THE HOLY QUR'AAN


SURAH 2

 Al-Baqara  (The Cow)


INTRODUCTION:

This Surah consists of 286 verses, 6,121 sentences, 25,500 letters and 40 Ruku's.

Name


It takes its name from the story of the Cow occurring in (vv. 67-73). It has not, however, been used as a title to indicate the subject of the Surah. It will, therefore, be as wrong to translate the name Al-Baqarah into "The Cow" or "The Heifer" as to translate any English name, say Baker, Rice, Wolf etc., into their equivalents in other languages or vice versa, because this would imply that the Surah dealt with the subject of "The Cow". Many more Surahs of the Quran have been named in the same way because no comprehensive words exist in Arabic (in spite of its richness) to denote the wide scope of the subject discussed in them. As a matter of fact all human languages suffer from the same limitation.

Sequence


Though it is a Madani Surah, it follows a Makki Surah Al-Fatihah, which ended with the prayer: "Show us the straight way". It begins with the answer to that prayer, "This is the Book (that) . . . is guidance. The greater part of Al-Baqarah was revealed during the first two years of the Holy Prophet's life at Al-Madinah. The smaller part which was revealed at a later period has been included in this Surah because its contents are closely related to those dealt with in this Surah. For instance, the verses prohibiting interest were revealed during the last period of the Holy prophet's life but have been inserted in this Surah. For the same reason, the last verses (284-286) of this Surah which were revealed at Makkah before the migration of the Holy Prophet to Al-Madinah have also been included in it.

Historical Background


In order to understand the meaning of this Surah, we should know its historical background:

1.       At Makkah the Quran generally addressed the mushrik Quraish who were ignorant of Islam, but at Al-Madinah it was also concerned with the Jews who were acquainted with the creed of the Unity of Allah, Prophethood, Revelation, the Hereafter and angels. They also professed to believe in the law which was revealed by Allah to their Prophet Moses (Allah's peace be upon him), and in principle, their way was the same (Islam) that was being taught by Prophet Muhammad (Allah's peace be upon him). But they had strayed away from it during the centuries of degeneration and had adopted many un-Islamic creeds, rites and customs of which there was no mention and for which there was no sanction in the Torah. Not only this: they had tampered with the Torah by inserting their own explanations and interpretations into its text. They had distorted even that part of the Word of God which had remained intact in their Scriptures and taken out of it the real spirit of true religion and were now clinging to a lifeless frame of rituals. Consequently their beliefs, their morals and their conduct had gone to the lowest depths of degeneration. The pity is that they were not only satisfied with their condition but loved to cling to it. Besides this, they had no intention or inclination to accept any kind of reform. So they became bitter enemies of those who came to teach them the Right Way and did their worst to defeat every such effort. Though they were originally Muslims, they had swerved from the real Islam and made innovations and alterations in it and had fallen victims to hair splitting and sectarianism. They had forgotten and forsaken Allah and begun to serve mammon. So much so that they had even given up their original name "Muslim" and adopted the name "Jew" instead, and made religion the sole monopoly of the children of Israel. This was their religious condition when the Holy Prophet went to Al-Madinah and invited the Jews to the true religion. That is why more than one third of this Surah has been addressed to the children of Israel. A critical review of their history, their moral degeneration and their religious perversions has been made; side by side with this the high standard of morality and the fundamental principles of the pure religion have been put forward in order to bring out clearly the nature of the degeneration of the community of a prophet when it goes astray and to draw clear lines of demarcation between real piety and formalism, and the essentials and non-essentials of the true religion.

2.       At Makkah Islam was mainly concerned with the propagation of its fundamental principles and the moral training of its followers. But after the migration of the Holy Prophet to Al-Madinah, where Muslims had come to settle from all over Arabia and where a tiny Islamic State had been set up with the help of the Ansar (local supporters), naturally the Quran had to turn its attention to the social, cultural, economic, political and legal problems as well. This accounts for the difference between the themes of the surahs revealed at Makkah and those at Al-Madinah. Accordingly about half of this Surah deals with those principles and regulations which are essential for the integration and solidarity of a community and for the solution of its problems.

After the migration to Al-Madinah, the struggle between Islam and un-Islam had also entered a new phase. Before this the Believers, who propagated Islam among their own clans and tribes, had to face its opponents at their own risk. But the conditions had changed at Al-Madinah, where Muslims from all parts of Arabia had come and settled as one community, and had established an independent city-state. Here it became a struggle for the survival of the Community itself, for the whole of non-Muslim Arabia was bent upon and united in crushing it totally. Hence the following instructions, upon which depended not only its success but its very survival, were revealed in this Surah

3.       During this period, a new type of "Muslims," munafiqin (hypocrites), had begun to appear. Though signs of duplicity had been noticed during the last days at Makkah, they took a different shape at Al-Madinah. At Makkah there were some people who professed Islam to be true but were not prepared to abide by the consequences of this profession and to sacrifice their worldly interests and relations and bear the afflictions that inevitably follow the acceptance of this creed. But at Al-Madinah different kinds of munafiqin (hypocrites) began to appear. There were some who had entered the Islamic fold merely to harm it from within. There were others who were surrounded by Muslims and, therefore, had become "Muslims" to safeguard their worldly interests. They, therefore, continued to have relations with the enemies so that if the latter became successful, their interests should remain secure. There were still others who had no strong conviction of the truth of Islam but had embraced it along with their clans. Lastly, there were those who were intellectually convinced of the truth of Islam but did not have enough moral courage to give up their former traditions, superstitions and personal ambitions and live up to the Islamic moral standards and make sacrifice in its way.

At the time of the revelation of Al-Baqarah, all sorts of hypocrites had begun to appear. Allah has, therefore, briefly pointed out their characteristics here. Afterwards when their evil characteristics and mischievous deeds became manifest, Allah sent detailed instructions about them.

Theme: Guidance


This Surah is an invitation to Divine Guidance and all the stories, incidents etc., revolve round this central theme. As this Surah has particularly been addressed to the Jews, many historical events have been cited from their own traditions to admonish and advise them that their own good lies in accepting the Guidance revealed to the Holy Prophet. They should, therefore, be the first to accept it because it was basically the same that was revealed to Prophet Moses (Allah's peace be upon him).

Maududi

 


   

THE HOLY QUR'AAN


SURAH 2

 AL-BAQARA (THE COW)


 

Bismi Allahi alrrahmani alrraheemi

In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful

Section 1

 

 

2 : 1

(1. Alif-lam-meem)

Alif-Lām-Mīm.

(Several Surahs in the Qur'aan begin with Arabic alphabets called 'al-Huruf-al-Muqatta 'at and are recited as part of the text. A variety of connotations  have been ascribed to them by different interpreters but without reaching any  consensus, the most widely accepted among them being that the true meaning of these mystical letters is known to no one but Allah)

2 : 2

2. Thalika alkitabu la rayba feehi hudan lilmuttaqeena

This is a Scripture concerning which there is no doubt, containing guidance for those who revere Allah -

(Guidance contained in the Qur'aan is not intended for those who refuse to believe in Him; repudiate His Revelations; revile His messengers; knowingly stray away from the straight path and stay away from it with sheer adamance and arrogance because they are the sycophants of the devil who had vowed to beguile His bondsmen and to inundate hell with the likes of them. Time and again it has been asserted in the Qur'aan that Allah will not give them any guidance, will not tolerate them, will not pamper them with gentle words, will not look at them on the Day of Judgement, will not even communicate with them nor consecrate them! 'They are fuel for the ferocious flames of hell in which they will abide forever!'

Guidance in the Qur'aan is only for the believers, foremost of whom rank the abstemious. Whether we refer to them as those who ward off evil or who fear their Lord, these are the people who exercise strict control over their inner selves by renouncing that which is forbidden; they censure what the eyes see, the ears absorb, the mouth utters, the tongue tastes, the nose smells, the throat gulps, the heart conceals, the brain contemplates, the hands perpetrate and the legs transport; they keep a firm control over their feelings, their desires, their tempers, their actions and their reactions).

2 : 3

3. Allatheena yu/minoona bialghaybi wayuqeemoona alssalata wamimma razaqnahum yunfiqoona

Who believe in the Unseen and establish worship and spend from the provision We have made for them -
 

(Believing in the Unseen is believing in that which the eye does not behold, foremost of whom is the Creator of the Universe and the Lord of the Worlds, whether we refer to Him in the Arabic language as Allah, or in Persian language as khuda or in English language as God or in Sanskrit language as bhagwan. We believe in Him without daring the audacity of casting our mortal eyes upon the Immortal, - His resplendence and His aura.

Believing in Allah reciprocates believing in the existence of Satan, whether we refer to him in Arabic language as Iblis, or in English language as the devil or in Sanskrit language as Yama. In the same way as existence of brightness implies existence of darkness, or as good presupposes bad and  virtue postulates evil, wherever the Light of Allah goes, there follows the voids of the Devil, as is reflected in the verse 'I seek refuge in Allah from the temptations of Satan, the renegade’  by casting the name of Allah and the name of Satan in the same sentence!

We also believe in the existence of Archangel Gabriel and a myriad other angels who tender tacit obedience to their Lord, 'some with two wings and some with three wings and some with four wings' and other celestial beings such as the Hurs and elemental spirits called the Jinn, who dwell on the outer plane, none of whom the eyes behold and yet it is imperative that, if we believe in Allah, we must also believe in their existence. And our faith would remain incomplete if we do not add to these the Resurrection, the Hereafter, the Garden, the Fire, the Soul and its Destiny.

Establishing worship includes being punctual, being consistent, being accurate, being dedicated, being clean, being alert, being humble, keeping our minds pinned on what we are doing; keeping our thoughts focused on Whom we are addressing and keeping our souls in communion with our Creator to the exclusion of all else, - and not simply going through the motions.

'Spending from the provision which He has made for us' implies not only that which is ordained for the believers as mandatory, such as contributing a fixed proportion of our wealth towards the upkeep of the deserving called Zakaat, or sharing the cost of warfare for the Cause of Allah, but also the secondary, such as taking care of our consanguines and kinsmen, performing their final rites, playing an active role in  maintenance of Allah's sanctuaries, arranging recitals of Qur'aan, celebrating religious festivals, giving alms to the suppliant, making donations towards promoting  charitable causes and a host of other acts of piety, summed up in the verse 'whatever good you do of your own accord for the good of your soul, its lucre rests in the safekeeping of your Lord!'

2 : 4

 

4. Waallatheena yu/minoona bima onzila ilayka wama onzila min qablika wabial-akhirati hum yooqinoona

And who believe in that which We have revealed to you (O Mohammed) and in that which We revealed to the other messengers before you, and who are firmly convinced of the Hereafter!

(In this verse three more stipulations are set out for us for the consummation of our faith : (i) Believing in the Qur’aan (ii) believing in the Torah, the Psalms and the Gospel revealed before it, including other Revelations inspired in His messengers by Allah, whether or not they were referred to; and (iii) being firmly convinced of the Hereafter, which implies an unconditional acceptance of the Day of Resurrection when the whole of mankind would be gathered before Allah for the Rendition of their accounts, leading us either into the Garden or into the Fire, both everlasting and both depending upon what we had sent ahead of us and what we have brought along with us).

2 : 5

5. Ola-ika AAala hudan min rabbihim waola-ika humu almuflihoona

They are the people who rely on Guidance from their Lord and are therefore assured of redemption!

(Guidance which teaches us how to become abstemious and remain on the righteous path after having set our feet on it, touching every aspect of our lives, - how we conduct ourselves, we behave towards one another, how we discharge our dues, what we uphold, what we enjoin, what we proscribe, whom we cherish, whom we wed, whom we trust, all in such astonishing detail that, if we manage to govern our lives in accordance with this indomitable guidance provided by Allah, there is absolutely no reason why we should not be redeemed and rewarded!)

2 : 6

6. Inna allatheena kafaroo sawaon AAalayhim aanthartahum am lam tunthirhum la yu/minoona

As for the disbelievers, it is the same thing whether you warn them or you warn them not, for they would never believe.

(The disbelievers were drawn from the indigenous tribes of Arabia who subscribed to a vast variety of denominations. The main body of them were the pagan Arabs who worshipped tangible gods whom their forefathers also worshipped, such as the elements, the stars, the planets and idols whom they carved with their own hands. They followed their time honoured customs and rituals, took an active part in trade and commerce because of which their land flourished and attracted traders from many neighbouring countries. Together with their land they too flourished, wielded substantial influence on other local tribes and soon became a force to reckon with. Mecca belonged to them; the Ka'ba bore the inscriptions sacred to their religion; the idols of their gods abided on all the mountains surrounding their city, guarding them, making or breaking their fortunes, punishing or rewarding their deeds.

Until suddenly there rose in their midst a mortal man whom they knew well and whose tribe was integrated with their own tribes, reviling their rituals, proscribing their deities, insulting their ancestors, laying claims to Prophethood, preaching to them the notion of One God and threatening to replace their many gods with Him. Hence they resented his audacity and decided to get rid of him

Their mission was strengthened by the addition of other groups such as Jews, Christians and the nomads, each of whom had their own reason to contain the serious threat posed by this new Prophet and the religion he preached, especially when they realized that the message he brought was so amazing and appealing that people were flocking to him in large numbers, - their friends, their neighbours, their tribes and even members of their own families!

2 : 7

7. Khatama Allahu AAala quloobihim waAAala samAAihim waAAala absarihim ghishawatun walahum AAathabun Aaatheemun

Allah has incarcerated their cores, plugged their auricles and sunk their vision in a chasm of oblivion. For them awaits a most acerbic castigation. (R)

(Their hearts have been rendered as indurate and impervious as the idols whom they worshipped and just as deaf and blind. It is repeatedly asserted in verses yet to come that he whom Allah sends astray, there is no one who can lead him to his goal, or to put it in other words, 'he who is bent on trekking the cinder path, no one can save him from blistering his feet!' Their punishment at the hands of Allah would be most acerbic because the punishment which they meted out to those who refused to fall into line with them was equally acerbic).


OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

1. Alif-Lām-Mīm. [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'ān and none but Allāh (Alone) knows their meanings].

2. This is the Book (the Qur'ān), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqūn [the pious and righteous persons who fear Allāh much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden) and love Allāh much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)].

3. Who believe in the Ghaib [] and perform As-Salāt (Iqāmat-as-Salāt), [] and spend out of what we have provided for them [i.e. give Zakāt [], spend on themselves, their parents, their children, their wives, etc., and also give charity to the poor and also in Allāh's Cause - Jihād, etc.].

4. And who believe in (the Qur'ān and the Sunnah) [] which has been sent down (revealed) to you (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) and in [the Taurāt (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel), etc.] which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter. (Resurrection, recompense of their good and bad deeds, Paradise and Hell, etc.).

5. They are on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.

6. Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.

7. Allāh has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allāh's Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.


002.001
YUSUFALI: A.L.M.
PICKTHAL: Alif. Lam. Mim.
SHAKIR: Alif Lam Mim. [1]

002.002
YUSUFALI: This is the Book; in it is guidance sure, without doubt, to those who fear Allah;
PICKTHAL: This is the Scripture whereof there is no doubt, a guidance unto those who ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: This Book, there is no doubt in it, is a guide to those who guard (against evil).

002.003
YUSUFALI: Who believe in the Unseen, are steadfast in prayer, and spend out of what We have provided for them;
PICKTHAL: Who believe in the Unseen, and establish worship, and spend of that We have bestowed upon them;
SHAKIR: Those who believe in the unseen and keep up prayer and spend out of what We have given them.

002.004
YUSUFALI: And who believe in the Revelation sent to thee, and sent before thy time, and (in their hearts) have the assurance of the Hereafter.
PICKTHAL: And who believe in that which is revealed unto thee (Muhammad) and that which was revealed before thee, and are certain of the Hereafter.
SHAKIR: And who believe in that which has been revealed to you and that which was revealed before you and they are sure of the hereafter.

002.005
YUSUFALI: They are on (true) guidance, from their Lord, and it is these who will prosper.
PICKTHAL: These depend on guidance from their Lord. These are the successful.
SHAKIR: These are on a right course from their Lord and these it is that shall be successful.

002.006
YUSUFALI: As to those who reject Faith, it is the same to them whether thou warn them or do not warn them; they will not believe.
PICKTHAL: As for the Disbelievers, Whether thou warn them or thou warn them not it is all one for them; they believe not.
SHAKIR: Surely those who disbelieve, it being alike to them whether you warn them, or do not warn them, will not believe.

002.007
YUSUFALI: Allah hath set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing, and on their eyes is a veil; great is the penalty they (incur).
PICKTHAL: Allah hath sealed their hearing and their hearts, and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be an awful doom.
SHAKIR: Allah has set a seal upon their hearts and upon their hearing and there is a covering over their eyes, and there is a great punishment for them.

002.008
YUSUFALI: Of the people there are some who say: "We believe in Allah and the Last Day;" but they do not (really) believe.
PICKTHAL: And of mankind are some who say: We believe in Allah and the Last Day, when they believe not.
SHAKIR: And there are some people who say: We believe in Allah and the last day; and they are not at all believers.

 

  
 

SECTION 2

Context of Revelation: The following verses were revealed with reference to the Hypocrites who used to change their colours faster than the chameleon, treated Allah with contempt, looked upon the Prophet as if he was an aberration, and on the people surrounding him as if they were no more than just a pack of clowns.

2 : 8

8. Wamina alnnasi man yaqoolu amanna biAllahi wabialyawmi al-akhiri wama hum bimu/mineena

And among them are some who say : 'We believe in Allah and in the Last Day, though they carry no such convictions.
 

(The Hypocrites, on the other hand, were a group of devious and treacherous people in Madina who saw the potential the new religion Islam offered and stepped in to exploit it to their own advantage. To all intents and purposes, they embraced the religion and did whatever the Muslims did; frequented their mosques, performed worship, followed their tenets, emulated their rituals, even took part in their battles, but never with any true convictions. Inside the town their aim was to exacerbate feuds between Jews, Christians and Muslims, - the three Peoples of the Scriptures who were at odds with one another; and outside the town, in the battlefields, their aim was to help themselves to a lion's share in the Spoils)

2 : 9

9. YukhadiAAoona Allaha waallatheena amanoo wama yakhdaAAoona illa anfusahum wama yashAAuroona

Their aim is to cheat Allah and those who believe; but they cheat none except their own selves. This they do not realize.

(It was because their crooked designs and dangerous activities were being exposed by Allah through His Revelations, making public everything which they contrived in private, often bringing to the forefront the evil strategies they contemplated before they could even put them into practice. Far from deceiving Allah and the believers, they cheated their own selves by falling into the snares they prepared for others).

2 : 10

10. Fee quloobihim maradun fazadahumu Allahu maradan walahum AAathabun aleemun bima kanoo yakthiboona

Inside their hearts lies an affliction that Allah has exacerbated and He has set aside for them a most severe chastisement in order to requite their mendacity.

(The affliction of perfidy and of mendacity from which they suffered was similar to the cancer of the heart. If exacerbated by malevolence, it spreads throughout the body and takes it over and is not susceptible to potions nor is responsive to cures).

2 : 11

11. Wa-itha qeela lahum la tufsidoo fee al-ardi qaloo innama nahnu muslihoona

And when it is said to them : 'Desist from perpetrating feuds in the land!' they say : 'But we are advocates of truce!'

(Feud between people, setting up men against men, families against families, tribes against tribes, Muslims against the Christians and the Jews, by carrying tales and spreading false rumours behind peoples’ backs).

2 : 12

12. Ala innahum humu almufsidoona walakin la yashAAuroona

Nay! They are the real ones who perpetrate feuds, though they admit this not.

2 : 13

13. Wa-itha qeela lahum aminoo kama amana alnnasu qaloo anu/minu kama amana alssufahao ala innahum humu alssufahao walakin la yaAAlamoona

And when it is said to them: 'Believe as the others believe!' they say : 'Are we to believe as fools believe?' Nay! They are the real fools, though they realize it not!

(In this verse the others refers to the believers in general, but to a small group of Muslims in particular who remained loyal to the Prophet throughout his campaign, sharing with him his agony and his ecstasy, his trials and tribulations, his triumphs and defeats. Such was the extent of their love for him that laying down their lives for his sake was, to them, a small price to pay in order to benefit from his propinquity and wisdom.

2 : 14

14. Wa-itha laqoo allatheena amanoo qaloo amanna wa-itha khalaw ila shayateenihim qaloo inna maAAakum innama nahnu mustahzi-oona

And when they mingle with those who believe, they say : 'We too are believers!' But when they retreat to their devils, they say : 'We are on your side! We were merely making fun of them!'

(The devils refers to influential magnates and wealthy tycoons of Mecca who wielded considerable power over the disbelievers; whenever the Hypocrites visited them, they reassured them that, if they seemed to be leaning towards the Muslims, it was only because they were spying on their plans so that they could betray them to their enemies).

2 : 15

15. Allahu yastahzi-o bihim wayamudduhum fee tughyanihim yaAAmahoona

 Allah Himself is making fun of them by plunging them into the voids!

(Allah is levelling the scores by letting them drift with the current until they reach where the water is at its deepest and leave them there to drown! Allah making fun of people is not the same as Hypocrites making fun of the Muslims, - it contains a sting of requital which is sharper than the edge of a dagger).

2 : 16

16. Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawoo alddalalata bialhuda fama rabihat tijaratuhum wama kanoo muhtadeena

These are the ones who purchase guilt at the expense of guidance! Their barter profits them none; nay, but it deprives them of guidance.

(Instead of reaping the benefits of Allah's guidance to enhance the quality of their lives in this world and improve their chances of redemption in the other, they trade away such a precious harvest in return for solecism and culpability, - a senseless trade which can hardly be deemed lucrative).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed with reference to those who believed in the hegemony of Allah for a while but abandoned their faith and rolled back into apostasy for one reason or the other.

2 : 17

17. Mathaluhum kamathali allathee istawqada naran falamma adaat ma hawlahu thahaba Allahu binoorihim watarakahum fee thulumatin la yubsiroona

Their situation is similar to the situation of those who kindle a torch in the darkness; but as soon as its glow lights up their surroundings, Allah takes away the light and plunges them back into the darkness in which they cannot see anything anymore -

2 : 18

18. Summun bukmun AAumyun fahum la yarjiAAoona

And being deaf, dumb and blind, they cannot emerge from it, either!

(The above verses were aimed at the contemporary Jews who were believers to begin with but renounced their faith later by refusing to accept Jesus and Mohammed as messengers of Allah; and at the Christians who renounced their true faith by claiming Jesus to be the son of God and raising him to the level of Divinity; and some of the idolaters who believed but renounced their faith later; as well as all the others who found the right path and walked on it for a short distance but were ambushed by the devil and scattered in wilderness without any sense of direction, - the hapless sailors who severed the harness with which their boat was tied and set it adrift in the midst of doldrums; who gave up the safety of the shore in preference to the perils of the vortex! Unlike the idolaters who wereborn in a persuasion which ordained for them idolatry, or the Hypocrites who consciously elected to use the spiritual as a tool for acquiring the temporal, the disbelievers were the most misguided of all because they had come so close to redemption and to absolution and yet let it slip through their fingers. Their plight is most eloquently summed up in the verses above and the verses which follow.

In the first of the two examples given, they are compared with those who kindle a fire in the dark but are deprived of its light by Allah and are plunged back into the darkness because they are insincere in their affiliations, - a darkness so dense that having eyes is no longer enough to read the signs; having ears is no longer enough to hear the message and having a mouth is no longer enough to ask for help! They remain plunged in the dark and keep sinking deeper and deeper into it!)

2 : 19

19. Aw kasayyibin mina alssama-i feehi thulumatun waraAAdun wabarqun yajAAaloona asabiAAahum fee athanihim mina alssawaAAiqi hathara almawti waAllahu muheetun bialkafireena

Or like those who are stranded in a storm coming down from the sky, festered by darkness, thunder and lightning; they thrust their fingers in their ears in order to muffle the roar of thunder, - from fear of death! Thus does Allah surround the disbelievers from every side -

2 : 20

20. Yakadu albarqu yakhtafu absarahum kullama adaa lahum mashaw feehi wa-itha athlama AAalayhim qamoo walaw shaa Allahu lathahaba bisamAAihim waabsarihim inna Allaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun

The lightning threatens to deprive them of their sight; whenever it flares, they take a few steps; when the darkness returns, they stand still! If it is Allah's will, He can destroy forever their auricles and their vision. Allah is able to all things! (R)

(In the second of these examples they are compared with those trapped in a storm which is festered by the darkness of ignorance, their emancipation hampered by the thunder and the lightning in the same way as apostasy was hampering them from their redemption! By thrusting their fingers in their ears whenever the Word of Allah is recited to them, they are not going to succeed in evading their destiny, nor fumble their way out of such darkness by simply relying on the random flares of lightning).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

8. And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: "We believe in Allāh and the Last Day" while in fact they believe not.

9. They (think to) deceive Allāh and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!

10. In their hearts is a disease (of doubt and hypocrisy) and Allāh has increased their disease. A painful torment is theirs because they used to tell lies.

11. And when it is said to them: "Make not mischief on the earth," they say: "We are only peacemakers."

12. Verily! They are the ones who make mischief, but they perceive not.

13. And when it is said to them (hypocrites): "Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad Peace be upon him , Al-Ansār and Al-Muhajirūn) have believed," they say: "Shall we believe as the fools have believed?" Verily, they are the fools, but they know not.

14. And when they meet those who believe, they say: "We believe," but when they are alone with their Shayātin (devils - polytheists, hypocrites, etc.), they say: "Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking."

15. Allāh mocks at them and gives them increase in their wrong-doings to wander blindly.

16. These are they who have purchased error for guidance, so their commerce was profitless. And they were not guided.

17. Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire; then, when it lighted all around him, Allāh took away their light and left them in darkness. (So) they could not see.

18. They are deaf, dumb, and blind, so they return not (to the Right Path).

19. Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder, and lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunderclap for fear of death. But Allāh ever encompasses the disbelievers (i.e. Allāh will gather them all together).

20. The lightning almost snatches away their sight, whenever it flashes for them, they walk therein, and when darkness covers them, they stand still. And if Allāh willed, He could have taken away their hearing and their sight. Certainly, Allāh has power over all things.


002.008
YUSUFALI: Of the people there are some who say: "We believe in Allah and the Last Day;" but they do not (really) believe.
PICKTHAL: And of mankind are some who say: We believe in Allah and the Last Day, when they believe not.
SHAKIR: And there are some people who say: We believe in Allah and the last day; and they are not at all believers.

002.009
YUSUFALI: Fain would they deceive Allah and those who believe, but they only deceive themselves, and realise (it) not!
PICKTHAL: They think to beguile Allah and those who believe, and they beguile none save themselves; but they perceive not.
SHAKIR: They desire to deceive Allah and those who believe, and they deceive only themselves and they do not perceive.

002.010
YUSUFALI: In their hearts is a disease; and Allah has increased their disease: And grievous is the penalty they (incur), because they are false (to themselves).
PICKTHAL: In their hearts is a disease, and Allah increaseth their disease. A painful doom is theirs because they lie.
SHAKIR: There is a disease in their hearts, so Allah added to their disease and they shall have a painful chastisement because they

002.011
YUSUFALI: When it is said to them: "Make not mischief on the earth," they say: "Why, we only Want to make peace!"
PICKTHAL: And when it is said unto them: Make not mischief in the earth, they say: We are peacemakers only.
SHAKIR: And when it is said to them, Do not make mischief in the land, they say: We are but peace-makers.

