THE HOLY QUR'AAN

SURAH 48
Al-Fath  (Victory, Conquest)

INTRODUCTION:

This Surah consists of 29 verses, 568 sentences, 2,559 letters and 4 Ruku's

Name

It is derived from the words Inna fatah-na laka fat-han mubina of the very first verse. This is not only a name of the Surah but also its title in view of the subject matter, for it deals with the great victory that Allah granted to the Holy Prophet and the Muslims in the form of the Truce of Hudaibiyah.

Period of Revelation

Traditions concur that it was sent down in Dhil-Qadah, A.H. 6, at a time when the Holy Prophet was on his return journey to Madinah after concluding the Truce of Hudaibiyah with the disbelievers of Makkah.

Historical Background

The events in connection with which this Surah was sent down began life this: One day the Holy Prophet saw in a dream that he had gone to Makkah with his Companions and had performed the umrah there. Obviously, the Prophet's dream could not be a mere dream and fiction for it is a kind of Divine inspiration as Allah Himself has confirmed in verse 27 below and said that He Himself had shown that dream to His Messenger. Therefore, it was not merely a dream but a Divine inspiration which the Holy Prophet had to obey and follow.

 

Apparently, there was no possible way of acting on this inspiration. The disbelieving Quraish had debarred the Muslims from proceeding to the Ka'bah for the past six years and no Muslim had been alliowed during that period to approach the Kabah for the purpose of performing hajj and umrah. Therefore, it could not be expected that they would allow the Holy Prophet to enter Makkah along with a party of his Companions. If they had proceeded to Makkah in the pilgrim garments with the intention of performing umrah, along with their arms, this would have provoked the enemy to war, and if they had proceeded unarmed, this would have meant endangering his own as well as his Cumpanions' lives. Under conditions such as these nobody could see and suggest how the Divine inspiration could be acted upon.

 

But the Prophet's position was different. It demanded that he should carry out whatever Command his Lord gave fearlessly and without any apprehension and doubt. Therefore, the Holy Prophet informed his Companions of his dream and began to make preparations for the journey. Among the tribes living in the suburbs also he had the public announcement made that he was proceeding for umrah and the people could join him. Those who could only see the apparent conditions thought that he and his Companions were going into the very jaws of death none of them therefore was inclined to accompany him in the expedition. But those who had true faith in Allah and His Messenger were least bothered about the consequences. For them this information was enough that it was a Divine inspiration and Allah's Prophet had made up his mind to carry it into effect. After this nothing could hinder them from accompanying the Messenger of Allah. Thus, 1,400 of the Companions became ready to follow him on this highly dangerous journey.

 

This blessed caravan set off from Madinah in the beginning of Dhil Qa'dah, A.H. 6. At Dhul Hulaifah they entered the pilgrims robe with the intention of umrah, took 70 camels with collars round their necks indicating that they were sacrificial animals; kept only a sword each in sheaths, which the pilgrims to the Kabah were allowed to carry according to the recognized custom of Arabia, but no other weapon. Thus, the caravan set out for the Ka'bah, the House of Allah, at Makkah, chanting the prescribed slogan of Labbaik, Allahuma labbaik.

 

The nature of the relations between Makkah and Madinah in those days was known too well to every Arab. Just the previous year, in Shawwal A.H. 5, the Quraish mustering the united strength of the Arab tribes had invaded Madinah and the well known Battle of the Trench had taken place. Therefore, when the Holy Prophet along with such a large caravan set off for the home of his blood-thirsty enemy, the whole of Arabia looked up with amazement, and the people also noticed that the caravan was not going with the intention to fight but was proceeding to the House of Allah in a forbidden month in the pilgrims garb carrying sacrificial animals and was absolutely unarmed.

 

The Quraish were confounded at this bold step taken by the Holy Prophet. Dhil-Qa'dah was one of those foibidden months which had been held as sacred for pilgrimage in Arabia for centuries. Nobody had a right to interfere with a caravan which might be coming for hajj or umrah in the pilgrims garb in this month; so much so that even an enemy tribe could not hinder it from passing through its territory according to the recognized law of the land. The Quraish therefore were caught in a dilemma, for if they attacked this caravan from Madinah and stopped it from entering Makkah, this would arouse a clamour of protest in the whole country, and all the Arab tribes would have the misgiving that the Quraish had monopolised the Ka'bah as exclusively their own, and every tribe would be involved in the mistrust that now it depended on the will of the Quraish to allow or not to allow anyone to perform hajj or umrah in the future and that they would stop any tribe with which they were angry from visiting the Ka'bah just as they had stopped the Madinese pilgrims. This they thought would be a grave mistake, which would cause the entire Arabia to revolt against them. But, on the other hand, if they allowed Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) and his large caravan to enter their city safely, they would lose their image of power in Arabia and the people would say that they were afraid of Muhammad. At last, after a great deal of confusion, perplexity and hesitation they were overcome by their false sense of honour and for the sake of their prestige they took the decision that they would at no cost allow the caravan to enter the city of Makkab.

 

The Holy Prophet had despatched a man of the Bani Ka'b as a secret agent so that he may keep him fully informed of the intentions and movements of the Quraish. When the Holy Prophet reached Usfan, he brought the news that the Quraish had reached Dhi Tuwa with full preparations and they had sent Khalid bin Walid with two hundred cavalry men in advance towards Kura'al-Ghamim to intercept him. The Quraish wanted somehow to provoke the Holy Prophet's Companions into fighting so that they may tell the Arabs that those people had actually come to fight and had put on the pilgrims garments for umrah only to deceive others.

 

Immediately on receipt of this information the Holy Prophet changed his route and following a very rugged, rocky track reached Hudaibiyah, which was situated right on the boundary of the sacred Makkan territory. Here, he was visited by Budail bin Warqa the chief of the Bani Khuza'ah, along with some men of his tribe. They asked what he had come for. The Holy Prophet replied that he and his Companions bad come only for pilgrimage to the House of Allah and for going round it in worship and not for war. The men of Khuza'ah went and told this to the Quraish chiefs and counselled them not to interfere with the pilgrims. But the Quraish were obstinate. They sent Hulays bin Alqamah, the chief of the Ahabish, to the Holy Prophet to persuade him to go back. Their object was that when Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) would not listen to Hulays, he would come back disappointed and then the entire power of the Ahabish would be on their side. But when Hulays went and saw that the whole caravan had put on the pilgrims garments, had brought sacrificial camels with festive collars round their necks, and had come for doing reverence to the House of Allah and not to fight, he returiied to Makkah without having any dialogue with the Holy Prophet and told the Quraish chiefs plainly that those people had no other object but to pay a visit to the Ka'bah; if they debarred them from it, the Ahabish would not join them in that, because they had not become their allies to support them even if they violated the sacred customs and traditions.

 

Then the Quraish sent Urwah bin Mas'ud Thaqafi; he had lengthy negotiations with the Holy Prophet in an effort to persuade him to give up his intention to enter Makkah. But the Holy Prophet gave him also the same reply that he had given to the chief of the Khuza'ah, that they had not come to fight but to do honour to the House of Allah and carry out a religious duty. Urwah went back and said to the Quraish: "I have been to the courts of the Caesar and Khosroes, and the Negus also, but by God, never have I seen any people so devoted to a king as are the Companions of Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) to him. If Muhammad makes his ablutions they would not let the water thereof fall on the ground but would rub it on their bodies and clothes. Now you may decide as to what you should do."

