though their fathers knew nothing and did not follow the right way.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Guard your own souls: If ye follow (right) guidance, no hurt can come to you from those who stray. the goal of you all is to Allah: it is He that will show you the truth of all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Ye have charge of your own souls. He who erreth cannot injure you if ye are rightly guided. Unto Allah ye will all return; and then He will inform you of what ye used to do.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! take care of your souls; he who errs cannot hurt you when you are on the right way; to Allah is your return, of all (of you), so He will inform you of what you did.
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! When death approaches any of you, (take) witnesses among yourselves when making bequests,- two just men of your own (brotherhood) or others from outside if ye are journeying through the earth, and the chance of death befalls you (thus). If ye doubt (their truth), detain them both after prayer, and let them both swear by Allah: "We wish not in this for any worldly gain, even though the (beneficiary) be our near relation: we shall hide not the evidence before Allah: if we do, then behold! the sin be upon us!"
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Let there be witnesses between you when death draweth nigh unto one of you, at the time of bequest - two witnesses, just men from among you, or two others from another tribe, in case ye are campaigning in the land and the calamity of death befall you. Ye shall empanel them both after the prayer, and, if ye doubt, they shall be made to swear by Allah (saying): We will not take a bribe, even though it were (on behalf of) a near kinsman nor will we hide the testimony of Allah, for then indeed we should be of the sinful.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! call to witness between you when death draws nigh to one of you, at the time of making the will, two just persons from among you, or two others from among others than you, if you are travelling in the land and the calamity of death befalls you; the two (witnesses) you should detain after the prayer; then if you doubt (them), they shall both swear by Allah, (saying): We will not take for it a price, though there be a relative, and we will not hide the testimony of Allah for then certainly we should be among the sinners.
YUSUFALI: But if it gets known that these two were guilty of the sin (of perjury), let two others stand forth in their places,- nearest in kin from among those who claim a lawful right: let them swear by Allah: "We affirm that our witness is truer than that of those two, and that we have not trespassed (beyond the truth): if we did, behold! the wrong be upon us!"
PICKTHAL: But then, if it is afterwards ascertained that both of them merit (the suspicion of) sin, let two others take their place of those nearly concerned, and let them swear by Allah, (saying): Verily our testimony is truer than their testimony and we have not transgressed (the bounds of duty), for them indeed we should be of the evil-doers.
SHAKIR: Then if it becomes known that they both have been guilty of a sin, two others shall stand up in their place from among those who have a claim against them, the two nearest in kin; so they two should swear by Allah: Certainly our testimony is truer than the testimony of those two, and we have not exceeded the limit, for then most surely we should be of the unjust.
YUSUFALI: That is most suitable: that they may give the evidence in its true nature and shape, or else they would fear that other oaths would be taken after their oaths. But fear Allah, and listen (to His counsel): for Allah guideth not a rebellious people:
PICKTHAL: Thus it is more likely that they will bear true witness or fear that after their oaths the oaths (of others) will be taken. So be mindful of your duty (to Allah) and hearken. Allah guideth not the froward folk.
SHAKIR: This is more proper in order that they should give testimony truly or fear that other oaths be given after their oaths; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah, and hear; and Allah does not guide the transgressing people.
5 : 109
109. Yawma yajmaAAu Allahu alrrusula fayaqoolu matha ojibtum qaloo la AAilma lana innaka anta AAallamu alghuyoobi
On the Day when Allah gathers His messengers and says to them : 'What was the response to you from your people? ' They will say : 'We have no knowledge about it. Verily it is You and only You who have the knowledge of the hidden!'