002.012
YUSUFALI: Of a surety, they are the ones who make mischief, but they realise (it) not.
PICKTHAL: Are not they indeed the mischief-makers? But they perceive not.
SHAKIR: Now surely they themselves are the mischief makers, but they do not perceive.

002.013
YUSUFALI: When it is said to them: "Believe as the others believe:" They say: "Shall we believe as the fools believe?" Nay, of a surety they are the fools, but they do not know.
PICKTHAL: And when it is said unto them: believe as the people believe, they say: shall we believe as the foolish believe? are not they indeed the foolish? But they know not.
SHAKIR: And when it is said to them: Believe as the people believe they say: Shall we believe as the fools believe? Now surely they themselves are the fools, but they do not know.

002.014
YUSUFALI: When they meet those who believe, they say: "We believe;" but when they are alone with their evil ones, they say: "We are really with you: We (were) only jesting."
PICKTHAL: And when they fall in with those who believe, they say: We believe; but when they go apart to their devils they declare: Lo! we are with you; verily we did but mock.
SHAKIR: And when they meet those who believe, they say: We believe; and when they are alone with their Shaitans, they say: Surely we are with you, we were only mocking.

002.015
YUSUFALI: Allah will throw back their mockery on them, and give them rope in their trespasses; so they will wander like blind ones (To and fro).
PICKTHAL: Allah (Himself) doth mock them, leaving them to wander blindly on in their contumacy.
SHAKIR: Allah shall pay them back their mockery, and He leaves them alone in their inordinacy, blindly wandering on.

002.016
YUSUFALI: These are they who have bartered Guidance for error: But their traffic is profitless, and they have lost true direction,
PICKTHAL: These are they who purchase error at the price of guidance, so their commerce doth not prosper, neither are they guided.
SHAKIR: These are they who buy error for the right direction, so their bargain shall bring no gain, nor are they the followers of the right direction.

002.017
YUSUFALI: Their similitude is that of a man who kindled a fire; when it lighted all around him, Allah took away their light and left them in utter darkness. So they could not see.
PICKTHAL: Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindleth fire, and when it sheddeth its light around him Allah taketh away their light and leaveth them in darkness, where they cannot see,
SHAKIR: Their parable is like the parable of one who kindled a fire but when it had illumined all around him, Allah took away their light, and left them in utter darkness-- they do not see.

002.018
YUSUFALI: Deaf, dumb, and blind, they will not return (to the path).
PICKTHAL: Deaf, dumb and blind; and they return not.
SHAKIR: Deaf, dumb (and) blind, so they will not turn back.

002.019
YUSUFALI: Or (another similitude) is that of a rain-laden cloud from the sky: In it are zones of darkness, and thunder and lightning: They press their fingers in their ears to keep out the stunning thunder-clap, the while they are in terror of death. But Allah is ever round the rejecters of Faith!
PICKTHAL: Or like a rainstorm from the sky, wherein is darkness, thunder and the flash of lightning. They thrust their fingers in their ears by reason of the thunder-claps, for fear of death, Allah encompasseth the disbelievers (in His guidance, His omniscience and His omnipotence).
SHAKIR: Or like abundant rain from the cloud in which is utter darkness and thunder and lightning; they put their fingers into their ears because of the thunder peal, for fear of death, and Allah encompasses the unbelievers.

002.020
YUSUFALI: The lightning all but snatches away their sight; every time the light (Helps) them, they walk therein, and when the darkness grows on them, they stand still. And if Allah willed, He could take away their faculty of hearing and seeing; for Allah hath power over all things.
PICKTHAL: The lightning almost snatcheth away their sight from them. As often as it flasheth forth for them they walk therein, and when it darkeneth against them they stand still. If Allah willed, He could destroy their hearing and their sight. Lo! Allah is able to do all things.
SHAKIR: The lightning almost takes away their sight; whenever it shines on them they walk in it, and when it becomes dark to them they stand still; and if Allah had pleased He would certainly have taken away their hearing and their sight; surely Allah has 

 
Section 3.

Context of Revelation : In the following verses the Creator is addressing His Creation and is admonishing them to organize their portfolio of priorities in such a way as to accomplish the goal set out for them, - to reach the finishing line which will lead them to the gateway of everlasting peace and tranquillity.
 

2 : 21

21. Ya ayyuha alnnasu oAAbudoo rabbakumu allathee khalaqakum waallatheena min qablikum laAAallakum tattaqoona

O mankind! Worship the Lord Who created you and created many others before you in the hope that you may ward off evil

(Worship is for the benefit of him who offers worshipand not of Him to whom it is offered; it makes no difference to the Divine ambience of Allah whether we offer it or not. See how Worship brings us to our knees in the presence of our Lord and at the same time it also brings us face to face with ourselves).

2 : 22

22. Allathee jaAAala lakumu al-arda firashan waalssamaa binaan waanzala mina alssama-i maan faakhraja bihi mina alththamarati rizqan lakum fala tajAAaloo lillahi andadan waantum taAAlamoona

He has spread out the earth like a floor and has arched the sky like a ceiling; He sends down water from the sky and with it He causes a myriad fruits to grow as food for you! Do not knowingly set up equals to Allah!

(In the first of the above two verses we are reminded of Who created us and all the others before us; and in the second verse we are reminded of the benefactions with which we are blessed : a vast landscape of the earth as a floor below our feet; an infinite expanse of the sky as a roof above our head; life bearing rainwater coming down from the sky and life supporting vegetation growing up from the earth!

By making random references to the simple facts of life we so often tend to take for granted, Allah forces us into deeper thoughts; encourages us to look around; to reflect; to wonder and glean. If we look above our heads, what we see is the dome of the blue sky stretching as far as the eye can travel, oft and on gathering wafers of clouds in its hem, - white, grey or black, - wafting messengers of good tidings for all mankind to say that they have, or soon will, bring with them the precious torrents of rain-water upon which we depend, to revive our land, to replenish our rivers, to rejuvenate our farms and crops, to quench our thirst and to give to the beasts in the wilderness that which we cannot give them - a new lease of life!

In the lap of the sky rotates the dazzling orb of the sun, flooding the earth with light, giving fragrance to flowers and adding taste to fruits. Then there comes upon the scenery a titillating change; the fiery sun retracts its rays as though they were his tentacles, sheds his heat, surrenders himself into the arms of the flared horizon and disappears from our sight, only to be replaced by yet an other chain of events, - never ending, never changing, never failing!

These are the amazing marvels of Creation for which we owe our Lord a great debt of gratitude and we are reminded of it again and again throughout the Qur'aan so that we never forget who is the Bestower and who is the recipient).

2 : 23

23. Wa-in kuntum fee raybin mimma nazzalna AAala AAabdina fa/too bisooratin min mithlihi waodAAoo shuhadaakum min dooni Allahi in kuntum sadiqeena

And if you have any doubts about that which We have revealed to Our slave (Mohammed), then produce a single verse comparable to it, - and a witness other than Allah to vouch for it, - if you are truthful.
 

(Comparable in magnitude, in consummation, in complexity, in erudition and in éclat!)


2 : 24

24. Fa-in lam tafAAaloo walan tafAAaloo faittaqoo alnnara allatee waqooduha alnnasu waalhijaratu oAAiddat lilkafireena

And if you do this not, - and you can do this not, - then guard yourselves against a fire the fuel of which consists of bodies of men and idols of stone, kept ready for those who refuse to believe.
 

(During the infancy of Islam, when the first Surah was revealed to the Prophet and then through him it reached the unwilling ears of his enemies, the Meccan heretics could not believe what they heard, coming as it did from the mouth of a man whom they had known to be an illiterate. Such was the profundity of the impact it had on its audience that, in a bid to diminish its aura and taint its sublime excellence, many an Arab, especially the learned pedagogues drawn from Jewish and Christian denominations, dubbed it the ramblings of a mad man'or lyrics of a poetor fables of men of oldor a self invented concoction or a transcript dictated by some mortal man. Small wonder that such a precocious challenge is thrown at them, repeated several times in the verses yet to come, but never taken up, neither then nor now).

2 : 25

25. Wabashshiri allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati anna lahum jannatin tajree min tahtiha al-anharu kullama ruziqoo minha min thamaratin rizqan qaloo hatha allathee ruziqna min qablu waotoo bihi mutashabihan walahum feeha azwajun mutahharatun wahum feeha khalidoona

Give good tidings (O Mohammed) to the believers who perform righteous deeds that for them are Gardens underneath which rivers flow; whenever they are given to eat a fruit plucked from its trees, they say : 'Ah! This is the same fruit as was given to us before!' for, they will be given everything similar in appearance. And there they shall be paired with salubrious companions and abide in it forever!
 

(In the first of the above verses, a dire warningis delivered to those who refute the revelations of Allah and engage in idol worship, with a succinct description of the punishment that awaits them; and in the second verse, the situation is reversed by giving glad tidings to those who believe in the revelations of Allah and perform righteous deeds, - not only the deeds that have been ordained for us but also those we perform of our own accord - together with a description of the reward that awaits them.

The salubrious companions mentioned in the verse are Hurs, an entirely different creation of Allah for the righteous, given a fuller description in future verses).

* * *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed in response to a complaint made by Hypocrites to the Prophet regarding the two examples given about them in verses 17 to 20 that it does not befit the status of Allah to coin such a similitude for describing them.

2 : 26

26. Inna Allaha la yastahyee an yadriba mathalan ma baAAoodatan fama fawqaha faamma allatheena amanoo fayaAAlamoona annahu alhaqqu min rabbihim waamma allatheena kafaroo fayaqooloona matha arada Allahu bihatha mathalan yudillu bihi katheeran wayahdee bihi katheeran wama yudillu bihi illa alfasiqeena

Allah does not hesitate from casting even a mite for a metaphor! While those who believe know that it is the truth from their Lord, those who disbelieve say : 'What does Allah purport to accomplish by casting demeaning metaphors?' He purports to mislead some with His metaphors and He purports to guide the others with His metaphors and He misleads only those who are prone to insubordination!

* * *

2 : 27

27. Allatheena yanqudoona AAahda Allahi min baAAdi meethaqihi wayaqtaAAoona ma amara Allahu bihi an yoosala wayufsidoona fee al-ardi ola-ika humu alkhasiroona

Those who breach their Covenant with Allah after having ratified it; those who divide that which Allah has intended to unite and those who cause feuds in the land, they will end up as the ultimate losers.

(The Covenant refers to the stipulation laid down by Allah in the previous Scriptures that those who follow them will believe and co-operate with the Last of the Prophets, which stood ipso facto ratified when their recipients accepted their Scriptures.

Into the first category of losers fall the followers of the Torah and the Gospel, who were well aware of the bona fides of the Prophet and yet took a stance alongside the idolaters and against him.

Into the second category fall the Hypocrites who strive to divide families whom Allah intended to remain united by traducing wives in front of husbands, setting up fathers against sons, brothers against brothers and families against families, exploiting the frailties of human nature by resorting to defamation, rumours, gossip and scandal-mongering.


And into the third category fall men of power and influence who could manipulate large groups of people susceptible to influence, mobilize or demobilize public opinion, - the kingpins who have it in their grasp to make or break their adversaries).

2 : 28

28. Kayfa takfuroona biAllahi wakuntum amwatan faahyakum thumma yumeetukum thumma yuhyeekum thumma ilayhi turjaAAoona

How can you vituperate Allah when you were devoid of life until He breathed life into you; then He will inflict death on you and then He will givelife to you; and in the end it is to Him that you will return?

(The question is addressed to the disbelievers who bluntly refused to acknowledge the Cycle of Creation as envisaged in Islam : birth, death and Resurrection.

Allah created man from a drop of ejaculated fluid inside which he was nothing but just a bagatelle, a nullity, a substance that could disappear into thin air as soon as it emerged. By means of a fusion between two base fluids, He turns the nullity into an entity; then He reverts it to its state of nullity through death and then releases it into eternity through Resurrection. So how can man reject Him Who put this cycle in rotation and pretend as though He had nothing to do with this Creation?

According to certain commentators the verse means : 'how can you deny Allah when you were insensate in the stupor of heresy until He blessed you with a new life of erudition and conviction so that you may complete your appointed term upon the earth and return to Him, to be given a generous reward for your righteousness unbeknown to mankind and then to be set free into another life which will last forever?')

2 : 29

29. Huwa allathee khalaqa lakum ma fee al-ardi jameeAAan thumma istawa ila alssama-i fasawwahunna sabAAa samawatin wahuwa bikulli shay-in Aaaleemun

He created this earth for you with all its constituents. Then He turned His attention upon the heavens and designed them as seven. He has knowledge of everything! (R)

(The constituents include the flora and the fauna, mankind and beasts, land and oceans, everything on the earth which provides us with physical comfort and spiritual elation, the latter inspired by the marvels of Creation which surround us and bear witness to the Omnipotence, the Omnipresence and the Ubiquity of their Creator.

Then, after having thus perfected a habitat for mortals, He turned His attention upon the heavens in order to perfect a habitat for the immortals too and fashioned them as seven Heavens, the uppermost for His Mighty Throne and the rest for the Celestial beings who carry out His commands and constantly adulate Him).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHL AND SHAKIR

MUHSIN:

 

21. O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allāh), Who created you and those who were before you so that you may become Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2).

22. Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allāh (in worship) while you know (that He Alone has the right to be worshipped). []

23. And if you (Arab pagans, Jews, and Christians) are in doubt concerning that which We have sent down (i.e. the Qur'ān) to Our slave (Muhammad Peace be upon him ), then produce a Sūrah (chapter) of the like thereof and call your witnesses (supporters and helpers) besides Allāh, if you are truthful.