 

In the meantime when the messages were coming and the negotiations were going on, the Quraish tried again and again to quietly launch sudden attacks on the Muslim camp in order to provoke the Companions and somehow incite them to war, but every time they did so the Companions' forbearance and patience and the Holy Prophet's wisdom and sagacity frustrated their designs. On one occasion forty or fifty of their men came at night and attacked the Muslim camp with stones and arrows. The Companions arrested all of them and took them before the Holy Prophet, but he let them go. On another occasion 80 men came from the direction of Tan'im right at the time of the Fajr Prayer and made a sudden attack. They were also caught, but the Holy Prophet forgave them, too. Thus, the Quraish went on meeting failure after failure in every one of their designs.

 

At last, the Holy Prophet sent Hadrat Uthman (may Allah be pleased with him) as his own messenger to Makkah with the message that they had not come to fight but only for pilgrimage and had brought their sacrificial camels along, and they would go back after performing the rite of pilgrimage and offering the sacrifice. But the Quraish did not agree and withheld Hadrat Uthman in the city. In the meantime a rumour spread that Hadrat Uthman had been killed; and when he did not return in time the Muslims took the rumour to be true. Now they could show no more forbearance. Entry into Makkah was different for there was no intention to use force. But when the ambassador was put to death, the Muslims had no alternative but to prepare for war. Therefore, the Holy Prophet summoned all his Companions together and took a solemn pledge from them that they would fight to death. In view of the critical occasion it was not an ordinary undertaking. The Muslims numbered only 1400 and had come without any weapons, were encamping at the boundary of Makkah, 250 miles away from their own city, and the enemy could attack them in full strength, and could surround them with its allies from the adjoining tribes as well. In spite of this, none from the caravan except one man failed to give his pledge to fight to death, and there could be no greater proof of their dedication and sincerity than that in the cause of Allah. This pledge is well known in the history of Islam as the pledge of Ridwan.

 

Later it was known that the news about Hadrat Uthman was false. Not only did he return but under Suhail bin 'Amr from the Quraiah also arrived a deputation to negotiate peace with the Holy Prophet. Now, the Quraish no more insisted that they would disallow the Holy Prophet and his Companions to enter Makkah. However, in order to save their face they only insisted that he went back that year but could come the following year to perform the umrah. After lengthy negotiations peace was concluded on the following terms:

1.       War would remain suspended for ten years, and no party would indulge in any hostility, open or secret, against the other.

2.       If any one during that period from among the Quraish went over to Muhammad, without his guardian's permission, he would return him to them, but if a Companion of Muhammad came oven to the Quraish, they would not return him to him.

3.       Every Arab tribe would have the option to join either side as its ally and enter the treaty.

4.       Muhammad and his men would go back that year and could come the following year for umrah and stay in Makkah for three days, provided that they brought only one sheathed sword each, and no other weapon of war. In those three days the Makkans would vacate the city for them (so that there was no chance of a clash), but they would not be allowed to take along any Makkan on return. When the conditions of the treaty were being settled, the whole of the Muslim army was feeling greatly upset. No one understood the expedience because of which the Holy Prophet was accepting the conditions. No one was farsighted enough to foresee the great benefit that was to result from this treaty. The disbelieving Quraish looked at it as their victory, and the Muslims were upset as to why they should be humiliated to accepting those mean conditions. Even a statesman of the calibre of Hadrat Umar says that he had never given way to doubt since the time he had embraced Islam but on this occasion he also could not avoid it. Impatient he went to Hadrat Abu Bakr and said "Is he (the Holy Prophet) not Allah's Messenger, and are we not Mnslims, and are they not polytheists? Then, why should we agree to what is humiliating to our Faith?" He replied "O Umar, he is surely Allah's Messenger, and Allah will never make him the loser." Unsatisfied he went to the Holy Prophet himself and put the same questions to him, and he also gave him the same replies as Hadrat Abu Bakr had given. Afterwards Hadrat Umar continued to offer voluntary prayers and give aims so that Allah may pardon his insolence that he had shown towards the Holy Prophet on that occasion.

Two things in the treaty were highly disturbing for the Muslims first, the second condition, about which they said that it was an expressly unfair condition, for if they had to return a fugitive from Makkah, why should not the Quraish return a fugitive from Madinah? To this the Holy Prophet replied: "What use would be he to us, who fled from us to them? May Allah keep him away from us! And if we return the one who flees to us from them, Allah will create some other way out for him." The other thing that was rankling in their minds was the fourth condition. The Muslims thought that agreeing to it meant that they were going back unsuccessful and this was humiliating. Furthermore, the question that was causing them feel upset was that they had accepted the condition of going back without performing the pilgrimage to the Ka'bah, whereas the Holy Prophet had seen in the vision that they were performing tawaf at Makkah. To this the Holy Prophet replied that in his vision the year had not been specified. According to the treaty conditions, therefore, they would perform the tawaf the following year if it pleased Allah.

Right at the time when the document was being written, Suhail bin 'Amr's own son, Abu Jandal, who had become a Muslim and been imprisoned by the pagans of Makkah somehow escaped to the Holy Prophet's camp. He had fetters on his feet and signs of violence on his body. He implored the Holy Prophet that he help secure his release from imprisonment. The scene only increased the Companions' dejection, and they were moved beyond control. But Suhail bin 'Amr said the conditions of the agreement had been concluded between them although the writing was not yet complete; therefore, the boy should be returned to them. The Holy Prophet admitted his argument and Abu Jandal was returned to his oppressors.

 

When the document was finished, the Holy Prophet spoke to the Companions and told them to slaughter their sacrificial animals at that very place, shave their heads and put off the pilgrim garments, but no one moved from his place. The Holy Prophet repeated the order thrice but the Companions were so overcome by depression and dejection that they did not comply. During his entire period of apostleship on no occasion had it ever happened that he should command his Companions to do a thing and thay should not hasten to comply with it. This caused him a great shock, and he repaired to his tent and expressed his grief before his wife, Hadrat Umm Salamah. She said, "You may quietly go and slaughter your own camel and call the barber and have your head shaved. After that the people would automatically do what you did and would understand that whatever decision had been taken would not be changed." Precisely the same thing happened. The people slaughtered their animals, shaved their heads or cut their hair short and put off the pilgrim garb, but their hearts were still afflicted with grief.

 

Later, when this caravan was returning to Madinah, feeling depressed and dejected at the truce of Hudaibiyab, this Surah came down at Dajnan (or according to some others, at Kura' al-Ghamim), which told the Muslims that the treaty that they were regarding as their defeat, was indeed a great victory. After it had come down, the Holy Prophet summoned the Muslims together and said: "Today such a thing has been sent down to me, which is more valuable to me than the world and what it contains." Then be recited this Surah, especially to Hadrat Umar, for he was the one who was feeling most dejected.

Although the believers were satisfied when they heard this Divine Revelation, not much longer afterwards the advantages of this treaty began to appear one after the other until every one became fully convinced that this peace treaty indeed was a great victory:

1.       In it for the first time the existence of the Islamic State in Arabia was duly recognized. Before this in the eyes of the Arabs the position of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace) and his Companions was no more than of mere rebels against the Quraish and other Arab tribes, and they regarded them as the outlaws. Now the Quraish themselves by concluding this agreement with the Holy Prophet recognized his sovereignty over the territories of the Islamic State and opened the way for the Arab tribes to enter treaties of alliance with either of the political powers they liked.