5 : 110
110. Ith qala Allahu ya AAeesa ibna maryama othkur niAAmatee AAalayka waAAala walidatika ith ayyadtuka biroohi alqudusi tukallimu alnnasa fee almahdi wakahlan wa-ith AAallamtuka alkitaba waalhikmata waalttawrata waal-injeela wa-ith takhluqu mina altteeni kahay-ati alttayri bi-ithnee fatanfukhu feeha fatakoonu tayran bi-ithnee watubri-o al-akmaha waal-abrasa bi-ithnee wa-ith tukhriju almawta bi-ithnee wa-ith kafaftu banee isra-eela AAanka ith ji/tahum bialbayyinati faqala allatheena kafaroo minhum in hatha illa sihrun mubeenun
Then will Allah say : 'O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My favour to you and to your mother; how I supported you with the Holy Spirit and enabled you to speak to your folk from the cradle and then in your manhood; and how I taught you the Scripture and the Wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel; and how you cast the mould of a bird in clay by My leave and breathed into it so that it (sprang to life) by My leave and flew away; and how you healed those born blind and the lepers by My leave; and how you did bring the dead back to life by My leave; and how I restrained the Children of Israel from hurting you when you went to them with Our miracles and the disbelievers among them said : 'This is nothing but sheer sorcery!
(The above verse contains some of the well-known miracles that Jesus performed at the behest of Allah and by His consent. That they were performed at the command of Allah and by His leave is repeatedly accentuated in the verse so that, out of sheer admiration for the human through whom the Super-human made manifest His own Omnipotence over all things, people do not assign to the human the status of the Super-human, which belongs to Allah alone.
It should be noted that many a Prophet were empowered by Allah to perform miracles on His behalf to overcome the obstacles in their way so that the intransigent did not triumph by mesmerizing their audiences with optical delusions.
These miracles often reflected the nature of times when they were performed. For instance, during the times of Moses, Pharaoh patronized wizards and sorcerers to rule the people of Egypt through fear with their contrivance. For Moses to win the confidence of the Children of Israel and lead them out of Egypt, it was imperative that he challenged the forces of evil and defeated them in front of the populace. Hence Allah empowered him with appropriate miracles that helped him fight sorcery with sorcery.
During the days when Jesus emerged, Jerusalem was stricken with poverty, disease and death, on account of which Allah equipped him with the miracles which earned him admiration and gratitude of people who surrounded him, such as the power to heal the lepers and the blind, and the ability to raise the dead by Allah's leave. Despite the iron clasps in which the people of Jerusalem were kept squeezed by the Roman soldiers, they ran towards him in their multitudes and looked upon him as the Saviour who had come to relieve them of suffering and grief, and to liberate them from servitude.
In the case of our Prophet, whose arrival coincided with the period of transition from Paganism to enlightenment, he was empowered with the miracle of the Qur'aan, an unsurpassable masterpiece of Arabic literature, delivered by a man who was known to be unlettered and hence incapable of producing such a stupendous Tractate, except with Divine Inspiration and through Divine Guidance.
a few other minor miracles that are quite often attributed to him are arguable,
he did not need anything else to establish his credentials as a Prophet of
Allah, nor other means with which to overcome opposition. The blessed Qur'aan
did everything for him; the legacy of Allah has carried on flourishing over so
many centuries, and will carry on doing so until the Day 'the Trumpet is
5 : 111
111. Wa-ith awhaytu ila alhawariyyeena an aminoo bee wabirasoolee qaloo amanna waishhad bi-annana muslimoona
When I inspirited the Apostles saying : 'Believe in Me and in My messenger!' and they said : 'We believe! So bear witness for us that we have surrendered to You!'
(The Apostles, referred here as the hawariyyun, were a small group of disciples who loved Jesus in the same way as the Blessed Companions of our own Prophet did, and stood by him through thick and thin, until the moment of his Ascension. They solemnly believed in his teachings, supported him, spread his message, abided by his command and surrendered to the will of Allah as he did, - a surrender as defined by the Arabic word Islam)
5 : 112
112. Ith qala alhawariyyoona ya AAeesa ibna maryama hal yastateeAAu rabbuka an yunazzila AAalayna ma-idatan mina alssama-i qala ittaqoo Allaha in kuntum mu/mineena
When the Apostles said : 'O Jesus, son of Mary! Will your Lord send down for us a repast from heaven laid out on a table?' He said : 'Render your duty to Allah, if you are believers!'
(Some commentators consider that Jesus rebuked his apostles in these words for making such a request because it did demonstrate a lack of faith in the benefactions of the Lord).