24. But if you do it not, and you can never do it, then fear the Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for the disbelievers.

25. And give glad tidings to those who believe and do righteous good deeds, that for them will be Gardens under which rivers flow (Paradise). Every time they will be provided with a fruit therefrom, they will say: "This is what we were provided with before," and they will be given things in resemblance (i.e. in the same form but different in taste) and they shall have therein Azwājun Mutahharatun [] (purified mates or wives), (having no menses, stools, urine, etc.) and they will abide therein forever.

26. Verily, Allāh is not ashamed to set forth a parable even of a mosquito or so much more when it is bigger (or less when it is smaller) than it. And as for those who believe, they know that it is the Truth from their Lord, but as for those who disbelieve, they say: "What did Allāh intend by this parable?" By it He misleads many, and many He guides thereby. And He misleads thereby only those who are Al-Fāsiqūn (the rebellious, disobedient to Allāh). []

27. Those who break Allāh's Covenant after ratifying it, and sever what Allāh has ordered to be joined (as regards Allāh's Religion of Islāmic Monotheism, and to practise its legal laws on the earth and also as regards keeping good relations with kith and kin []), and do mischief on earth, it is they who are the losers.

28. How can you disbelieve in Allāh? Seeing that you were dead and He gave you life. Then He will give you death, then again will bring you to life (on the Day of Resurrection) and then unto Him you will return.

29. He it is Who created for you all that is on earth. Then He Istawā (rose over) towards the heaven and made them seven heavens and He is the All-Knower of everything.


002.021
YUSUFALI: O ye people! Adore your Guardian-Lord, who created you and those who came before you, that ye may have the chance to learn righteousness;
PICKTHAL: O mankind! worship your Lord, Who hath created you and those before you, so that ye may ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: O men! serve your Lord Who created you and those before you so that you may guard (against evil).

002.022
YUSUFALI: Who has made the earth your couch, and the heavens your canopy; and sent down rain from the heavens; and brought forth therewith Fruits for your sustenance; then set not up rivals unto Allah when ye know (the truth).
PICKTHAL: Who hath appointed the earth a resting-place for you, and the sky a canopy; and causeth water to pour down from the sky, thereby producing fruits as food for you. And do not set up rivals to Allah when ye know (better).
SHAKIR: Who made the earth a resting place for you and the heaven a canopy and (Who) sends down rain from the cloud then brings forth with it subsistence for you of the fruits; therefore do not set up rivals to Allah while you know.

002.023
YUSUFALI: And if ye are in doubt as to what We have revealed from time to time to Our servant, then produce a Sura like thereunto; and call your witnesses or helpers (If there are any) besides Allah, if your (doubts) are true.
PICKTHAL: And if ye are in doubt concerning that which We reveal unto Our slave (Muhammad), then produce a surah of the like thereof, and call your witness beside Allah if ye are truthful.
SHAKIR: And if you are in doubt as to that which We have revealed to Our servant, then produce a chapter like it and call on your witnesses besides Allah if you are truthful.

002.024
YUSUFALI: But if ye cannot- and of a surety ye cannot- then fear the Fire whose fuel is men and stones,- which is prepared for those who reject Faith.
PICKTHAL: And if ye do it not - and ye can never do it - then guard yourselves against the Fire prepared for disbelievers, whose fuel is of men and stones.
SHAKIR: But if you do (it) not and never shall you do (it), then be on your guard against the fire of which men and stones are the fuel; it is prepared for the unbelievers.

002.025
YUSUFALI: But give glad tidings to those who believe and work righteousness, that their portion is Gardens, beneath which rivers flow. Every time they are fed with fruits therefrom, they say: "Why, this is what we were fed with before," for they are given things in similitude; and they have therein companions pure (and holy); and they abide therein (for ever).
PICKTHAL: And give glad tidings (O Muhammad) unto those who believe and do good works; that theirs are Gardens underneath which rivers flow; as often as they are regaled with food of the fruit thereof, they say: this is what was given us aforetime; and it is given to them in resemblance. There for them are pure companions; there for ever they abide.
SHAKIR: And convey good news to those who believe and do good deeds, that they shall have gardens in which rivers flow; whenever they shall be given a portion of the fruit thereof, they shall say: This is what was given to us before; and they shall be given the like of it, and they shall have pure mates in them, and in them, they shall abide.

002.026
YUSUFALI: Allah disdains not to use the similitude of things, lowest as well as highest. Those who believe know that it is truth from their Lord; but those who reject Faith say: "What means Allah by this similitude?" By it He causes many to stray, and many He leads into the right path; but He causes not to stray, except those who forsake (the path),-
PICKTHAL: Lo! Allah disdaineth not to coin the similitude even of a gnat. Those who believe know that it is the truth from their Lord; but those who disbelieve say: What doth Allah wish (to teach) by such a similitude? He misleadeth many thereby, and He guideth many thereby; and He misleadeth thereby only miscreants;
SHAKIR: Surely Allah is not ashamed to set forth any parable-- (that of) a gnat or any thing above that; then as for those who believe, they know that it is the truth from their Lord, and as for those who disbelieve, they say: What is it that Allah means by this parable: He causes many to err by it and many He leads aright by it! but He does not cause to err by it (any) except the transgressors,

002.027
YUSUFALI: Those who break Allah's Covenant after it is ratified, and who sunder what Allah Has ordered to be joined, and do mischief on earth: These cause loss (only) to themselves.
PICKTHAL: Those who break the covenant of Allah after ratifying it, and sever that which Allah ordered to be joined, and (who) make mischief in the earth: Those are they who are the losers.
SHAKIR: Who break the covenant of Allah after its confirmation and cut asunder what Allah has ordered to be joined, and make mischief in the land; these it is that are the losers.

002.028
YUSUFALI: How can ye reject the faith in Allah?- seeing that ye were without life, and He gave you life; then will He cause you to die, and will again bring you to life; and again to Him will ye return.
PICKTHAL: How disbelieve ye in Allah when ye were dead and He gave life to you! Then He will give you death, then life again, and then unto Him ye will return.
SHAKIR: How do you deny Allah and you were dead and He gave you life? Again He will cause you to die and again bring you to life, then you shall be brought back to Him.

002.029
YUSUFALI: It is He Who hath created for you all things that are on earth; Moreover His design comprehended the heavens, for He gave order and perfection to the seven firmaments; and of all things He hath perfect knowledge.
PICKTHAL: He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then turned He to the heaven, and fashioned it as seven heavens. And He is knower of all things.
SHAKIR: He it is Who created for you all that is in the earth, and He directed Himself to the heaven, so He made them complete seven heavens, and He knows all things.

 


Section 4.

(The following verses, from 30 to 39, deal with the events that transpired in the heavens, culminating in the Creation of man and his subsequent ostracism from Paradise.)

2 : 30

30. Wa-ith qala rabbuka lilmala-ikati innee jaAAilun fee al-ardi khaleefatan qaloo atajAAalu feeha man yufsidu feeha wayasfiku alddimaa wanahnu nusabbihu bihamdika wanuqaddisu laka qala innee aAAlamu ma la taAAlamoona

When your Lord said to the angels : 'I am going to place my regent upon earth,' they said : 'Will You make him Your regent who will desecrate it with strife and bloodshed, whilst we are here, constantly hymning Your glory and adulating You?' He said : 'Ah! But I know that which you know not!'

(This verse pushes to the surface several issues:

Firstly, when bringing up the topic of man before the Angels, Allah did not say to them : I am planning  to place a new toy on the earth to amuse me with his fancy tricks!' He said : 'I am going to place my regent on earth’ - which is an onerous responsibility, a position of trust, a task that presupposes versatility and ingenuity. If my boss says to me : ‘keep an eye on things while I go to grab a bite’ I would automatically assume that I command his trust and that he thinks I have the ability to take over the show and run it for him as smoothly as he himself would.

Thus it becomes clear that the role Adam was destined to play upon the earth was already charted out for him, and that Allah decided to appoint him as a regent before He even created him; and also that, when Satan declined to prostrate to him and got them expelled from Paradise later on, he too was following the course of destiny as pre-ordained for everyone.

Secondly, when the angels said to their Lord 'will you place on earth as Your regent one who would desecrate it with strife and bloodshed?’ they were not questioning His sanity because they were created for servitude and tacit obedience and not for arguing with Him; nor were they complaining He was being unfair to them by choosing someone else to perform a task which they too were capable of performing, nor casting aspersions upon the integrity of man. They were only trying to ascertain if there was some hidden purpose why He should appoint as His regent on earth a creature who would desecrate it with feud and bloodshed.

Thirdly, Allah saying to the Angels : 'I know that which you know not!’ - which can also be rephrased as: 'I know (that which you know as well as) that which you know not’ - is clearly indicative of the fact that the knowledge given by Him to the angels about man was insufficient; that He knew the creature He was going to create was a complex creature; if he was capable of causing disharmony and blood-shed, he was also capable of giving love and making sacrifices; if he was capable of giving the world a Pharaoh, he was also capable of coming up with a Moses to take him on; if he was capable of inflicting pain on his fellow humans, he was also capable of alleviating the pain with his compassion and caring. In time, he would have the ability to acquire mastery over most things on earth; he could learn to swim like the fish and fly like the bird; he could explore his own planet and then go on to exploring the other planets; if the hearts with which humans are born reveal symptoms of fatigue and malfunctioning, he could repair or even replace them; he could create a new font of robots capable of a performance which in many ways could excel his own! That is why it is said elsewhere in this Tractate that, when Allah offered the onus of shouldering the Qur'aan on mountains and on the earth and on man, the mountains shuddered and the earth quaked from fear, but man agreed to discharge the responsibility without flinching).

2 : 31

31. WaAAallama adama al-asmaa kullaha thumma AAaradahum AAala almala-ikati faqala anbi-oonee bi-asma-i haola-i in kuntum sadiqeena

He taught Adam the names of all the things that exist upon the earth, then He showed the same things to the angels and said : 'Apprise me of the names of these, if you are truthful!'

(In this verse, it is being made clear that the most important requisite for regency is Knowledge and not Subservience).

2 : 32

32. Qaloo subhanaka la AAilma lana illa ma AAallamtana innaka anta alAAaleemu alhakeemu

They said : 'Glory be to You! We have no knowledge other than that which You imbibed in us! Verily You and only You are the Erudite and the Wise!

(In this verse, the angels admit that the only knowledge they possess is the knowledge which Allah gave them).

2 : 33

33. Qala ya adamu anbi/hum bi-asma-ihim falamma anbaahum bi-asma-ihim qala alam aqul lakum innee aAAlamu ghayba alssamawati waal-ardi waaAAlamu ma tubdoona wama kuntum taktumoona

He said : 'O Adam! Apprise them of their names!' And when Adam apprised them of their names, He said to the angels : 'Did I not say to you that I have knowledge of all the secrets of the heavens and the earth and that I have knowledge of that which you reveal as well as of that which you conceal?'
 

2 : 34

34. Wa-ith qulna lilmala-ikati osjudoo li-adama fasajadoo illa ibleesa aba waistakbara wakana mina alkafireena

And when We said to the angels : 'Prostrate before Adam!' they fell prostrate, all but Iblis. He declined to prostrate out of sheer spite and became a renegade.

(Prostration is of two kinds: prostration in worship, which is exclusive for Allah alone, and prostration in acknowledgement of ascendancy, offered by a subordinate to his superior as a measure of deference, subsequently proscribed in Islam by making prostration the sole prerogative of Allah alone. No Muslim ever touches the ground with his forehead before anyone other than Allah).

2 : 35

35. Waqulna ya adamu oskun anta wazawjuka aljannata wakula minha raghadan haythu shi/tuma wala taqraba hathihi alshshajarata fatakoona mina alththalimeena

And We said to Adam : 'O Adam! Abide in this Garden, you and your spouse, and eat all that you desire of its fruits, but go not near that tree, for then you would be a transgressor!'

2 : 36

36. Faazallahuma alshshaytanu AAanha faakhrajahuma mimma kana feehi waqulna ihbitoo baAAdukum libaAAdin AAaduwwun walakum fee al-ardi mustaqarrun wamataAAun ila heenin

But Satan contrived to distract them and got them expelled from where they dwelt. And We said : 'Fall down, - each of you to live as an enemy unto the other! There shall be a habitation for you upon the earth and a provision for a certain term.'

(In the case of Adam, the 'certain term' was until the moment of his death after which he would return to Paradise once again and abide therein forever; but in the case of his seed, it was until the moment of their death after which they will be gathered for the Reckoning before they are either cast in hell or entered into Paradise).

2 : 37

37. Fatalaqqa adamu min rabbihi kalimatin fataba AAalayhi innahu huwa alttawwabu alrraheemu

When Adam learnt words of guidance from His Lord and sought forgiveness, He relented towards him. Verily He is Magnanimous and Merciful!

(There are different interpretations about words Adam learnt from his Lord, but suffice it to say that, whatever they may be, they were vehicles of expression through which Adam conveyed to His Lord his immense remorse for having allowed himself to be tricked into disobeying His command).

2 : 38

38. Qulna ihbitoo minha jameeAAan fa-imma ya/tiyannakum minnee hudan faman tabiAAa hudaya fala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona

We said : 'Go down from here, all of you! But whenever there comes to you guidance from Me, those who follow My guidance shall have no cause for concern nor for despair!

2 : 39

39. Waallatheena kafaroo wakaththaboo bi-ayatina ola-ika as-habu alnnari hum feeha khalidoona

But those who reject it and repudiate Our revelations, they shall become denizens of the Fire and abide in it forever! (R)

(The promise of reward for those who follow Guidance and warning of punishment for those who reject Guidance is a theme that is repeated on every appropriate occasion throughout the Qur'aan).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR

MUHSIN:

 

30. And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels: "Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on earth." They said: "Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, - while we glorify You with praises and thanks (Exalted be You above all that they associate with You as partners) and sanctify You." He (Allāh) said: "I know that which you do not know."