2.       By admitting the right of pilgrimage to the House of Allah for the Muslims, the Quraish also admitted that Islam was not an anti-religious creed, as they had so far been thinking, but it was one of the admitted religions of Arabia, and like the other Arabs, its followers also had the right to perform the rites of hajj and umrah. This diminished the hatred in the Arabs hearts that had been caused by the propaganda made by the Quraish against Islam.

3.       The signing of a no-war pact for ten years provided full peace to the Muslims, and spreading to every nook and corner of Arabia they preached Islam with such spirit and speed that within two years after Hudaibiyah the number of the people who embraced Islam far exceeded those who bad embraced it during the past 19 years or so. It was all due to this treaty that two years later when in consequence of the Quraish's violating the treaty the Holy Prophet invaded Makkah, he was accompanied by an army 10,000 strong, whereas on the occa- sion of Hudaibiyah only 1,400 men had joined him in the march.

4.       After the suspension of hostilities by the Quraish the Holy Prophet had the opportunity to establish and strengthen Islamic rule in the territories under him and to turn the Islamic society into a full fledged civilization and way of life by the enforcement of Islamic law. This is that great blessing about which Allah says in verse 3 of Surah Al-Ma'idah: "Today I have perfected your Religion for you and completed My blessing on you and approved Islam as the Way of Life for you." (for explanation, see Introduction to Surah Al-Ma'idah and its E. N. 15).

5.       Another gain that accrued from the truce with the Quraish was that being assured of peace from the south the Muslims overpowered all the opponent forces in the north and central Arabia easily. Just three months after Hudaibiyah, Khaiber, the major stronghold of the Jews, was conquered and after it the Jewish settlements of Fadak, Wad-il Qura, Taima and Tabuk also fell to Islam one after the other. Then all other tribes of central Arabia, which were bound in alliance with the Jews and Quraish, came under the sway of Islam. Thus, within two years after Hudaibiyah the balance of power in Arabia was so changed that the strength of the Quraish and pagan gave way and the domination of Islam became certain.

These were the blessings that the Muslims gained from the peace treaty which they were looking upon as their defeat and the Quraish as their victory. However, what had troubled the Muslims most in this treaty, was the condition about the fugitives from Makkah and Madinah, that the former would be returned and the latter would not be returned. But not much long after- wards this condition also proved to be disadvantageous for the Quraish, and experience revealed what far reaching consequences of it had the Holy Prophet foreseen and then accepted it. A few days after the treaty a Muslim of Makkah, Abu

Basir, escaped from the Quraish and reached Madinah. The Quraish demanded him back and the Holy Prophet returned him to their men who had been sent from Makkah to arrest him. But while on the way to Makkah he again fled and went and sat on the road by the Red Sea shore, which the trade caravans of the Quraish took to Syria. After that every Muslim who succeeded in escaping from the Quraish would go and join Abu Basir instead of going to Madinah, until 70 men gathered there. They would attack any Quraish caravan that passed the way and cut it into pieces at last, the Quraish themselves begged the Holy Prophet to call those men to Madinah, and the condition relating to the return of the fugitives of itself became null and void. The Surah should be read with this historical background in view in order to fully understand it.

Maududi

 

IMPORTANT: Please note that the Digest is based upon these outstanding translations and they have been reproduced here for the benefit of serious readers of the Quríaan; the copyrights of these works are held by their respective authors/publishers from whom they can be purchased by anyone interested in acquiring them and we ardently hope that no offence will be taken by their inclusion.

 

THE HOLY QUR'AAN


SURAH 48
AL-FATH (VICTORY)

  

Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.


Section 1

48 : 1

1. Inna fatahna laka fathan mubeenan

Verily We have given you (O Mohammed) a decisive victory -
 

(The victory mentioned refers to the Treaty of Hudaybiyah which the Prophet entered into with the tribe of Quraish while returning to Madina from Mecca. The events which culminated in this treaty were that, in the 6th year of Hijrah, as he set out for Mecca accompanied by 1400 of his adherents in order to perform pilgrimage, the Quraish mistook his intentions for battle rather than a visit and commenced preparations to take them on by enlisting the support of every tribe in the vicinity who were opposed to him, opposed to the Muslims and to the religion which he preached.

When news arrived about such volatile situation in Mecca, he made a U turn because the men had not come prepared for any armed conflicts and ordered them to return to Madina, putting off the idea of the pilgrimage until the following year.

Upon reaching a place called Hudaybiyah, - a safe distance from Mecca but not too far away from Madina, - he made camp and dispatched Uthman ibn Affan, a loyal supporter and also well connected with Quraish, to apprise them that the Muslims were not there to fight but only to visit the Ka'ba.

But the Meccans, determined to wipe out the Muslims, detained him and soon rumours spread that he was slain by the Quraish.

Thus cornered and facing the clear threat of a war which he had not contemplated nor had prepared for, he sat under a tree which is referred to in verse 18, and took a solemn pledge from each and everyone of his supporters that, in the event of an attack from the enemy, they would fight to the death to defend Islam.

But soon it became known that the news about the slaying of Uthman was a false rumour and that a proposal from the enemy to draw a truce was on the cards, after all.

This controversial truce, which came to be known as the treaty of Hudaybiyah, required that the Muslims put off the idea of pilgrimage until the following year but conceded that Quraish and their allies would evacuate Mecca for the duration of their pilgrimage so that there were no face to face confrontations between the two opposing factions. It was also agreed that the disbelievers of Mecca who were held in captivity by Muslims in Madina would be repatriated to Mecca, but the Muslims who were held in captivity by the Quraish would not be allowed to return to Madina. And finally, it was also agreed that there were to be a cessation of hostilities between them for a period of ten years.

Although the terms of the treaty were seemingly tilted in favour of the enemy, the period of two years which followed its signing turned out to be most propitious for the Muslims because, with the threat of warfare removed, the ordinary people on both sides were able to interact with each other, put away their differences, revive broken ties, talk freely and exchange views without the fear of ramifications. Inarguably this period of peace turned a page in the troubled history of Islam and enabled the Muslims to flourish instead of keep on fighting for their very existence all the while until the Quraish violated its terms and drew their swords against them all over again).
 

48 : 2

2. Liyaghfira laka Allahu ma taqaddama min thanbika wama taakhkhara wayutimma niAAmatahu AAalayka wayahdiyaka siratan mustaqeeman

So that Allah may forgive the sins of those who preceded you and of those who will come after you and may perfect His favour to you and may guide you on to the righteous path -
 

(Allah did perfect His favour to His cherished Prophet by giving him so many victories over his opponents, elevating him from such humble beginnings to a status of prominence unequalled by any other human being, - past or present; his proximity a blessing to those who loved him dearly; his advice and guidance welcomed by friends and foes alike; his orders never countermanded nor disregarded by those who respected and valued him; his name mentioned next to the name of Allah on so many occasions!)
 

48 : 3

3. Wayansuraka Allahu nasran AAazeezan

And so that Allah may give you His utmost succour!
 

(This Ďutmost succourí was reflected in the conquest of Mecca and Taif, two countries in Arabia who had become the sworn enemies of the Prophet and of Islam, not to forget many more victories he scored over his other opponents)
 

48 : 4

4. Huwa allathee anzala alssakeenata fee quloobi almu/mineena liyazdadoo eemanan maAAa eemanihim walillahi junoodu alssamawati waal-ardi wakana Allahu AAaleeman hakeeman

He it is who has infused reassurance in the hearts of the believers so that their faith may increase by the addition of faith! And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth, - and Allah is the Erudite and the Wise! -

48 : 5

5. Liyudkhila almu/mineena waalmu/minati jannatin tajree min tahtiha al-anharu khalideena feeha wayukaffira AAanhum sayyi-atihim wakana thalika AAinda Allahi fawzan AAatheeman

So that He may enter believing men and believing women into Gardens underneath which rivers flow to dwell therein forever and may exculpate them of their evil deeds! That, in the sight of Allah, is the greatest victory of all!