5 : 113
113. Qaloo nureedu an na/kula minha watatma-inna quloobuna wanaAAlama an qad sadaqtana wanakoona AAalayha mina alshshahideena
They said : 'We wish to eat from it so that we may reassure our hearts and know that you have told us the Truth and so that we may bear witness to it!'
5 : 114
114. Qala AAeesa ibnu maryama allahumma rabbana anzil AAalayna ma-idatan mina alssama-i takoonu lana AAeedan li-awwalina waakhirina waayatan minka waorzuqna waanta khayru alrraziqeena
Isa (Jesus), son of Mary, said : 'O Allah! Our Lord! Send for us from heaven a repast laid out on a table so that it may be a feast for us, - for the first of us and for the last of us, - a sign from You - and give us sustenance, for You are the most generous of Sustainers!
(The above verse makes it lawful for the believers to celebrate all auspicious occasions in festivities year after year, such as the day that marks the end of fasting, or the day on which the Pilgrimage is performed, commemorating the saving of Ishmael from the slaughter bed by Angel Gabriel at the behest of Allah, the Night on which the Qur'aan was revealed, the birth of the Prophet and so on.
Although Christians all over the world celebrate Christmas, its relevance to Christianity has always been questioned by the very people who celebrate it; some think of it as a season of goodwill for all mankind; some claim that it was a pagan festival which somehow entered the Christian calendar and some abstain from celebrating it altogether).
5 : 115
115. Qala Allahu innee munazziluha AAalaykum faman yakfur baAAdu minkum fa-innee oAAaththibuhu AAathaban la oAAaththibuhu ahadan mina alAAalameena
Allah said : 'I will send it down for you, but whoever disbelieves thereafter, I shall inflict on him such a severe castigation as I never inflicted on anyone else in the entire Creation!' (R)
(There is a dire warning for Christians in this verse to the effect that, although Allah is willing to overlook errors committed in the past and put in their hands a clean slate - a gesture of compassion and generosity extended by Him to all those who strayed away from the right path for one reason or the other, there will be no exculpation for culprits of the future; if anything, their punishment would be more severe than it was for anyone else in the past).
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
109. On the Day when All‚h will gather the Messengers together and say to them: "What was the response you received (from men to your teaching)? They will say: "We have no knowledge, verily, only You are the All≠Knower of all that is hidden (or unseen, etc.)."
110. (Remember) when All‚h will say (on the Day of Resurrection). "O 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Remember My Favour to you and to your mother when I supported you with RŻh≠ul≠Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel)] so that you spoke to the people in the cradle and in maturity; and when I taught you writing, Al≠Hikmah (the power of understanding), the Taur‚t (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel); and when you made out of the clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My Permission, and you breathed into it, and it became a bird by My Permission, and you healed those born blind, and the lepers by My Permission, and when you brought forth the dead by My Permission; and when I restrained the Children of Israel from you (when they resolved to kill you) since you came unto them with clear proofs, and the disbelievers among them said: 'This is nothing but evident magic.' "
111. And when I (All‚h) put in the hearts of Al-Haw‚rÓeen (the disciples) [of 'Iesa (Jesus)] to believe in Me and My Messenger, they said: "We believe. And bear witness that we are Muslims."
112. (Remember) when Al-Haw‚rÓŻn (the disciples) said: "O 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Can your Lord send down to us a table spread (with food) from heaven?" 'Iesa (Jesus) said: "Fear All‚h, if you are indeed believers."
113. They said: "We wish to eat thereof and to be stronger in Faith, and to know that you have indeed told us the truth and that we ourselves be its witnesses."
114. 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary), said: "O All‚h, our Lord! Send us from heaven a table spread (with food) that there may be for us - for the first and the last of us - a festival and a sign from You; and provide us sustenance, for You are the Best of sustainers."
115. All‚h said: "I am going to send it down unto you, but if any of you after that disbelieves, then I will punish him with a torment such as I have not inflicted on anyone among (all) the 'AlamÓn (mankind and jinns)."
YUSUFALI: One day will Allah gather the messengers together, and ask: "What was the response ye received (from men to your teaching)?" They will say: "We have no knowledge: it is Thou Who knowest in full all that is hidden."