31. And He taught Adam all the names (of everything) [], then He showed them to the angels and said, "Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful."

32. They (angels) said: "Glory be to You, we have no knowledge except what you have taught us. Verily, it is You, the All-Knower, the All-Wise."

33. He said: "O Adam! Inform them of their names," and when he had informed them of their names, He said: "Did I not tell you that I know the Ghaib (unseen) in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been concealing?"

34. And (remember) when We said to the angels: "Prostrate yourselves before Adam.". And they prostrated except Iblīs (Satan), he refused and was proud and was one of the disbelievers (disobedient to Allāh).

35. And We said: "O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zālimūn (wrong-doers)."

36. Then the Shaitān (Satan) made them slip therefrom (the Paradise), and got them out from that in which they were. We said: "Get you down, all, with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment for a time."

37. Then Adam received from his Lord Words []. And his Lord pardoned him (accepted his repentance). Verily, He is the One Who forgives (accepts repentance), the Most Merciful.

38. We said: "Get down all of you from this place (the Paradise), then whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, and whoever follows My Guidance, there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve.

39. But those who disbelieve and belie Our Ayāt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) such are the dwellers of the Fire, they shall abide therein forever.


 

002.030
YUSUFALI: Behold, thy Lord said to the angels: "I will create a vicegerent on earth." They said: "Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood?- whilst we do celebrate Thy praises and glorify Thy holy (name)?" He said: "I know what ye know not."
PICKTHAL: And when thy Lord said unto the angels: Lo! I am about to place a viceroy in the earth, they said: Wilt thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify Thee? He said: Surely I know that which ye know not.
SHAKIR: And when your Lord said to the angels, I am going to place in the earth a khalif, they said: What! wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, and we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy holiness? He said: Surely I know what you do not know.

002.031
YUSUFALI: And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels, and said: "Tell me the names of these if ye are right."
PICKTHAL: And He taught Adam all the names, then showed them to the angels, saying: Inform Me of the names of these, if ye are truthful.
SHAKIR: And He taught Adam all the names, then presented them to the angels; then He said: Tell me the names of those if you are right.
 

002.032
YUSUFALI: They said: "Glory to Thee, of knowledge We have none, save what Thou Hast taught us: In truth it is Thou Who art perfect in knowledge and wisdom."
PICKTHAL: They said: Be glorified! We have no knowledge saving that which Thou hast taught us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Knower, the Wise.
SHAKIR: They said: Glory be to Thee! we have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.
 

002.033
YUSUFALI: He said: "O Adam! Tell them their names." When he had told them, Allah said: "Did I not tell you that I know the secrets of heaven and earth, and I know what ye reveal and what ye conceal?"
PICKTHAL: He said: O Adam! Inform them of their names, and when he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I not tell you that I know the secret of the heavens and the earth? And I know that which ye disclose and which ye hide.
SHAKIR: He said: O Adam! inform them of their names. Then when he had informed them of their names, He said: Did I not say to you that I surely know what is ghaib in the heavens and the earth and (that) I know what you manifest and what you hide?
 

002.034
YUSUFALI: And behold, We said to the angels: "Bow down to Adam" and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith.
PICKTHAL: And when We said unto the angels: Prostrate yourselves before Adam, they fell prostrate, all save Iblis. He demurred through pride, and so became a disbeliever.
SHAKIR: And when We said to the angels: Make obeisance to Adam they did obeisance, but Iblis (did it not). He refused and he was proud, and he was one of the unbelievers.
 

002.035
YUSUFALI: We said: "O Adam! dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden; and eat of the bountiful things therein as (where and when) ye will; but approach not this tree, or ye run into harm and transgression."
PICKTHAL: And We said: O Adam! Dwell thou and thy wife in the Garden, and eat ye freely (of the fruits) thereof where ye will; but come not nigh this tree lest ye become wrong-doers.
SHAKIR: And We said: O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree, for then you will be of the unjust.
 

002.036
YUSUFALI: Then did Satan make them slip from the (garden), and get them out of the state (of felicity) in which they had been. We said: "Get ye down, all (ye people), with enmity between yourselves. On earth will be your dwelling-place and your means of livelihood - for a time."
PICKTHAL: But Satan caused them to deflect therefrom and expelled them from the (happy) state in which they were; and We said: Fall down, one of you a foe unto the other! There shall be for you on earth a habitation and provision for a time.
SHAKIR: But the Shaitan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said: Get forth, some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.
 

002.037
YUSUFALI: Then learnt Adam from his Lord words of inspiration, and his Lord Turned towards him; for He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Then Adam received from his Lord words (of revelation), and He relented toward him. Lo! He is the relenting, the Merciful.
SHAKIR: Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; surely He is Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.
 

002.038
YUSUFALI: We said: "Get ye down all from here; and if, as is sure, there comes to you Guidance from me, whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
PICKTHAL: We said: Go down, all of you, from hence; but verily there cometh unto you from Me a guidance; and whoso followeth My guidance, there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
SHAKIR: We said: Go forth from this (state) all; so surely there will come to you a guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve.
 

002.039
YUSUFALI: "But those who reject Faith and belie Our Signs, they shall be companions of the Fire; they shall abide therein."
PICKTHAL: But they who disbelieve, and deny Our revelations, such are rightful Peoples of the Fire. They will abide therein.
SHAKIR: And (as to) those who disbelieve in and reject My communications, they are the inmates of the fire, in it they shall abide.

 

 


 

Section 5

The following verses are aimed at the Children of Israel, reminding them of what transpired during - and since - the times of Moses, the first messenger of Allah who was given the Written Word in the form of the Ten Commandments inscribed on Tablets, constituting the basis of the Torah.

2 : 40

40. Ya banee isra-eela othkuroo niAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waawfoo biAAahdee oofi biAAahdikum wa-iyyaya fairhabooni

O Children of Israel! Remember the favour I bestowed upon you and discharge your part of the Covenant so that I too may discharge My part. And fear none but Me!

(It is unmistakably highlighted in this verse that the prime qualities of a believer are gratitude for favours received, honouring of covenants made and submission to none other than Allah).

2 : 41

41. Waaminoo bima anzaltu musaddiqan lima maAAakum wala takoonoo awwala kafirin bihi wala tashtaroo bi-ayatee thamanan qaleelan wa-iyyaya faittaqooni

And believe in that which I have now revealed, confirming the Scripture which you already possess; and be not among the foremost to repudiate My revelations nor trade them away in return for a trivial gain.  And adulate none but Me -

2 : 42

42. Wala talbisoo alhaqqa bialbatili wataktumoo alhaqqa waantum taAAlamoona

And confound not the Truth with Falsehood nor knowingly expurgate the Truth.

(The reference in the above two verses is to a group of influential Jewish clerics who used to exploit the wandering tribes by imposing annual levies on them and deliberately misleading them about the contents of the Torah, especially those which contained a vivid description of the Last Prophet, lest their source of wealth was taken away from them as a result of ‘competition’ from him, whom they considered to be their ‘rival’ .

2 : 43

43. Waaqeemoo alssalata waatoo alzzakata wairkaAAoo maAAa alrrakiAAeena

And perpetuate worship and give to the deserving their due and bow your heads along with those who bow their heads!
 

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed with reference to certain learned men amongst the Jews who did confirm to Meccan agnostics that the coming of a new Prophet was, indeed, prophesied in the Torah, so that they could make up their own minds regarding embracing the new religion, but when it came to their own convictions, they elected not to embrace it.

2 : 44

44. Ata/muroona alnnasa bialbirri watansawna anfusakum waantum tatloona alkitaba afala taAAqiloona

Preach you probity to the rest of mankind while exempting your own souls from practising it, - you, of all people, who are the recipients of a Scripture? Are you so devoid of sense?

*  *  *

2 : 45

45. WaistaAAeenoo bialssabri waalssalati wa-innaha lakabeeratun illa AAala alkhashiAAeena

Seek help with humility and through prayer. Prayer is, indeed, an arduous commitment, but not for those who are sincerely dedicated -

2 : 46

46. Allatheena yathunnoona annahum mulaqoo rabbihim waannahum ilayhi rajiAAoona

And are certain that soon they would have to face their Lord and that all must eventually return to Him! (R)

(In the above verses, the exhortation is to be patient in the moment of crisis and resort to worship when threatened with adversity so that we seek Divine help with deference and through invocation. Some people may find worship and fasting to an arduous imposition, but not those who solemnly believe in the munificence of Allah, nor those who pursue the truth. It is a well known fact that, whenever there was a crisis which needed a great effort to be resolved, the most important recourse to which our Prophet resorted for inspiration was the helping hand of Allah).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR

MUHSIN:

 

40. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you, and fulfill (your obligations to) My Covenant (with you) so that I fulfill (My Obligations to) your covenant (with Me), and fear none but Me.

41. And believe in what I have sent down (this Qur'ān), confirming that which is with you, [the Taurāt (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)], and be not the first to disbelieve therein, and buy [get (ŹĒĪŠ ĒĢŃĒ)] not with My Verses [the Taurāt (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] a small price (i.e. getting a small gain by selling My Verses), and fear Me and Me Alone. (Tafsir At-Tabarī, Vol. I, Page 253).

42. And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth [i.e. Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allāh's Messenger and his qualities are written in your Scriptures, the Taurāt (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] while you know (the truth) [].

43. And perform As-Salāt (Iqāmat-as-Salāt), and give Zakāt, and Irka' (i.e. bow down or submit yourselves with obedience to Allāh) along with Ar­Raki'ūn. []

44. Enjoin you Al-Birr (piety and righteousness and each and every act of obedience to Allāh) on the people and you forget (to practise it) yourselves, [] while you recite the Scripture [the Taurāt (Torah)]! Have you then no sense?

45. And seek help in patience and As-Salāt (the prayer) and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for Al-Khāshi'ūn [i.e. the true believers in Allāh - those who obey Allāh with full submission, fear much from His Punishment, and believe in His Promise (Paradise, etc.) and in His Warnings (Hell, etc.)].

46. (They are those) who are certain that they are going to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are going to return.


002.040
YUSUFALI: O Children of Israel! call to mind the (special) favour which I bestowed upon you, and fulfil your covenant with Me as I fulfil My Covenant with you, and fear none but Me.
PICKTHAL: O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I favoured you, and fulfil your (part of the) covenant, I shall fulfil My (part of the) covenant, and fear Me.
SHAKIR: O children of Israel! call to mind My favor which I bestowed on you and be faithful to (your) covenant with Me, I will fulfill (My) covenant with you; and of Me, Me alone, should you be afraid.

002.041
YUSUFALI: And believe in what I reveal, confirming the revelation which is with you, and be not the first to reject Faith therein, nor sell My Signs for a small price; and fear Me, and Me alone.
PICKTHAL: And believe in that which I reveal, confirming that which ye possess already (of the Scripture), and be not first to disbelieve therein, and part not with My revelations for a trifling price, and keep your duty unto Me.
SHAKIR: And believe in what I have revealed, verifying that which is with you, and be not the first to deny it, neither take a mean price in exchange for My communications; and Me, Me alone should you fear.

002.042
YUSUFALI: And cover not Truth with falsehood, nor conceal the Truth when ye know (what it is).
PICKTHAL: Confound not truth with falsehood, nor knowingly conceal the truth.
SHAKIR: And do not mix up the truth with the falsehood, nor hide the truth while you know (it).

002.043
YUSUFALI: And be steadfast in prayer; practise regular charity; and bow down your heads with those who bow down (in worship).
PICKTHAL: Establish worship, pay the poor-due, and bow your heads with those who bow (in worship).
SHAKIR: And keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and bow down with those who bow down.

002.044
YUSUFALI: Do ye enjoin right conduct on the people, and forget (To practise it) yourselves, and yet ye study the Scripture? Will ye not understand?
PICKTHAL: Enjoin ye righteousness upon mankind while ye yourselves forget (to practise it)? And ye are readers of the Scripture! Have ye then no sense?
SHAKIR: What! do you enjoin men to be good and neglect your own souls while you read the Book; have you then no sense?

002.045
YUSUFALI: Nay, seek (Allah's) help with patient perseverance and prayer: It is indeed hard, except to those who bring a lowly spirit,-
PICKTHAL: Seek help in patience and prayer; and truly it is hard save for the humble-minded,
SHAKIR: And seek assistance through patience and prayer, and most surely it is a hard thing except for the humble ones,

002.046
YUSUFALI: Who bear in mind the certainty that they are to meet their Lord, and that they are to return to Him.
PICKTHAL: Who know that they will have to meet their Lord, and that unto Him they are returning.
SHAKIR: Who know that they shall meet their Lord and that they shall return to Him.

 

 

 

Section 6

2 : 47

 47. Ya banee isra-eela othkuroo niAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waannee faddaltukum AAala alAAalameena

O Children of Israel! Remember My favour which I bestowed on you when I elevated you above the rest of My creatures -

(Any nation to whom a messenger of Allah is sent is a nation well elevated above the others by virtue of that very fact. Moses was chosen by Allah from among the Children of Israel and endowed with Prophethood and Wisdom and the Scripture so that he may bring to the whole of mankind the message of their Lord and lead them on to the path of righteousness)

2 : 48

48. Waittaqoo yawman la tajzee nafsun AAan nafsin shay-an wala yuqbalu minha shafaAAatun wala yu/khathu minha AAadlun wala hum yunsaroona

And protect yourselves against a Day when no soul will avail another soul, nor any intercession would be accepted from it, nor any ransom would be conceded to it, nor any help given to it!