48 : 6

6. WayuAAaththiba almunafiqeena waalmunafiqati waalmushrikeena waalmushrikati alththanneena biAllahi thanna alssaw-i AAalayhim da-iratu alssaw-i waghadiba Allahu AAalayhim walaAAanahum waaAAadda lahum jahannama wasaat maseeran

And may inflict the toll of punishment on hypocritical men and hypocritical women and on idolatrous men and idolatrous women who vituperate Allah's credibility. There await them the adversities of fortune and upon them rests the wrath of Allah and on them is His curse and He has prepared for them Hell - and what a pitiful destination it is!

48 : 7

7. Walillahi junoodu alssamawati waal-ardi wakana Allahu AAazeezan hakeeman

And to Allah belong the armies of the heavens and the earth! Allah is Meritorious and Sagacious!

48 : 8

8. Inna arsalnaka shahidan wamubashshiran wanatheeran

Verily We have sent you (O Mohammed) as a witness and a bearer of good tidings and as a warner -

48 : 9

9. Litu/minoo biAllahi warasoolihi watuAAazziroohu watuwaqqiroohu watusabbihoohu bukratan waaseelan

So that you (mankind!) may believe in Allah and His messenger and may assist and honour Him and may glorify Him at dawn and at dusk!

48 : 10

10. Inna allatheena yubayiAAoonaka innama yubayiAAoona Allaha yadu Allahi fawqa aydeehim faman nakatha fa-innama yankuthu AAala nafsihi waman awfa bima AAahada AAalayhu Allaha fasayu/teehi ajran AAatheeman

Verily those who affirm their fealty to you (O Mohammed) affirm fealty to Allah, for the hand of Allah is upon their hands! So whoever withdraws his fealty to you does so to the detriment of his own soul and whoever honours the covenant he has made with Allah, on him will He bestow a great reward! (R)

(The fealty, or oath of allegiance refers to the solemn pledge which the Prophet took from his men in Hudaybiyah after rumours spread that his envoy Uthman was put to death by the Quraish to the effect that his murder would be avenged by the Muslims even if they fell to the sword of the enemy while fighting)


OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

1. Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad SAW) a manifest victory.

2. That All‚h may forgive you your sins of the past and the future[], and complete His Favour on you, and guide you on the Straight Path;

3. And that All‚h may help you with strong help.

4. He it is Who sent down As-Sakinah (calmness and tranquillity) into the hearts of the believers, that they may grow more in Faith along with their (present) Faith. And to All‚h belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and All‚h is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.

5. That He may admit the believing men and the believing women to Gardens under which rivers flow (i.e. Paradise), to abide therein forever, and to expiate from them their sins, and that is with All‚h, a supreme success,

6. And that He may punish the Mun‚fiqŻn (hypocrites), men and women, and also the MushrikŻn[] men and women, who think evil thoughts about All‚h, for them is a disgraceful torment, and the Anger of All‚h is upon them, and He has cursed them and prepared Hell for them, and worst indeed is that destination.

7. And to All‚h belong the hosts of the heavens and the earth. And All‚h is Ever All-Knower, All-Wise.

8. Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad SAW) as a witness, as a bearer of glad tidings, and as a warner[].

9. In order that you (O mankind) may believe in All‚h and His Messenger (SAW), and that you assist and honour him (SAW), and (that you) glorify (All‚h's) praises morning and afternoon.

10. Verily, those who give Bai'‚ (pledge) to you (O Muhammad SAW) they are giving Bai'‚ (pledge) to All‚h. The Hand of All‚h is over their hands. Then whosoever breaks his pledge, breaks only to his own harm, and whosoever fulfills what he has covenanted with All‚h, He will bestow on him a great reward.


048.001
YUSUFALI: Verily We have granted thee a manifest Victory:
PICKTHAL: Lo! We have given thee (O Muhammad) a signal victory,
SHAKIR: Surely We have given to you a clear victory

048.002
YUSUFALI: That Allah may forgive thee thy faults of the past and those to follow; fulfil His favour to thee; and guide thee on the Straight Way;
PICKTHAL: That Allah may forgive thee of thy sin that which is past and that which is to come, and may perfect His favour unto thee, and may guide thee on a right path,
SHAKIR: That Allah may forgive your community their past faults and those to follow and complete His favor to you and keep you on a right way,

048.003
YUSUFALI: And that Allah may help thee with powerful help.
PICKTHAL: And that Allah may help thee with strong help -
SHAKIR: And that Allah might help you with a mighty help.

048.004
YUSUFALI: It is He Who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the Believers, that they may add faith to their faith;- for to Allah belong the Forces of the heavens and the earth; and Allah is Full of Knowledge and Wisdom;-
PICKTHAL: He it is Who sent down peace of reassurance into the hearts of the believers that they might add faith unto their faith. Allah's are the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is ever Knower, Wise -
SHAKIR: He it is Who sent down tranquillity into the hearts of the believers that they might have more of faith added to their faith-- and Allah's are the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is Knowing, Wise--

048.005
YUSUFALI: That He may admit the men and women who believe, to Gardens beneath which rivers flow, to dwell therein for aye, and remove their ills from them;- and that is, in the sight of Allah, the highest achievement (for man),-
PICKTHAL: That He may bring the believing men and the believing women into Gardens underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide, and may remit from them their evil deeds - That, in the sight of Allah, is the supreme triumph -
SHAKIR: That He may cause the believing men and the believing women to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow to abide therein and remove from them their evil; and that is a grand achievement with Allah

048.006
YUSUFALI: And that He may punish the Hypocrites, men and women, and the Polytheists men and women, who imagine an evil opinion of Allah. On them is a round of Evil: the Wrath of Allah is on them: He has cursed them and got Hell ready for them: and evil is it for a destination.
PICKTHAL: And may punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women, and the idolatrous men and the idolatrous women, who think an evil thought concerning Allah. For them is the evil turn of fortune, and Allah is wroth against them and hath cursed them, and hath made ready for them hell, a hapless journey's end.
SHAKIR: And (that) He may punish the hypocritical men and the hypocritical women, and the polytheistic men and the polytheistic women, the entertainers of evil thoughts about Allah. On them is the evil turn, and Allah is wroth with them and has cursed them and prepared hell for them, and evil is the resort.

048.007
YUSUFALI: For to Allah belong the Forces of the heavens and the earth; and Allah is Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom.
PICKTHAL: Allah's are the hosts of the heavens and the earth, and Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: And Allah's are the hosts of the heavens and the earth; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.

048.008
YUSUFALI: We have truly sent thee as a witness, as a bringer of Glad Tidings, and as a Warner:
PICKTHAL: Lo! We have sent thee (O Muhammad) as a witness and a bearer of good tidings and a warner,
SHAKIR: Surely We have sent you as a witness and as a bearer of good news and as a warner,

048.009
YUSUFALI: In order that ye (O men) may believe in Allah and His Messenger, that ye may assist and honour Him, and celebrate His praise morning and evening.
PICKTHAL: That ye (mankind) may believe in Allah and His messenger, and may honour Him, and may revere Him, and may glorify Him at early dawn and at the close of day.
SHAKIR: That you may believe in Allah and His Messenger and may aid him and revere him; and (that) you may declare His glory, morning and evening.