PICKTHAL: In the day when Allah gathereth together the messengers, and saith: What was your response (from mankind)? they say: We have no knowledge. Lo! Thou, only Thou art the Knower of Things Hidden,
SHAKIR: On the day when Allah will assemble the messengers, then say: What answer were you given? They shall say: We have no knowledge, surely Thou art the great Knower of the unseen things.
YUSUFALI: Then will Allah say: "O Jesus the son of Mary! Recount My favour to thee and to thy mother. Behold! I strengthened thee with the holy spirit, so that thou didst speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught thee the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel and behold! thou makest out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and thou breathest into it and it becometh a bird by My leave, and thou healest those born blind, and the lepers, by My leave. And behold! thou bringest forth the dead by My leave. And behold! I did restrain the Children of Israel from (violence to) thee when thou didst show them the clear Signs, and the unbelievers among them said: 'This is nothing but evident magic.'
PICKTHAL: When Allah saith: O Jesus, son of Mary! Remember My favour unto thee and unto thy mother; how I strengthened thee with the holy Spirit, so that thou spakest unto mankind in the cradle as in maturity; and how I taught thee the Scripture and Wisdom and the Torah and the Gospel; and how thou didst shape of clay as it were the likeness of a bird by My permission, and didst blow upon it and it was a bird by My permission, and thou didst heal him who was born blind and the leper by My permission; and how thou didst raise the dead by My permission; and how I restrained the Children of Israel from (harming) thee when thou camest unto them with clear proofs, and those of them who disbelieved exclaimed: This is naught else than mere magic;
SHAKIR: When Allah will say: O Isa son of Marium! Remember My favor on you and on your mother, when I strengthened you I with the holy Spirit, you spoke to the people in the cradle and I when of old age, and when I taught you the Book and the wisdom and the Taurat and the Injeel; and when you determined out of clay a thing like the form of a bird by My permission, then you breathed into it and it became a bird by My permission, and you healed the blind and the leprous by My permission; and when you brought forth the dead by My permission; and when I withheld the children of Israel from you when you came to them with clear arguments, but those who disbelieved among them said: This is nothing but clear enchantment.
YUSUFALI: "And behold! I inspired the disciples to have faith in Me and Mine Messenger: they said, 'We have faith, and do thou bear witness that we bow to Allah as Muslims'".
PICKTHAL: And when I inspired the disciples, (saying): Believe in Me and in My messenger, they said: We believe. Bear witness that we have surrendered (unto Thee) "we are muslims".
SHAKIR: And when I revealed to the disciples, saying, Believe in Me and My messenger, they said: We believe and bear witness that we submit (ourselves).
YUSUFALI: Behold! the disciples, said: "O Jesus the son of Mary! can thy Lord send down to us a table set (with viands) from heaven?" Said Jesus: "Fear Allah, if ye have faith."
PICKTHAL: When the disciples said: O Jesus, son of Mary! Is thy Lord able to send down for us a table spread with food from heaven? He said: Observe your duty to Allah, if ye are true believers.
SHAKIR: When the disciples said: O Isa son of Marium! will your Lord consent to send down to us food from heaven? He said: Be careful of (your duty to) Allah if you are believers.
YUSUFALI: They said: "We only wish to eat thereof and satisfy our hearts, and to know that thou hast indeed told us the truth; and that we ourselves may be witnesses to the miracle."
PICKTHAL: (They said:) We wish to eat thereof, that we may satisfy our hearts and know that thou hast spoken truth to us, and that thereof we may be witnesses.
SHAKIR: They said: We desire that we should eat of it and that our hearts should be at rest, and that we may know that you have indeed spoken the truth to us and that we may be of the witnesses to it.
YUSUFALI: Said Jesus the son of Mary: "O Allah our Lord! Send us from heaven a table set (with viands), that there may be for us - for the first and the last of us - a solemn festival and a sign from thee; and provide for our sustenance, for thou art the best Sustainer (of our needs)."