(The Day mentioned here is the Day of Judgement when all mankind would be gathered before their Lord to speak for themselves; to render their own accounts; to seek His forgiveness for their sins; to plead for His mercy, to make out a case for the redemption of their souls so that Allah may cleanse their hearts and purge them of guilt and take them to His bosom. At such a precarious moment, no son will come to the aid of his father whom he revered all his life; no mother will look at the child whom she had given birth; no wife will be concerned about her husband whom she had loved and honoured; no plea bargaining will be permitted, no help will be conceded and no ransom will be accepted).

* * *

In the following verses the Children of Israel are reminded of many a favour they had received from Allah and yet so blatantly disregarded His Guidance.

2 : 49

49. Wa-ith najjaynakum min ali firAAawna yasoomoonakum soo-a alAAathabi yuthabbihoona abnaakum wayastahyoona nisaakum wafee thalikum balaon min rabbikum Aaatheemun

And (remember) when We rescued you from Pharaoh's folks who were plaguing you with an exorbitant torment by doing away with your sons and allowing only your daughters to live! That, in itself was a great gesture of generosity towards you from your Lord!

(Pharaoh was the generic title of kings who occupied the throne of Egypt. The despot who ruled during the times of Moses was a particularly ruthless person who despised the Children of Israel, forced them into hard labour in order to accomplish his pompous projects, imposed upon them exorbitant levies and punished those who were unable to pay. Then, when the learned men of his realm interpreted a poignant vision he had at the time as a presage that a son born to the Children of Israel would destroy him and end his dynasty, he ordered his soldiers to slay every son born in their households. Allah chose Moses from their midst as His messenger and entrusted to him the responsibility of delivering his folk from the clutches of Pharaoh, referred in this verse as 'a great gesture of generosity towards you from your Lord’

2 : 50

50. Wa-ith faraqna bikumu albahra faanjaynakum waaghraqna ala firAAawna waantum tanthuroona

And (remember) when We cleaved apart the ocean to deliver you and drowned the armies of Pharaoh in front of your very eyes!

(When Moses led his people out of Egypt but was trapped between Pharaoh's army on one side and the ocean on the other, Allah caused the water to cleave apart so that he and his people could pass through it in safety, while drowning Pharaoh and his armies in the sea in front of their very eyes).

1 : 51

51. Wa-ith waAAadna moosa arbaAAeena laylatan thumma ittakhathtumu alAAijla min baAAdihi waantum thalimoona

And (remember) when We sanctioned for Moses forty nights for meditation, but you chose the worship of a calf whilst he was away and turned yourselves into transgressors!

2 : 52

52. Thumma AAafawna AAankum min baAAdi thalika laAAallakum tashkuroona

Yet, in spite of that, We pardoned you lest you tendered your gratitude!

(When Moses deputized his brother Aaron to take charge of his people and went away for a period of forty days in order to keep his tryst with the Lord, they succumbed to the persuasion of an evil man and took to the worship of a Calf. Yet Allah favourably responded to the prayer of Moses and relented towards them. Whereas Pharaoh and his armies were annihilated without a trace in retaliation for their transgression, the Children of Israel were forgiven and delivered in spite of their transgression. That was because there were many a Prophet and Oracles and men of Wisdom yet to emerge from their seed).

2 : 53

53. Wa-ith atayna moosa alkitaba waalfurqana laAAallakum tahtadoona

And (remember) when We bestowed upon Moses the Scripture and the Criterion so that perchance you may heed the guidance contained in them.

(Moses received the Torah and the Criterion of right and wrong from his Lord so that his folks may make use of the unique opportunity and ameliorate themselves).

2 : 54

54. Wa-ith qala moosa liqawmihi ya qawmi innakum thalamtum anfusakum biittikhathikumu alAAijla fatooboo ila bari-ikum faoqtuloo anfusakum thalikum khayrun lakum AAinda bari-ikum fataba AAalaykum innahu huwa alttawwabu alrraheemu

And when Moses said to his people : 'O my people! You have wronged yourselves by your worship of the calf, so turn repentant to your Creator and slay with your hands those who misguided you! This is a more appropriate course of action for you to take in the eyes of your Creator and He will forgive you, for He is Magnanimous and Merciful!'

(Moses asked his people to ransom themselves for worshipping the Calf by carrying out the slaughter of those who worshipped it at the hands of those who refused to worship it. Allah accepted the ransom and conferred upon those who were slain the status of martyrs and reprieved all those who carried out the slaughter at the behest of Moses).

2 : 55

55. Wa-ith qultum ya moosa lan nu/mina laka hatta nara Allaha jahratan faakhathatkumu alssaAAiqatu waantum tanthuroona

And when you said : 'O Moses! We will never believe you until we have caught a glimpse of Allah with our own eyes!' you were struck down by lightning even as you stood and gazed!

2 : 56

56. Thumma baAAathnakum min baAAdi mawtikum laAAallakum tashkuroona

Then, after you became extinct, We revived you again so that perchance you may tender your gratitude!

(When they had the audacity to demand of Moses that he enabled them to see Allah with their own eyes in proof of his veracity, a fearsome thunderbolt emanated from the sky and struck them dead. Yet, in answer to the invocations of Moses, they were brought back to life)

2 : 57

57. Wathallalna AAalaykumu alghamama waanzalna AAalaykumu almanna waalssalwa kuloo min tayyibati ma razaqnakum wama thalamoona walakin kanoo anfusahum yathlimoona

We caused the cloud to provide you with shelter and sent down for you the Manna and the Quail, saying: 'Eat of the salubrious provisions We have made available to you!' We harmed them not but they harmed their own selves!

(When Moses led his people out of Egypt and headed towards the Promised Land in Syria, - the seat of Abraham and his seed, - they came across many a rigor of their tiresome journey along that desolate and seemingly interminable desert land, especially of heat and of hunger. In answer to the prayers of Moses, Allah caused a dense layer of white cloud to follow them wherever they went and shelter them from the heat of the sun, and sent down from heaven the Manna and the Quail to appease their hunger, with but one stipulation that they trusted Allah for the morrow and did not hoard it. Yet they fell short of trust and hoarded it, with the result that the clean food sent from heaven which they saved rotted in the heat of the sun. Hence the words 'We harmed them not but they harmed their own selves!’ )

2 : 58

58. Wa-ith qulna odkhuloo hathihi alqaryata fakuloo minha haythu shi/tum raghadan waodkhuloo albaba sujjadan waqooloo hittatun naghfir lakum khatayakum wasanazeedu almuhsineena

When We said : 'Go into this township and eat what you like without any restraints, but enter it through the gate prostrating and saying : 'We repent!' We will forgive you your sins and even enhance the reward for those of you who are righteous!'

2 : 59

59. Fabaddala allatheena thalamoo qawlan ghayra allathee qeela lahum faanzalna AAala allatheena thalamoo rijzan mina alssama-i bima kanoo yafsuqoona

But the sinful amongst you changed the word they were asked to utter and replaced it with another disparaging word. So We sent down upon them an heinous pestilence from the sky, in retaliation for their solecism. (R)

(When the weary travellers were asked to enter a town along the way which had been abandoned by its denizens but was copious in produce, full of trees laden with yield, they disobeyed the command of Allah again as a result of which a deadly pestilence from the sky descended on them in the form a plague and ravaged them.

The township referred to in this verse is either Jerusalem or Jerico).


 

EXAMPLES OF OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

47. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the 'Alamīn (mankind and jinns) (of your time period, in the past).

48. And fear a Day (of Judgement) when a person shall not avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from him nor will compensation be taken from him nor will they be helped.

49. And (remember) when We delivered you from Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people, who were afflicting you with a horrible torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and therein was a mighty trial from your Lord.

50. And (remember) when We separated the sea for you and saved you and drowned Fir'aun's (Pharaoh) people while you were looking (at them, when the sea-water covered them).

51. And (remember) when We appointed for Mūsa (Moses) forty nights, and (in his absence) you took the calf (for worship), and you were Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers, etc.).

52. Then after that We forgave you so that you might be grateful.

53. And (remember) when We gave Mūsa (Moses) the Scripture [the Taurāt (Torah)] and the criterion (of right and wrong) so that you may be guided aright.

54. And (remember) when Mūsa (Moses) said to his people: "O my people! Verily, you have wronged yourselves by worshipping the calf. So turn in repentance to your Creator and kill yourselves (the innocent kill the wrongdoers among you), that will be better for you with your Lord." Then He accepted your repentance. Truly, He is the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

55. And (remember) when you said: "O Mūsa (Moses)! We shall never believe in you till we see Allāh plainly." But you were seized with a thunderbolt (lightning) while you were looking.

56. Then We raised you up after your death, so that you might be grateful.

57. And We shaded you with clouds and sent down on you Al-Manna [] and the quails, (saying): "Eat of the good lawful things We have provided for you," (but they rebelled). And they did not wrong Us but they wronged themselves.

58. And (remember) when We said: "Enter this town (Jerusalem) and eat bountifully therein with pleasure and delight wherever you wish, and enter the gate in prostration (or bowing with humility) and say: 'Forgive us,' and We shall forgive you your sins and shall increase (reward) for the good-doers."

59. But those who did wrong changed the word from that which had been told to them for another, so We sent upon the wrong-doers Rijzan (a punishment) [] from the heaven because of their rebelling against Allāh's Obedience. (Tafsir At-Tabarī, Vol. I, Page 305).


002.047
YUSUFALI: Children of Israel! call to mind the (special) favour which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all other (for My Message).
PICKTHAL: O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I favoured you and how I preferred you to (all) creatures.
SHAKIR: O children of Israel! call to mind My favor which I bestowed on you and that I made you excel the nations.

002.048

YUSUFALI: Then guard yourselves against a day when one soul shall not avail another nor shall intercession be accepted for her, nor shall compensation be taken from her, nor shall anyone be helped (from outside).
PICKTHAL: And guard yourselves against a day when no soul will in aught avail another, nor will intercession be accepted from it, nor will compensation be received from it, nor will they be helped.
SHAKIR: And be on your guard against a day when one soul shall not avail another in the least, neither shall intercession on its behalf be accepted, nor shall any compensation be taken from it, nor shall they be helped.

002.049
YUSUFALI: And remember, We delivered you from the people of Pharaoh: They set you hard tasks and punishments, slaughtered your sons and let your women-folk live; therein was a tremendous trial from your Lord.
PICKTHAL: And (remember) when We did deliver you from Pharaoh's folk, who were afflicting you with dreadful torment, slaying your sons and sparing your women: that was a tremendous trial from your Lord.
SHAKIR: And when We delivered you from Firon's people, who subjected you to severe torment, killing your sons and sparing your women, and in this there was a great trial from your Lord.

002.050
YUSUFALI: And remember We divided the sea for you and saved you and drowned Pharaoh's people within your very sight.
PICKTHAL: And when We brought you through the sea and rescued you, and drowned the folk of Pharaoh in your sight.
SHAKIR: And when We parted the sea for you, so We saved you and drowned the followers of Firon and you watched by.

002.051
YUSUFALI: And remember We appointed forty nights for Moses, and in his absence ye took the calf (for worship), and ye did grievous wrong.
PICKTHAL: And when We did appoint for Moses forty nights (of solitude), and then ye chose the calf, when he had gone from you, and were wrong-doers.
SHAKIR: And when We appointed a time of forty nights with Musa, then you took the calf (for a god) after him and you were unjust.

002.052
YUSUFALI: Even then We did forgive you; there was a chance for you to be grateful.
PICKTHAL: Then, even after that, We pardoned you in order that ye might give thanks.
SHAKIR: Then We pardoned you after that so that you might give thanks.

002.053
YUSUFALI: And remember We gave Moses the Scripture and the Criterion (Between right and wrong): There was a chance for you to be guided aright.
PICKTHAL: And when We gave unto Moses the Scripture and the criterion (of right and wrong), that ye might be led aright.
SHAKIR: And when We gave Musa the Book and the distinction that you might walk aright.

002.054
YUSUFALI: And remember Moses said to his people: "O my people! Ye have indeed wronged yourselves by your worship of the calf: So turn (in repentance) to your Maker, and slay yourselves (the wrong-doers); that will be better for you in the sight of your Maker." Then He turned towards you (in forgiveness): For He is Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: And when Moses said unto his people: O my people! Ye have wronged yourselves by your choosing of the calf (for worship) so turn in penitence to your Creator, and kill (the guilty) yourselves. That will be best for you with your Creator and He will relent toward you. Lo! He is the Relenting, the Merciful.
SHAKIR: And when Musa said to his people: O my people! you have surely been unjust to yourselves by taking the calf (for a god), therefore turn to your Creator (penitently), so kill your people, that is best for you with your Creator: so He turned to you (mercifully), for surely He is the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.

002.055
YUSUFALI: And remember ye said: "O Moses! We shall never believe in thee until we see Allah manifestly," but ye were dazed with thunder and lighting even as ye looked on.
PICKTHAL: And when ye said: O Moses! We will not believe in thee till we see Allah plainly; and even while ye gazed the lightning seized you.
SHAKIR: And when you said: O Musa! we will not believe in you until we see Allah manifestly, so the punishment overtook you while you looked on.

002.056
YUSUFALI: Then We raised you up after your death: Ye had the chance to be grateful.
PICKTHAL: Then We revived you after your extinction, that ye might give thanks.
SHAKIR: Then We raised you up after your death that you may give thanks.

002.057
YUSUFALI: And We gave you the shade of clouds and sent down to you Manna and quails, saying: "Eat of the good things We have provided for you:" (But they rebelled); to us they did no harm, but they harmed their own souls.
PICKTHAL: And We caused the white cloud to overshadow you and sent down on you the manna and the quails, (saying): Eat of the good things wherewith We have provided you - they wronged Us not, but they did wrong themselves.
SHAKIR: And We made the clouds to give shade over you and We sent to you manna and quails: Eat of the good things that We have given you; and they did not do Us any harm, but they made their own souls suffer the loss.