048.010
YUSUFALI: Verily those who plight their fealty to thee do no less than plight their fealty to Allah: the Hand of Allah is over their hands: then any one who violates his oath, does so to the harm of his own soul, and any one who fulfils what he has covenanted with Allah,- Allah will soon grant him a great Reward.
PICKTHAL: Lo! those who swear allegiance unto thee (Muhammad), swear allegiance only unto Allah. The Hand of Allah is above their hands. So whosoever breaketh his oath, breaketh it only to his soul's hurt; while whosoever keepeth his covenant with Allah, on him will He bestow immense reward.
SHAKIR: Surely those who swear allegiance to you do but swear allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands. Therefore whoever breaks (his faith), he breaks it only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward.  

 

Section 2.
  

48 : 11

11. Sayaqoolu laka almukhallafoona mina al-aAArabi shaghalatna amwaluna waahloona faistaghfir lana yaqooloona bi-alsinatihim ma laysa fee quloobihim qul faman yamliku lakum mina Allahi shay-an in arada bikum darran aw arada bikum nafAAan bal kana Allahu bima taAAmaloona khabeeran

The nomads who stayed behind will say to you : 'Our preoccupation with protecting our families and possessions prevented us from coming with you, so seek forgiveness for us!' They say things with their mouths that are not there in their hearts. Say to them : 'Who can intercede for you against Allah if He intends to hurt or mortify you or to reward you? Nay, but Allah is best aware of everything which you do!'

48 : 12

12. Bal thanantum an lan yanqaliba alrrasoolu waalmu/minoona ila ahleehim abadan wazuyyina thalika fee quloobikum wathanantum thanna alssaw-i wakuntum qawman booran

Nay, you thought the messenger and the believers would never return to their folk, and deep inside your hearts, it seemed like a good thing to you. You harboured evil expectations about them and you deserve to be punished for it.

48 : 13

13. Waman lam yu/min biAllahi warasoolihi fa-inna aAAtadna lilkafireena saAAeeran

And as for him who believes not in Allah and the messenger, We have kept ready for all such disbelievers a fierce Fire!

48 : 14

14. Walillahi mulku alssamawati waal-ardi yaghfiru liman yashao wayuAAaththibu man yashao wakana Allahu ghafooran raheeman

To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heavens and the earth! He forgives whom He will and He punishes whom He will. And Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful!

48 : 15

15. Sayaqoolu almukhallafoona itha intalaqtum ila maghanima lita/khuthooha tharoona nattabiAAkum yureedoona an yubaddiloo kalama Allahi qul lan tattabiAAoona kathalikum qala Allahu min qablu fasayaqooloona bal tahsudoonana bal kanoo la yafqahoona illa qaleelan

Those who stayed behind will say when you set out to capture the spoils : 'Let us go with you!' Their aim is only to tamper with the word of Allah. Tell them clearly (O Mohammed) : 'You shall not come with us! Thus has Allah decreed. Then they will say : 'You begrudge us our share!' Nay, but they understand not - except a little!
 

(This refers to the Campaign against Khyber which the Muslims captured after returning from Hudaybiyah and also  seized a great deal of booty from the fallen enemy to which the nomads also laid their claim. But since they had not participated in the battle, it was made clear to them that they were not entitled to a share).
 

48 : 16

16. Qul lilmukhallafeena mina al-aAArabi satudAAawna ila qawmin olee ba/sin shadeedin tuqatiloonahum aw yuslimoona fa-in tuteeAAoo yu/tikumu Allahu ajran hasanan wa-in tatawallaw kama tawallaytum min qablu yuAAaththibkum AAathaban aleeman

Say to the nomads who stayed behind : 'You shall be called upon to fight an enemy of formidable strength and fight them until they surrender. If you obey, Allah will give you a generous reward; but if you shy away as you did shy away once before, He will deal out to you a harsh punishment.'
 

(The enemy of formidable strength mentioned in this verse refers to future campaigns against the Persians and the Romans and to many other fierce Arab tribes who reverted to apostasy after the death of the Prophet).

* * *

Context of Revelation : When the above verse was revealed, Muslims who were either partially or wholly disabled became concerned about their own participation in the war and sought clarification from the Prophet. This next verse was then revealed to allay their fears.

48 : 17

17. Laysa AAala al-aAAma harajun wala AAala al-aAAraji harajun wala AAala almareedi harajun waman yutiAAi Allaha warasoolahu yudkhilhu jannatin tajree min tahtiha al-anharu waman yatawalla yuAAaththibhu AAathaban aleeman

There is no blame on the blind, nor is there a blame on the lame, nor is there a blame on the sick (for not participating in war). Whoever obey Allah and His messenger, He will enter them into Gardens underneath which rivers flow; and whoever turn their faces away, He will inflict upon them a painful retribution. (R)


OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

11. Those of the bedouins who lagged behind will say to you: "Our possessions and our families occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us." They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: "Who then has any power at all (to intervene) on your behalf with All‚h, if He intends you hurt or intends you benefit? Nay, but All‚h is Ever All-Aware of what you do.

12. "Nay, but you thought that the Messenger (SAW) and the believers would never return to their families; and that was made fair-seeming in their hearts, and you did think an evil thought and you became a useless people going for destruction."

13. And whosoever does not believe in All‚h and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), then verily, We have prepared for the disbelievers a blazing Fire[] .

14. And to All‚h belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth, He forgives whom He wills, and punishes whom He wills. And All‚h is Ever Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

15. Those who lagged behind will say, when you set forth to take the spoils, "Allow us to follow you," They want to change All‚h's Words. Say: "You shall not follow us; thus All‚h has said beforehand." Then they will say: "Nay, you envy us." Nay, but they understand not except a little.

16. Say (O Muhammad SAW) to the bedouins who lagged behind: "You shall be called to fight against a people given to great warfare, then you shall fight them, or they shall surrender. Then if you obey, All‚h will give you a fair reward, but if you turn away as you did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful torment."

17. No blame or sin is there upon the blind, nor is there blame or sin upon the lame, nor is there blame or sin upon the sick (that they go not forth to war). And whosoever obeys All‚h and His Messenger (Muhammad SAW), He will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow (Paradise); and whosoever turns back, He will punish him with a painful torment.

 048.011
YUSUFALI: The desert Arabs who lagged behind will say to thee: "We were engaged in (looking after) our flocks and herds, and our families: do thou then ask forgiveness for us." They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: "Who then has any power at all (to intervene) on your behalf with Allah, if His Will is to give you some loss or to give you some profit? But Allah is well acquainted with all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: Those of the wandering Arabs who were left behind will tell thee: Our possessions and our households occupied us, so ask forgiveness for us! They speak with their tongues that which is not in their hearts. Say: Who can avail you aught against Allah, if He intend you hurt or intend you profit? Nay, but Allah is ever Aware of what ye do.
SHAKIR: Those of the dwellers of the desert who were left behind will say to you: Our property and our families kept us busy, so ask forgiveness for us. They say with their tongues what is not in their hearts. Say: Then who can control anything for you from Allah if He intends to do you harm or if He intends to do you good; nay, Allah is Aware of what you do:

048.012
YUSUFALI: "Nay, ye thought that the Messenger and the Believers would never return to their families; this seemed pleasing in your hearts, and ye conceived an evil thought, for ye are a people lost (in wickedness)."
PICKTHAL: Nay, but ye deemed that the messenger and the believers would never return to their own folk, and that was made fairseeming in your hearts, and ye did think an evil thought, and ye were worthless folk.
SHAKIR: Nay! you rather thought that the Messenger and the believers would not return to their families ever, and that was made fairseeming to your hearts and you thought an evil thought and you were a people doomed to perish.