PICKTHAL: Jesus, son of Mary, said: O Allah, Lord of us! Send down for us a table spread with food from heaven, that it may be a feast for us, for the first of us and for the last of us, and a sign from Thee. Give us sustenance, for Thou art the Best of Sustainers.
SHAKIR: Isa the son of Marium said: O Allah, our Lord! send i down to us food from heaven which should be to us an ever-recurring happiness, to the first of us and to the last of us, and a sign from Thee, and grant us means of subsistence, and Thou art the best of the Providers.
YUSUFALI: Allah said: "I will send it down unto you: But if any of you after that resisteth faith, I will punish him with a penalty such as I have not inflicted on any one among all the peoples."
PICKTHAL: Allah said: Lo! I send it down for you. And whoso disbelieveth of you afterward, him surely will I punish with a punishment wherewith I have not punished any of (My) creatures.
SHAKIR: Allah said: Surely I will send it down to you, but whoever shall disbelieve afterwards from among you, surely I will chastise him with a chastisement with which I will not chastise, anyone among the nations.
5 : 116
116. Wa-ith qala Allahu ya AAeesa ibna maryama aanta qulta lilnnasi ittakhithoonee waommiya ilahayni min dooni Allahi qala subhanaka ma yakoonu lee an aqoola ma laysa lee bihaqqin in kuntu qultuhu faqad AAalimtahu taAAlamu ma fee nafsee wala aAAlamu ma fee nafsika innaka anta AAallamu alghuyoobi
And when Allah said: 'O Jesus, son of Mary! Did you say to mankind: 'Turn me and my mother into two Gods besides Allah?' He said: 'May You be Glorified! It becomes me not to utter that for which I have no warrant! Had I uttered such a profanity, verily You would have known, for You know what is in my mind whereas I know not what is in Your mind! You and only You have the knowledge of the unseen!
5 : 117
117. Ma qultu lahum illa ma amartanee bihi ani oAAbudoo Allaha rabbee warabbakum wakuntu AAalayhim shaheedan ma dumtu feehim falamma tawaffaytanee kunta anta alrraqeeba AAalayhim waanta AAala kulli shay-in shaheedun
'I told them only that which You commanded me (saying) : 'Worship Allah who is my Lord as well as your Lord!' I was a witness over them whilst I was in their midst, and when You took me to You, You became a witness over them! And You are witness over all things!
5 : 118
118. In tuAAaththibhum fa-innahum AAibaduka wa-in taghfir lahum fa-innaka anta alAAazeezu alhakeemu
'If You punish them, they are Your slaves; and if You forgive them, You and only You are the Ubiquitous and the Wise!'
5 : 119
119. Qala Allahu hatha yawmu yanfaAAu alssadiqeena sidquhum lahum jannatun tajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideena feeha abadan radiya Allahu AAanhum waradoo AAanhu thalika alfawzu alAAatheemu
Then Allah will say : 'This is the day when truthfulness will avail the truthful, for theirs are the Gardens underneath which rivers flow, and in them will they abide forever! Allah is in accord with them and they are in accord with Allah, which is the supreme triumph!'
5 : 120
120. Lillahi mulku alssamawati waal-ardi wama feehinna wahuwa AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun
To Allah belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth and all that is is in between them and He has Ascendancy over all things! (R)
(Verses 110 to 120 are exclusively aimed at Christians making plain to them that every miracle performed by Jesus was performed by him at the behest of Allah and by His will; that the knowledge of the Torah and the Gospel and the Wisdom were imbibed in Him by Allah; that all his disciples believed in Allah alone and surrendered themselves to His will and His hegemony without making any stipulations; that Jesus always admonished his disciples to keep their duty to Allah at all times; that Jesus will deny having ever asked his flocks to apotheosize him or his mother as Gods; that he always preached them to worship none but Allah, who is his Lord and their Lord; that it is the sole prerogative of Allah alone to decide who deserved to be punished and who deserved to be absolved, and finally that on the Day when the truthful shall avail their truthfulness, Allah will enter them into Gardens of Eden and cast those who spoke the unspeakable about a cherished Prophet of Allah and a chaste woman whom He preferred above all the other women into the fiery flames of hell).
TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL & SHAKIR:
116. And (remember) when All‚h will say (on the Day of Resurrection): "O 'Iesa (Jesus), son of Maryam (Mary)! Did you say unto men: 'Worship me and my mother as two gods besides All‚h?' " He will say: "Glory be to You! It was not for me to say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, You would surely have known it. You know what is in my inner≠self though I do not know what is in Yours, truly, You, only You, are the All≠Knower of all that is hidden and unseen.
117. "Never did I say to them aught except what You (All‚h) did command me to say: 'Worship All‚h, my Lord and your Lord.' And I was a witness over them while I dwelt amongst them, but when You took me up, You were the Watcher over them, and You are a Witness to all things. (This is a great admonition and warning to the Christians of the whole world).
118. "If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, verily You, only You are the All≠Mighty, the All≠Wise."
119. All‚h will say: "This is a Day on which the truthful will profit from their truth: theirs are Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise) - they shall abide therein forever. All‚h is pleased with them and they with Him. That is the great success (Paradise).
120. To All‚h belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth and all that is therein, and He is Able to do all things.
YUSUFALI: And behold! Allah will say: "O Jesus the son of Mary! Didst thou say unto men, worship me and my mother as gods in derogation of Allah'?" He will say: "Glory to Thee! never could I say what I had no right (to say). Had I said such a thing, thou wouldst indeed have known it. Thou knowest what is in my heart, Thou I know not what is in Thine. For Thou knowest in full all that is hidden.
PICKTHAL: And when Allah saith: O Jesus, son of Mary! Didst thou say unto mankind: Take me and my mother for two gods beside Allah? he saith: Be glorified! It was not mine to utter that to which I had no right. If I used to say it, then Thou knewest it. Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I know not what is in Thy Mind. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower of Things Hidden?
SHAKIR: And when Allah will say: O Isa son of Marium! did you say to men, Take me and my mother for two gods besides Allah he will say: Glory be to Thee, it did not befit me that I should say what I had no right to (say); if I had said it, Thou wouldst indeed have known it; Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I do not know what is in Thy mind, surely Thou art the great Knower of the unseen things.
YUSUFALI: "Never said I to them aught except what Thou didst command me to say, to wit, 'worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord'; and I was a witness over them whilst I dwelt amongst them; when Thou didst take me up Thou wast the Watcher over them, and Thou art a witness to all things.
PICKTHAL: I spake unto them only that which Thou commandedst me, (saying): Worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord. I was a witness of them while I dwelt among them, and when Thou tookest me Thou wast the Watcher over them. Thou art Witness over all things.
SHAKIR: I did not say to them aught save what Thou didst enjoin me with: That serve Allah, my Lord and your Lord, and I was a witness of them so long as I was among them, but when Thou didst cause me to die, Thou wert the watcher over them, and Thou art witness of all things.
YUSUFALI: "If Thou dost punish them, they are Thy servant: If Thou dost forgive them, Thou art the Exalted in power, the Wise."
PICKTHAL: If Thou punish them, lo! they are Thy slaves, and if Thou forgive them (lo! they are Thy slaves). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, the Wise.
SHAKIR: If Thou shouldst chastise them, then surely they are Thy servants; and if Thou shouldst forgive them, then surely Thou art the Mighty, the Wise.
YUSUFALI: Allah will say: "This is a day on which the truthful will profit from their truth: theirs are gardens, with rivers flowing beneath,- their eternal Home: Allah well-pleased with them, and they with Allah: That is the great salvation, (the fulfilment of all desires).
PICKTHAL: Allah saith: This is a day in which their truthfulness profiteth the truthful, for theirs are Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they are secure for ever, Allah taking pleasure in them and they in Him. That is the great triumph.
SHAKIR: Allah will say: This is the day when their truth shall benefit the truthful ones; they shall have gardens beneath which rivers flow to abide in them for ever: Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Allah; this is the mighty achievement.
YUSUFALI: To Allah doth belong the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and all that is therein, and it is He Who hath power over all things.
PICKTHAL: Unto Allah belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and whatsoever is therein, and He is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: Allah's is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and what is in them; and He has power over all things.