002.058
YUSUFALI: And remember We said: "Enter this town, and eat of the plenty therein as ye wish; but enter the gate with humility, in posture and in words, and We shall forgive you your faults and increase (the portion of) those who do good."
PICKTHAL: And when We said: Go into this township and eat freely of that which is therein, and enter the gate prostrate, and say: "Repentance." We will forgive you your sins and will increase (reward) for the right-doers.
SHAKIR: And when We said: Enter this city, then eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish, and enter the gate making obeisance, and say, forgiveness. We will forgive you your wrongs and give more to those who do good (to others).

002.059
YUSUFALI: But the transgressors changed the word from that which had been given them; so We sent on the transgressors a plague from heaven, for that they infringed (Our command) repeatedly.
PICKTHAL: But those who did wrong changed the word which had been told them for another saying, and We sent down upon the evil-doers wrath from heaven for their evil-doing.
SHAKIR: But those who were unjust changed it for a saying other than that which had been spoken to them, so We sent upon those who were unjust a pestilence from heaven, because they transgressed.

 

Section 7

2 : 60

 60. Wa-ithi istasqa moosa liqawmihi faqulna idrib biAAasaka alhajara fainfajarat minhu ithnata AAashrata AAaynan qad AAalima kullu onasin mashrabahum kuloo waishraboo min rizqi Allahi wala taAAthaw fee al-ardi mufsideena

When Moses prayed for water for his people, We said : 'Strike that rock with your Staff!' and there emerged from it twelve fountains so that each tribe knew which one belonged to whom. (We said) 'Eat and drink of that which Allah has provided for you and desist from causing strife in the land!'

(In course of the epic journey when they ran out of water and were on the brink of death from thirst, Allah enabled Moses to perform a miracle and caused twelve fountains to gush forth from the rock so that all twelve of his tribes had a fountain each.

There is an uncorroborated tradition that Moses carried with him a special piece of rock reputed to have been brought on earth from Paradise by Adam and passed on to his descendants. It had the miraculous quality of producing water in abundance when rubbed against any other object).

2 : 61

61. Wa-ith qultum ya moosa lan nasbira AAala taAAamin wahidin faodAAu lana rabbaka yukhrij lana mimma tunbitu al-ardu min baqliha waqiththa-iha wafoomiha waAAadasiha wabasaliha qala atastabdiloona allathee huwa adna biallathee huwa khayrun ihbitoo misran fa-inna lakum ma saaltum waduribat AAalayhimu alththillatu waalmaskanatu wabaoo bighadabin mina Allahi thalika bi-annahum kanoo yakfuroona bi-ayati Allahi wayaqtuloona alnnabiyyeena bighayri alhaqqi thalika bima AAasaw wakanoo yaAAtadoona

And when you said : 'O Moses! We are tired of eating one kind of food everyday, so pray to your Lord to bring forth for us that which the earth grows, such as vegetables and cucumbers and wheat and lentils and onions!' He said : 'Prefer you the inferior over the superior? Then set up home in a township where you can get what you prefer.' Since then, depravity and dearth returned to them, as did the wrath of Allah. That was because they repudiated Allah's revelations and slew His Prophets without justification, - that was for their belligerence and transgression! (R)

(Their contempt towards the endless benefactions of their Lord reached its peak when they asked Moses to let them grow their own food from earth rather than eat the clean food that was coming from heaven because they were tired of eating the same things every day.

The messengers of Allah whom the Children of Israel slew without justification were Jethro, Zachariah, John and the betrayal of Jesus to the Romans).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

 

60. And (remember) when Mūsa (Moses) asked for water for his people, We said: "Strike the stone with your stick." Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each (group of) people knew its own place for water. "Eat and drink of that which Allāh has provided and do not act corruptly, making mischief on the earth."

61. And (remember) when you said, "O Mūsa (Moses)! We cannot endure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for us to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its herbs, its cucumbers, its Fūm (wheat or garlic), its lentils and its onions." He said, "Would you exchange that which is better for that which is lower? Go you down to any town and you shall find what you want!" And they were covered with humiliation and misery, and they drew on themselves the Wrath of Allāh. That was because they used to disbelieve the Ayāt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) of Allāh and killed the Prophets wrongfully. That was because they disobeyed and used to transgress the bounds (in their disobedience to Allāh, i.e. commit crimes and sins).



002.060 
YUSUFALI: And remember Moses prayed for water for his people; We said: "Strike the rock with thy staff." Then gushed forth therefrom twelve springs. Each group knew its 
own place for water. So eat and drink of the sustenance provided by Allah, and do no evil nor mischief on the (face of the) earth. 
PICKTHAL: And when Moses asked for water for his people, We said: Smite with thy staff the rock. And there gushed out therefrom twelve springs (so that) each tribe knew 
their drinking-place. Eat and drink of that which Allah hath provided, and do not act corruptly, making mischief in the earth. 
SHAKIR: And when Musa prayed for drink for his people, We said: Strike the rock with your staff So there gushed from it twelve springs; each tribe knew its drinking place: 
Eat and drink of the provisions of Allah and do not act corruptly in the land, making mischief. 
 
002.061 
YUSUFALI: And remember ye said: "O Moses! we cannot endure one kind of food (always); so beseech thy Lord for us to produce for us of what the earth groweth, 
-its pot-herbs, and cucumbers, Its garlic, lentils, and onions." He said: "Will ye exchange the better for the worse? Go ye down to any town, and ye shall find what ye 
want!" They were covered with humiliation and misery; they drew on themselves the wrath of Allah. This because they went on rejecting the Signs of Allah and slaying 
His Messengers without just cause. This because they rebelled and went on transgressing. 
PICKTHAL: And when ye said: O Moses! We are weary of one kind of food; so call upon thy Lord for us that He bring forth for us of that which the earth groweth - of its 
herbs and its cucumbers and its corn and its lentils and its onions. He said: Would ye exchange that which is higher for that which is lower? Go down to settled country, 
thus ye shall get that which ye demand. And humiliation and wretchedness were stamped upon them and they were visited with wrath from Allah. That was because they 
disbelieved in Allah's revelations and slew the prophets wrongfully. That was for their disobedience and transgression. 
SHAKIR: And when you said: O Musa! we cannot bear with one food, therefore pray Lord on our behalf to bring forth for us out of what the earth grows, of its herbs and 
its cucumbers and its garlic and its lentils and its onions. He said: Will you exchange that which is better for that which is worse? Enter a city, so you will have what you 
ask for. And abasement and humiliation were brought down upon them, and they became deserving of Allah's wrath; this was so because they disbelieved in the 
communications of Allah and killed the prophets unjustly; this was so because they disobeyed and exceeded the limits. 

 

Section 8

Context of Revelation: The following verse was revealed by way of reassurance to all other contemporary creeds that their adherents have no cause for concern and that the reward for their righteous deeds is in the safe-keeping of Allah.

2 : 62

62. Inna allatheena amanoo waallatheena hadoo waalnnasara waalssabi-eena man amana biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri waAAamila salihan falahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona

Those who believe in the Qur'aan; and the Jews and the Christians and the Sabaeans who believe in Allah and in the Last Day and perform good deeds, let them rest assured that their reward is in the safe keeping of their Lord and that they have no cause for concern nor for distress!

*  *  *

2 : 63

63. Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakum warafaAAna fawqakumu alttoora khuthoo ma ataynakum biquwwatin waothkuroo ma feehi laAAallakum tattaqoona

And remember (O Children of Israel) when We took a Covenant from you and suspended the Mount above your heads saying : 'Adhere to that which We have revealed to you and remember that which it embodies so that you may ward off evil!'

2 : 64

64. Thumma tawallaytum min baAAdi thalika falawla fadlu Allahi AAalaykum warahmatuhu lakuntum mina alkhasireena

And yet, even after all that, you retracted again! Were it not for Allah's Grace and Mercy on you, you would have been a generation lost!

2 : 65

65. Walaqad AAalimtumu allatheena iAAtadaw minkum fee alssabti faqulna lahum koonoo qiradatan khasi-eena

Surely you know about those of your brethren who broke the Sabbath and how We cursed them saying : 'Become apes, despised and ostracized' -

2 : 66

66. FajaAAalnaha nakalan lima bayna yadayha wama khalfaha wamawAAithatan lilmuttaqeena

And turned their plight into a lesson for present and future generations and an admonition for those who are abstemious.

(The Children of Israel were commanded to set aside one day of the week for worship and abstain from all mundane preoccupations, including angling for fish. They chose a Saturday towards it, which came to be known as the Sabbath day, and its sanctity was acknowledged by most of them. But there was a group of dissidents among them who were determined to flout the restriction and break the Sabbath, which they did by spending the Saturday in trapping fish in puddles of water alongside the river, if not in angling, to the chagrin of their own brethren who observed the Sabbath with firm dedication. So they were cursed by Allah and transmuted into apes).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : Verses 67 to 73 deal with an incident which is said to have occurred near Madina during the times of Moses, a fuller explanation of which has been given after verse 73.

2 : 67

67. Wa-ith qala moosa liqawmihi inna Allaha ya/murukum an tathbahoo baqaratan qaloo atattakhithuna huzuwan qala aAAoothu biAllahi an akoona mina aljahileena

When Moses said to his people: 'Allah commands that you sacrifice a cow!' they said : 'Are you jesting with us?' he said : 'Allah forbid that I jest with you about such matters!'

2 : 68

68. Qaloo odAAu lana rabbaka yubayyin lana ma hiya qala innahu yaqoolu innaha baqaratun la faridun wala bikrun AAawanun bayna thalika faifAAaloo ma tu/maroona

They said : 'Do pray to your Lord to make it clear to us what sort of a cow she is to be!' Moses said : 'He says she is to be a cow that is neither too old nor too young but something in between. So, do that which you are being commanded to do!'

2 : 69

69. Qaloo odAAu lana rabbaka yubayyin lana ma lawnuha qala innahu yaqoolu innaha baqaratun safrao faqiAAun lawnuha tasurru alnnathireena

They said : 'Do pray to your Lord to make it clear to us of what colour is she to be!' Moses said : 'He says she is to be of a yellow hue, bright and pleasing to the eye of the beholder.'

2 : 70

70. Qaloo odAAu lana rabbaka yubayyin lana ma hiya inna albaqara tashabaha AAalayna wa-inna in shaa Allahu lamuhtadoona

They said : 'Do pray to your Lord to make it clear to us precisely what sort of a cow she is to be because all cows look the same to us. But if it is the will of Allah, we may be given the right guidance.'

2 : 71

71. Qala innahu yaqoolu innaha baqaratun la thaloolun tutheeru al-arda wala tasqee alhartha musallamatun la shiyata feeha qaloo al-ana ji/ta bialhaqqi fathabahooha wama kadoo yafAAaloona

Moses said, 'He says she is to be a cow that has not been burdened for ploughing the fields or for irrigating the crops, a cow intact and flawless!' They said : 'Now you have brought to us the whole of the truth!' and sacrificed the cow, - although reluctantly. (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

62. Verily! Those who believe and those who are Jews and Christians, and Sabians, [] whoever believes in Allāh and the Last Day and do righteous good deeds shall have their reward with their Lord, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve [].

63. And (O Children of Israel, remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying): "Hold fast to that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein so that you may become Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2).

64. Then after that you turned away. Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allāh upon you, indeed you would have been among the losers.

65. And indeed you knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath (i.e. Saturday). We said to them: "Be you monkeys, despised and rejected."

66. So We made this punishment an example to their own and to succeeding generations and a lesson to those who are Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2).

67. And (remember) when Mūsa (Moses) said to his people: "Verily, Allāh commands you that you slaughter a cow." They said, "Do you make fun of us?" He said, "I take Allāh's Refuge from being among Al-Jāhilūn (the ignorants or the foolish)."

68. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us that He may make plain to us what it is!" He said, "He says, 'Verily, it is a cow neither too old nor too young, but (it is) between the two conditions', so do what you are commanded."

69. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us its colour." He said, "He says, 'It is a yellow cow, bright in its colour, pleasing to the beholders.' "

70. They said, "Call upon your Lord for us to make plain to us what it is. Verily to us all cows are alike, And surely, if Allāh wills, we will be guided."

71. He [Mūsa (Moses)] said, "He says, 'It is a cow neither trained to till the soil nor water the fields, sound, having no other colour except bright yellow.' " They said, "Now you have brought the truth." So they slaughtered it though they were near to not doing it.


002.062
YUSUFALI: Those who believe (in the Qur'an), and those who follow the Jewish (scriptures), and the Christians and the Sabians,- any who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and work righteousness, shall have their reward with their Lord; on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
PICKTHAL: Lo! Those who believe (in that which is revealed unto thee, Muhammad), and those who are Jews, and Christians, and Sabaeans - whoever believeth in Allah and the Last Day and doeth right - surely their reward is with their Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
SHAKIR: Surely those who believe, and those who are Jews, and the f Christians, and the Sabians, whoever believes in Allah and the Last day and does good, they shall have their reward from their Lord, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve.

002.063
YUSUFALI: And remember We took your covenant and We raised above you (The towering height) of Mount (Sinai) : (Saying): "Hold firmly to what We have given you and bring (ever) to remembrance what is therein: Perchance ye may fear Allah."
PICKTHAL: And (remember, O Children of Israel) when We made a covenant with you and caused the mount to tower above you, (saying): Hold fast that which We have given you, and remember that which is therein, that ye may ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: And when We took a promise from you and lifted the mountain over you: Take hold of the law (Tavrat) We have given you with firmness and bear in mind what is in it, so that you may guard (against evil).

002.064
YUSUFALI: But ye turned back thereafter: Had it not been for the Grace and Mercy of Allah to you, ye had surely been among the lost.
PICKTHAL: Then, even after that, ye turned away, and if it had not been for the grace of Allah and His mercy ye had been among the losers.
SHAKIR: Then you turned back after that; so were it not for the grace of Allah and His mercy on you, you would certainly have been among the losers.