048.013
YUSUFALI: And if any believe not in Allah and His Messenger, We have prepared, for those who reject Allah, a Blazing Fire!
PICKTHAL: And so for him who believeth not in Allah and His messenger - Lo! We have prepared a flame for disbelievers.
SHAKIR: And whoever does not believe in Allah and His Messenger, then surely We have prepared burning fire for the unbelievers.

048.014
YUSUFALI: To Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth: He forgives whom He wills, and He punishes whom He wills: but Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: And Allah's is the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth. He forgiveth whom He will, and punisheth whom He will. And Allah is ever Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: And Allah's is the kingdom. of the heavens and the earth; He forgives whom He pleases and punishes whom He pleases, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

048.015
YUSUFALI: Those who lagged behind (will say), when ye (are free to) march and take booty (in war): "Permit us to follow you." They wish to change Allah's decree: Say: "Not thus will ye follow us: Allah has already declared (this) beforehand": then they will say, "But ye are jealous of us." Nay, but little do they understand (such things).
PICKTHAL: Those who were left behind will say, when ye set forth to capture booty: Let us go with you. They fain would change the verdict of Allah. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Ye shall not go with us. Thus hath Allah said beforehand. Then they will say: Ye are envious of us. Nay, but they understand not, save a little.
SHAKIR: Those who are left behind will say when you set forth for the gaining of acquisitions: Allow us (that) we may follow you. They desire to change the world of Allah. Say: By no means shall you follow us; thus did Allah say before. But they will say: Nay! you are jealous of us. Nay! they do not understand but a little.

048.016
YUSUFALI: Say to the desert Arabs who lagged behind: "Ye shall be summoned (to fight) against a people given to vehement war: then shall ye fight, or they shall submit. Then if ye show obedience, Allah will grant you a goodly reward, but if ye turn back as ye did before, He will punish you with a grievous Penalty."
PICKTHAL: Say unto those of the wandering Arabs who were left behind: Ye will be called against a folk of mighty prowess, to fight them until they surrender; and if ye obey, Allah will give you a fair reward; but if ye turn away as ye did turn away before, He will punish you with a painful doom.
SHAKIR: Say to those of the dwellers of the desert who were left behind: You shall soon be invited (to fight) against a people possessing mighty prowess; you will fight against them until they submit; then if you obey, Allah will grant you a good reward; and if you turn back as you turned back before, He will punish you with a painful punishment.

048.017
YUSUFALI: No blame is there on the blind, nor is there blame on the lame, nor on one ill (if he joins not the war): But he that obeys Allah and his Messenger,- (Allah) will admit him to Gardens beneath which rivers flow; and he who turns back, (Allah) will punish him with a grievous Penalty.
PICKTHAL: There is no blame for the blind, nor is there blame for the lame, nor is there blame for the sick (that they go not forth to war). And whoso obeyeth Allah and His messenger, He will make him enter Gardens underneath which rivers flow; and whoso turneth back, him will He punish with a painful doom.
SHAKIR: There is no harm in the blind, nor is there any harm in the lame, nor is there any harm in the sick (if they do not go forth); and whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger, He will cause him to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, and whoever turns back, He will punish him with a painful punishment.

 

Section 3

48 : 18

18. Laqad radiya Allahu AAani almu/mineena ith yubayiAAoonaka tahta alshshajarati faAAalima ma fee quloobihim faanzala alsakeenata AAalayhim waathabahum fathan qareeban

Allah was well pleased with the believers when they affirmed their loyalty to you whilst you sat under the tree and He knew what was in their hearts and He instilled a sense of reassurance in them and gave them the largess of an impending victory in the near future -
 

(The oath of allegiance which the Prophet took from his men sitting under the tree is the one taken after news about Uthmaanís death arrived, which later on came to be known as the allegiance of Ridvan.
 

48 : 19

19. Wamaghanima katheeratan ya/khuthoonaha wakana Allahu AAazeezan hakeeman

And a good deal of Spoils which they shall take! Allah is Meritorious and Sagacious!

48 : 20

20. WaAAadakumu Allahu maghanima katheeratan ta/khuthoonaha faAAajjala lakum hathihi wakaffa aydiya alnnasi AAankum walitakoona ayatan lilmu/mineena wayahdiyakum siratan mustaqeeman

Allah has given you a promise of more Spoils which you shall soon capture, and this He has given you in advance and restrained the hands of other men from harming you so that it may be a sign for the believers and so that He may guide you on to the righteous path -

48 : 21

21. Waokhra lam taqdiroo AAalayha qad ahata Allahu biha wakana Allahu AAala kulli shay-in qadeeran

And one more victory which is not within your means but which is within Allah's means! And Allah is able to do all things!
 

(Which, according to many commentators, is a reference to the Conquest of Mecca by the Muslims, already on the horizon of which they were not yet aware but He was. There are also some commentators who expand this forecast to include other victories which the Muslims were destined to score in the near as well as the distant future).
 

48 : 22

22. Walaw qatalakumu allatheena kafaroo lawallawoo al-adbara thumma la yajidoona waliyyan wala naseeran

And if those who disbelieve rise in battle against you, they will surely turn round and flee. And thereafter they will find neither a stalwart nor a cohort!

48 : 23

23. Sunnata Allahi allatee qad khalat min qablu walan tajida lisunnati Allahi tabdeelan

Such is the way of Allah that has been coming along since times immemorial and you will find that the way of Allah never changes!

48 : 24

24. Wahuwa allathee kaffa aydiyahum AAankum waaydiyakum AAanhum bibatni makkata min baAAdi an athfarakum AAalayhim wakana Allahu bima taAAmaloona baseeran

And He it is who has restrained their hands from hurting you and your hands from hurting them in the valley of Mecca despite giving you victory over them. Allah is perusing all that you do!
 

(There are a host of inferences drawn from this verse by various commentators. Some say that the reference is to the Conquest of Mecca; some opine that the valley of Mecca is a reference to Hudaybiyah which is situated in the valley of Mecca while there are others who pin it down to a specific incident which occurred when the Muslims captured a band of eighty soldiers from Quraish who attempted a covert night raid on them. But the incursion was successfully foiled and the intruders were brought before the Prophet who chose to forgive them rather than punish, most probably not to exacerbate the precarious circumstances which prevailed at the time).
 

48 : 25

25. Humu allatheena kafaroo wasaddookum AAani almasjidi alharami waalhadya maAAkoofan an yablugha mahillahu walawla rijalun mu/minoona wanisaon mu/minatun lam taAAlamoohum an tataoohum fatuseebakum minhum maAAarratun bighayri AAilmin liyudkhila Allahu fee rahmatihi man yashao law tazayyaloo laAAaththabna allatheena kafaroo minhum AAathaban aleeman

These are they who disbelieved and barred you from entering the Hallowed Mosque and delayed your oblations from reaching their destination. Had it not been the case that there were a few believing men and believing women in their midst about whom you were unaware, We would have let you ravage the enemy in course of which you would have inadvertently trampled them and incurred an unintentional guilt. But it was not so because Allah brings into His mercy whom He will! If the believers and the disbelievers were clearly segregated, We would surely have permitted bloodshed and inflicted a painful punishment on the disbelievers.
 

(This is yet another reason why the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, though thought by some at the time to be adverse to the Muslims, was in fact propitious to them because there were so many people in Mecca who had secretly embraced Islam but living with idolaters pretending to be with them. If there was a fight between the Quraish and the Muslims, these innocent people would have also been caught up in the blood-bath and paid an unjust price for their faith. The signing of the Treaty which averted the battle was a blessing for all of them)
 

48 : 26

26. Ith jaAAala allatheena kafaroo fee quloobihimu alhamiyyata hamiyyata aljahiliyyati faanzala Allahu sakeenatahu AAala rasoolihi waAAala almu/mineena waalzamahum kalimata alttaqwa wakanoo ahaqqa biha waahlaha wakana Allahu bikulli shay-in AAaleeman

Since those who disbelieve retained in their hearts the same intolerance towards the believers as was there since the Age of Ignorance, Allah instilled in His messenger and in the believers a sense of reassurance and imposed upon them self-restraint, for they were worthy of it and were entitled to it. And Allah is aware of all things! (R)


OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

18. Indeed, All‚h was pleased with the believers when they gave their Bai'‚ (pledge) to you (O Muhammad SAW) under the tree, He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down As-Sakinah (calmness and tranquillity) upon them, and He rewarded them with a near victory,

19. And abundant spoils that they will capture. And All‚h is Ever All-Mighty, All-Wise.

20. All‚h has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this, and He has restrained the hands of men from you, that it may be a sign for the believers, and that He may guide you to a Straight Path.

21. And other (victories and much booty there are, He promises you) which are not yet within your power, indeed All‚h compasses them, And All‚h is Ever Able to do all things.

22. And if those who disbelieve fight against you, they certainly would have turned their backs, then they would have found neither a WalÓ (protector) nor a helper.

23. That has been the Way of All‚h already with those who passed away before. And you will not find any change in the Way of All‚h.

24. And He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makkah, after He had made you victors over them. And All‚h is Ever the All-Seer of what you do.

25. They are the ones who disbelieved (in the Oneness of All‚h Isl‚mic Monotheism), and hindered you from Al≠Masjid≠al≠Har‚m (the sacred mosque of Makkah) and the sacrificial animals, detained from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom you did not know, that you may kill them, and on whose account a sin would have been committed by you without (your) knowledge, that All‚h might bring into His Mercy whom He will, if they (the believers and the disbelievers) should have been apart, We verily had punished those of them who disbelieved, with painful torment.

26. When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness the pride and haughtiness of the time of ignorance, then All‚h sent down His Sakinah (calmness and tranquillity) upon His Messenger ( SAW) and upon the believers, and made them stick to the word of piety (i.e. none has the right to be worshipped but All‚h), and they were well entitled to it and worthy of it. And All‚h is the All-Knower of everything.


048.018
YUSUFALI: Allah's Good Pleasure was on the Believers when they swore Fealty to thee under the Tree: He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down Tranquillity to them; and He rewarded them with a speedy Victory;
PICKTHAL: Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance unto thee beneath the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, and He sent down peace of reassurance on them, and hath rewarded them with a near victory;
SHAKIR: Certainly Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you under the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity on them and rewarded them with a near victory,

048.019
YUSUFALI: And many gains will they acquire (besides): and Allah is Exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom.
PICKTHAL: And much booty that they will capture. Allah is ever Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: And many acquisitions which they will take; and Allah is Mighty, Wise.

048.020
YUSUFALI: Allah has promised you many gains that ye shall acquire, and He has given you these beforehand; and He has restrained the hands of men from you; that it may be a Sign for the Believers, and that He may guide you to a Straight Path;
PICKTHAL: Allah promiseth you much booty that ye will capture, and hath given you this in advance, and hath withheld men's hands from you, that it may be a token for the believers, and that He may guide you on a right path.
SHAKIR: Allah promised you many acquisitions which you will take, then He hastened on this one for you and held back the hands of men from you, and that it may be a sign for the believers and that He may guide you on a right path.

048.021
YUSUFALI: And other gains (there are), which are not within your power, but which Allah has compassed: and Allah has power over all things.
PICKTHAL: And other (gain), which ye have not been able to achieve, Allah will compass it, Allah is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: And others which you have not yet been able to achieve Allah has surely encompassed them, and Allah has power over all things.

048.022
YUSUFALI: If the Unbelievers should fight you, they would certainly turn their backs; then would they find neither protector nor helper.
PICKTHAL: And if those who disbelieve join battle with you they will take to flight, and afterward they will find no protecting friend nor helper.
SHAKIR: And if those who disbelieve fight with you, they would certainly turn (their) backs, then they would not find any protector or a helper.

048.023
YUSUFALI: (Such has been) the practice (approved) of Allah already in the past: no change wilt thou find in the practice (approved) of Allah.
PICKTHAL: It is the law of Allah which hath taken course aforetime. Thou wilt not find for the law of Allah aught of power to change.
SHAKIR: Such has been the course of Allah that has indeed run before, and you shall not find a change in Allah's course.

048.024
YUSUFALI: And it is He Who has restrained their hands from you and your hands from them in the midst of Makka, after that He gave you the victory over them. And Allah sees well all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: And He it is Who hath withheld men's hands from you, and hath withheld your hands from them, in the valley of Mecca, after He had made you victors over them. Allah is Seer of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And He it is Who held back their hands from you and your hands from them in the valley of Mecca after He had given you victory over them; and Allah is Seeing what you do.

048.025
YUSUFALI: They are the ones who denied Revelation and hindered you from the Sacred Mosque and the sacrificial animals, detained from reaching their place of sacrifice. Had there not been believing men and believing women whom ye did not know that ye were trampling down and on whose account a crime would have accrued to you without (your) knowledge, (Allah would have allowed you to force your way, but He held back your hands) that He may admit to His Mercy whom He will. If they had been apart, We should certainly have punished the Unbelievers among them with a grievous Punishment.
PICKTHAL: These it was who disbelieved and debarred you from the Inviolable Place of Worship, and debarred the offering from reaching its goal. And if it had not been for believing men and believing women, whom ye know not - lest ye should tread them under foot and thus incur guilt for them unknowingly; that Allah might bring into His mercy whom He will - If (the believers and the disbelievers) had been clearly separated We verily had punished those of them who disbelieved with painful punishment.
SHAKIR: It is they who disbelieved and turned you away from the Sacred Mosque and (turned off) the offering withheld from arriving at its destined place; and were it not for the believing men and the believing women, whom, not having known, you might have trodden down, and thus something hateful might have afflicted you on their account without knowledge-- so that Allah may cause to enter into His mercy whomsoever He pleases; had they been widely separated one from another, We would surely have punished those who disbelieved from among them with a painful punishment.

048.026
YUSUFALI: While the Unbelievers got up in their hearts heat and cant - the heat and cant of ignorance,- Allah sent down His Tranquillity to his Messenger and to the Believers, and made them stick close to the command of self-restraint; and well were they entitled to it and worthy of it. And Allah has full knowledge of all things.
PICKTHAL: When those who disbelieve had set up in their hearts zealotry, the zealotry of the Age of Ignorance, then Allah sent down His peace of reassurance upon His messenger and upon the believers and imposed on them the word of self-restraint, for they were worthy of it and meet for it. And Allah is Aware of all things.
SHAKIR: When those who disbelieved harbored in their hearts (feelings of) disdain, the disdain of (the days of) ignorance, but Allah sent down His tranquillity on His Messenger and on the believers, and made them keep the word of guarding (against evil), and they were entitled to it and worthy of it; and Allah is Cognizant of all things.
 

 

Section 4.
  

48 : 27

27. Laqad sadaqa Allahu rasoolahu alrru/ya bialhaqqi latadkhulunna almasjida alharama in shaa Allahu amineena muhalliqeena ruoosakum wamuqassireena la takhafoona faAAalima ma lam taAAlamoo fajaAAala min dooni thalika fathan qareeban

Allah has fulfilled the vision of His messenger in truth : ĎVerily you shall enter the Hallowed Mosque, by the will of Allah, with safety, your hair shaven or cut without any fear!í He knows that which you do not know and has given you an early victory ahead of the ultimate victory!
 

(The vision is a reference to a dream which the Prophet had in Madina before setting out for Mecca in which he saw himself entering the Ka'ba along with all his adherents, with freedom and in peace. When he mentioned it to his associates, they were all pleased and thought that was how things would transpire. However, after the tables were turned on him in Hudaybiyah and they returned to Madina without performing their pilgrimage on account of the Treaty, the hypocrites got the chance to mock the Prophet and the rest of the Muslims and seized the opportunity mercilessly.

This verse was aimed at them, declaring that the Prophet's dream would come true, next year if not the same year, which was precisely what happened; the following year Mecca fell to the Muslims; the Quraish and their allies were routed and the Prophet entered the Ka'ba not just as a pilgrim, but with the key to its door held in his fist!

The early victory mentioned here refers to the highly profitable Khyber Campaign in which not only did the Muslims triumph but also seized a good deal of booty, and the ultimate victory to the Conquest of Mecca in the subsequent year).
 

48 : 28

28. Huwa allathee arsala rasoolahu bialhuda wadeeni alhaqqi liyuthhirahu AAala alddeeni kullihi wakafa biAllahi shaheedan

He it is who has sent His messenger to you with Guidance and the religion of truth so that He may cause it to prevail over all the other religions. And Allah suffices as a witness!
 

(Yet another incontrovertible declaration that Al-Islam is to be the religion which would supersede all other religions, which include, apart from idolatry, Judaism as well as Christianity)
 

48 : 29

 

29. Muhammadun rasoolu Allahi waallatheena maAAahu ashiddao AAala alkuffari ruhamao baynahum tarahum rukkaAAan sujjadan yabtaghoona fadlan mina Allahi waridwanan seemahum fee wujoohihim min athari alssujoodi thalika mathaluhum fee alttawrati wamathaluhum fee al-injeeli kazarAAin akhraja shat-ahu faazarahu faistaghlatha faistawa AAala sooqihi yuAAjibu alzzurraAAa liyagheetha bihimu alkuffara waAAada Allahu allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati minhum maghfiratan waajran AAatheeman

Mohammed is the messenger of Allah! And those with him are harsh on disbelievers but gentle towards one another. When you look at them, you will find them bowing down and prostrating in constant pursuit of Allah's blessings and accord. The mark of them can be seen on their foreheads from traces of prostration; their description in the Torah and in the Gospel is that they are like a fertile tilth that produces a rich crop and gives it strength and enables it to rise firm upon its stalks, to the delight of those who toiled for it and to the envy of those who disbelieved! Allah has promised those who believe and perform righteous deeds a richer harvest through redemption and the greatest reward in the end! (R)
 

(The verse not only reaffirms the Prophethood of Mohammed, may Allah's peace be upon him, hut also sums up the birth and growth of Islam by comparing it to a rich harvest which begins with a solitary seed, then takes its route firmly in the ground, then sprouts and finally stands upright on the strength of its own stems)


OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

27.  Indeed All‚h shall fulfil the true vision which He showed to His Messenger (SAW) [i.e. the Prophet SAW saw a dream that he has entered Makkah along with his companions, having their (head) hair shaved and cut short] in very truth. Certainly, you shall enter Al≠Masjid≠al≠Har‚m; if All‚h wills, secure, (some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your head hair cut short, having no fear. He knew what you knew not, and He granted besides that a near victory.

28. He it is Who has sent His Messenger (Muhammad SAW) with guidance and the religion of truth (Isl‚m), that He may make it (Isl‚m) superior over all religions. And All-Sufficient is All‚h as a Witness.

29. Muhammad (SAW) is the Messenger of All‚h, and those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from All‚h and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of (their) prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taur‚t (Torah). But their description in the Injeel (Gospel) is like a (sown) seed which sends forth its shoot, then makes it strong, it then becomes thick, and it stands straight on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the disbelievers with them. All‚h has promised those among them who believe (i.e. all those who follow Isl‚mic Monotheism, the religion of Prophet Muhammad SAW till the Day of Resurrection) and do righteous good deeds, forgiveness and a mighty reward (i.e. Paradise).


048.027
YUSUFALI: Truly did Allah fulfil the vision for His Messenger: ye shall enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wills, with minds secure, heads shaved, hair cut short, and without fear. For He knew what ye knew not, and He granted, besides this, a speedy victory.
PICKTHAL: Allah hath fulfilled the vision for His messenger in very truth. Ye shall indeed enter the Inviolable Place of Worship, if Allah will, secure, (having your hair) shaven and cut, not fearing. But He knoweth that which ye know not, and hath given you a near victory beforehand.
SHAKIR: Certainly Allah had shown to His Messenger the vision with truth: you shall most certainly enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah pleases, in security, (some) having their heads shaved and (others) having their hair cut, you shall not fear, but He knows what you do not know, so He brought about a near victory before that.

048.028
YUSUFALI: It is He Who has sent His Messenger with Guidance and the Religion of Truth, to proclaim it over all religion: and enough is Allah for a Witness.
PICKTHAL: He it is Who hath sent His messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all religion. And Allah sufficeth as a Witness.
SHAKIR: He it is Who sent His Messenger with the guidance and the true religion that He may make it prevail over all the religions; and Allah is enough for a witness.

048.029
YUSUFALI: Muhammad is the messenger of Allah; and those who are with him are strong against Unbelievers, (but) compassionate amongst each other. Thou wilt see them bow and prostrate themselves (in prayer), seeking Grace from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. On their faces are their marks, (being) the traces of their prostration. This is their similitude in the Taurat; and their similitude in the Gospel is: like a seed which sends forth its blade, then makes it strong; it then becomes thick, and it stands on its own stem, (filling) the sowers with wonder and delight. As a result, it fills the Unbelievers with rage at them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do righteous deeds forgiveness, and a great Reward.
PICKTHAL: Muhammad is the messenger of Allah. And those with him are hard against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves. Thou (O Muhammad) seest them bowing and falling prostrate (in worship), seeking bounty from Allah and (His) acceptance. The mark of them is on their foreheads from the traces of prostration. Such is their likeness in the Torah and their likeness in the Gospel - like as sown corn that sendeth forth its shoot and strengtheneth it and riseth firm upon its stalk, delighting the sowers - that He may enrage the disbelievers with (the sight of) them. Allah hath promised, unto such of them as believe and do good works, forgiveness and immense reward.
SHAKIR: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, and those with him are firm of heart against the unbelievers, compassionate among themselves; you will see them bowing down, prostrating themselves, seeking grace from Allah and pleasure; their marks are in their faces because of the effect of prostration; that is their description in the Taurat and their description in the Injeel; like as seed-produce that puts forth its sprout, then strengthens it, so it becomes stout and stands firmly on its stem, delighting the sowers that He may enrage the unbelievers on account of them; Allah has promised those among them who believe and do good, forgiveness and a great reward.

 Index

 SURAH 49