002.065
YUSUFALI: And well ye knew those amongst you who transgressed in the matter of the Sabbath: We said to them: "Be ye apes, despised and rejected."
PICKTHAL: And ye know of those of you who broke the Sabbath, how We said unto them: Be ye apes, despised and hated!
SHAKIR: And certainly you have known those among you who exceeded the limits of the Sabbath, so We said to them: Be (as) apes, despised and hated.

002.066
YUSUFALI: So We made it an example to their own time and to their posterity, and a lesson to those who fear Allah.
PICKTHAL: And We made it an example to their own and to succeeding generations, and an admonition to the Allah-fearing.
SHAKIR: So We made them an example to those who witnessed it and those who came after it, and an admonition to those who guard (against evil).

002.067
YUSUFALI: And remember Moses said to his people: "Allah commands that ye sacrifice a heifer." They said: "Makest thou a laughing-stock of us?" He said: "Allah save me from being an ignorant (fool)!"
PICKTHAL: And when Moses said unto his people: Lo! Allah commandeth you that ye sacrifice a cow, they said: Dost thou make game of us? He answered: Allah forbid that I should be among the foolish!
SHAKIR: And when Musa said to his people: Surely Allah commands you that you should sacrifice a cow; they said: Do you ridicule us? He said: I seek the protection of Allah from being one of the ignorant.

002.068
YUSUFALI: They said: "Beseech on our behalf Thy Lord to make plain to us what (heifer) it is!" He said; "He says: The heifer should be neither too old nor too young, but of middling age. Now do what ye are commanded!"
PICKTHAL: They said: Pray for us unto thy Lord that He make clear to us what (cow) she is. (Moses) answered: Lo! He saith, Verily she is a cow neither with calf nor immature; (she is) between the two conditions; so do that which ye are commanded.
SHAKIR: They said: Call on your Lord for our sake to make it plain to us what she is. Musa said: He says, Surely she is a cow neither advanced in age nor too young, of middle age between that (and this); do therefore what you are commanded.

002.069
YUSUFALI: They said: "Beseech on our behalf Thy Lord to make plain to us Her colour." He said: "He says: A fawn-coloured heifer, pure and rich in tone, the admiration of beholders!"
PICKTHAL: They said: Pray for us unto thy Lord that He make clear to us of what colour she is. (Moses) answered: Lo! He saith: Verily she is a yellow cow. Bright is her colour, gladdening beholders.
SHAKIR: They said: Call on your Lord for our sake to make it plain to us what her color is. Musa said: He says, Surely she is a yellow cow; her color is intensely yellow, giving delight to the beholders.

002.070
YUSUFALI: They said: "Beseech on our behalf Thy Lord to make plain to us what she is: To us are all heifers alike: We wish indeed for guidance, if Allah wills."
PICKTHAL: They said: Pray for us unto thy Lord that He make clear to us what (cow) she is. Lo! cows are much alike to us; and Lo! if Allah wills, we may be led aright.
SHAKIR: They said: Call on your Lord for our sake to make it plain to us what she is, for surely to us the cows are all alike, and if Allah please we shall surely be guided aright.

002.071
YUSUFALI: He said: "He says: A heifer not trained to till the soil or water the fields; sound and without blemish." They said: "Now hast thou brought the truth." Then they offered her in sacrifice, but not with good-will.
PICKTHAL: (Moses) answered: Lo! He saith: Verily she is a cow unyoked; she plougheth not the soil nor watereth the tilth; whole and without mark. They said: Now thou bringest the truth. So they sacrificed her, though almost they did not.
SHAKIR: Musa said: He says, Surely she is a cow not made submissive that she should plough the land, nor does she irrigate the tilth; sound, without a blemish in her. They said: Now you have brought the truth; so they sacrificed her, though they had not the mind to do (it).


 Section 9

2 : 72

72. Wa-ith qataltum nafsan faiddara/tum feeha waAllahu mukhrijun ma kuntum taktumoona

And remember when you slew a man and altercated with one another over it, Allah brought out into the open that which you were attempting to conceal.

2 : 73

73. Faqulna idriboohu bibaAAdiha kathalika yuhyee Allahu almawta wayureekum ayatihi laAAallakum taAAqiloona

We said : 'Smite the victim with some of it! Thus does Allah bring the dead back to life and demonstrates His portents to you so that you comprehend!'

(The incident referred to in the above verses is that, when a wealthy Jew was murdered by his nephew for his wealth and the corpse left outside the gates of a neighbouring township, its residents brought the body to Moses and asked him to help them identify the culprit. Since he could not do it without Divine inspiration, he prayed to Allah and sought guidance. Allah responded by asking him to command the men to sacrifice a cow before they could be helped to find their quarry. But being by nature niggardly, they were reluctant to offer a somewhat expensive oblation for a matter in which their interest was merely perfunctory, and tried to dodge the command by asking all sorts of tiresome questions.

In the end, when they finally did what they were bidden to do, they were ordered to smite the dead man with a piece of the cow's flesh, at which the dead man came back to life and divulged the identity of the culprit.

The incident proves two vital points : if Allah wishes something to be brought out into the open, no one can nip it in the bud; and if Allah wishes to bring anyone back from the dead, it takes Him no more than the blinking of an eyelid to do it).

*  *  *

2 : 74

74. Thumma qasat quloobukum min baAAdi thalika fahiya kaalhijarati aw ashaddu qaswatan wa-inna mina alhijarati lama yatafajjaru minhu al-anharu wa-inna minha lama yashshaqqaqu fayakhruju minhu almao wa-inna minha lama yahbitu min khashyati Allahi wama Allahu bighafilin AAamma taAAmaloona

Thereafter your hearts hardened and became like rocks, even more impervious than rocks, for among rocks there are some from which rivers gush forth; and there are some which cleave apart and let water to pass through them; and there are some which quake and come rolling down by themselves from awe of Allah! Allah is not unaware of your deeds!

2 : 75

75. AfatatmaAAoona an yu/minoo lakum waqad kana fareequn minhum yasmaAAoona kalama Allahi thumma yuharrifoonahu min baAAdi ma AAaqaloohu wahum yaAAlamoona

Are you harbouring any realistic expectation that they will ever accede to you, when a group of them used to listen to the word of Allah and deliberately alter it even after having grasped its meaning?  

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed with reference to the hypocrites among the children of Israel who used to pretend to be believers in the presence of the believers, but behind their backs remonstrate each other for giving away to their adversaries the wisdom contained in the Torah, which they somehow deemed to be  exclusively theirs alone.

2 : 76

76. Wa-itha laqoo allatheena amanoo qaloo amanna wa-itha khala baAAduhum ila baAAdin qaloo atuhaddithoonahum bima fataha Allahu AAalaykum liyuhajjookum bihi AAinda rabbikum afala taAAqiloona

And when they mingle with those who believe, they say : 'We too believe!'  But when they are with each other, they say : 'Give you away to them the guidance which Allah disclosed to you, so that they are able to altercate with you before your Lord over it? Have you no sense?'

2 : 77

77. Awa la yaAAlamoona anna Allaha yaAAlamu ma yusirroona wama yuAAlinoona

Know they not that Allah is aware of that which they conceal and of that which they reveal?

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the non practising Jews whose knowledge of the Torah was next to nothing altered all those parts in it which contained the description of the Last Prophet in order to ensure that people who used to flock to them for instruction did not abandon them in preference to the clerics of the rival religion.

2 : 78

78. Waminhum ommiyyoona la yaAAlamoona alkitaba illa amaniyya wa-in hum illa yathunnoona

Amongst them are the unlettered ones who have no real knowledge of the Scripture other than performing oral recitations. They accept whatever they are told by others and speculate about the rest!

2 : 79

79. Fawaylun lillatheena yaktuboona alkitaba bi-aydeehim thumma yaqooloona hatha min AAindi Allahi liyashtaroo bihi thamanan qaleelan fawaylun lahum mimma katabat aydeehim wawaylun lahum mimma yaksiboona

Hence, damnation on those who write the Scripture with their own hands and say : 'This is from Allah!' to make a trivial gain out of it! Damnation on them for what their hands have written and damnation on them for whatever they have gained from it!

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the Children of Israel claimed that they would never be cast in hell for a period longer than the period over which they worshipped the Calf,  which was forty days.

2 : 80

80. Waqaloo lan tamassana alnnaru illa ayyaman maAAdoodatan qul attakhathtum AAinda Allahi AAahdan falan yukhlifa Allahu AAahdahu am taqooloona AAala Allahi ma la taAAlamoona

They say : 'The Fire will not touch us except for a few days!' Say to them : 'Have you obtained a promise from Allah?' - If so, Allah will never break His promises - 'Or are you attributing to Allah that of which you have no knowledge?'

*  *  *

2 : 81

81. Bala man kasaba sayyi-atan waahatat bihi khatee-atuhu faola-ika as-habu alnnari hum feeha khalidoona

Nay! Those who gain from doing evil and are surrounded on all sides by their own contrition are denizens of the Fire in which they shall dwell forever -

2 : 82

82. Waallatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati ola-ika as-habu aljannati hum feeha khalidoona

Whereas those who believe and perform righteous deeds are denizens of the Garden in which they shall dwell forever! (R)

(The theme of punishment and reward, together with the attributes of those who are entitled to the former and those entitled the latter is repeated throughout the Qur'aan again and again because it forms the crux and the core of our religion.


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

72. And (remember) when you killed a man and fell into dispute among yourselves as to the crime. But Allāh brought forth that which you were hiding.

73. So We said: "Strike him (the dead man) with a piece of it (the cow)." Thus Allāh brings the dead to life and shows you His Ayāt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) so that you may understand.

74. Then, after that, your hearts were hardened and became as stones or even worse in hardness. And indeed, there are stones out of which rivers gush forth, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which split asunder so that water flows from them, and indeed, there are of them (stones) which fall down for fear of Allāh. And Allāh is not unaware of what you do.

75. Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe in your religion inspite of the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allāh [the Taurāt (Torah)], then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it?

76. And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say, "We believe", but when they meet one another in private, they say, "Shall you (Jews) tell them (Muslims) what Allāh has revealed to you [Jews, about the description and the qualities of Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him , that which are written in the Taurāt (Torah)] [], that they (Muslims) may argue with you (Jews) about it before your Lord?" Have you (Jews) then no understanding?

77. Know they (Jews) not that Allāh knows what they conceal and what they reveal?

78. And there are among them (Jews) unlettered people, who know not the Book, but they trust upon false desires and they but guess.

79. Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands and then say, "This is from Allāh," to purchase with it a little price! Woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for that they earn thereby.

80. And they (Jews) say, "The Fire (i.e. Hell-fire on the Day of Resurrection) shall not touch us but for a few numbered days." Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to them): "Have you taken a covenant from Allāh, so that Allāh will not break His Covenant? Or is it that you say of Allāh what you know not?"

81. Yes! Whosoever earns evil and his sin has surrounded him, they are dwellers of the Fire (i.e. Hell); they will dwell therein forever.

82. And those who believe (in the Oneness of Allāh ŹŚĒįģ - Islāmic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, they are dwellers of Paradise, they will dwell therein forever.


002.072
YUSUFALI: Remember ye slew a man and fell into a dispute among yourselves as to the crime: But Allah was to bring forth what ye did hide.
PICKTHAL: And (remember) when ye slew a man and disagreed concerning it and Allah brought forth that which ye were hiding.
SHAKIR: And when you killed a man, then you disagreed with respect to that, and Allah was to bring forth that which you were going to hide.

002.073
YUSUFALI: So We said: "Strike the (body) with a piece of the (heifer)." Thus Allah bringeth the dead to life and showeth you His Signs: Perchance ye may understand.
PICKTHAL: And We said: Smite him with some of it. Thus Allah bringeth the dead to life and showeth you His portents so that ye may understand.
SHAKIR: So We said: Strike the (dead body) with part of the (Sacrificed cow), thus Allah brings the dead to life, and He shows you His signs so that you may understand.

002.074
YUSUFALI: Thenceforth were your hearts hardened: They became like a rock and even worse in hardness. For among rocks there are some from which rivers gush forth; others there are which when split asunder send forth water; and others which sink for fear of Allah. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do.
PICKTHAL: Then, even after that, your hearts were hardened and became as rocks, or worse than rocks, for hardness. For indeed there are rocks from out which rivers gush, and indeed there are rocks which split asunder so that water floweth from them. And indeed there are rocks which fall down for the fear of Allah. Allah is not unaware of what ye do.
SHAKIR: Then your hearts hardened after that, so that they were like rocks, rather worse in hardness; and surely there are some rocks from which streams burst forth, and surely there are some of them which split asunder so water issues out of them, and surely there are some of them which fall down for fear of Allah, and Allah is not at all heedless of what you do.

002.075
YUSUFALI: Can ye (o ye men of Faith) entertain the hope that they will believe in you?- Seeing that a party of them heard the Word of Allah, and perverted it knowingly after they understood it.
PICKTHAL: Have ye any hope that they will be true to you when a party of them used to listen to the word of Allah, then used to change it, after they had understood it, knowingly?
SHAKIR: Do you then hope that they would believe in you, and a party from among them indeed used to hear the Word of Allah, then altered it after they had understood it, and they know (this).

002.076
YUSUFALI: Behold! when they meet the men of Faith, they say: "We believe": But when they meet each other in private, they say: "Shall you tell them what Allah hath revealed to you, that they may engage you in argument about it before your Lord?"- Do ye not understand (their aim)?
PICKTHAL: And when they fall in with those who believe, they say: We believe. But when they go apart one with another they say: Prate ye to them of that which Allah hath disclosed to you that they may contend with you before your Lord concerning it? Have ye then no sense?
SHAKIR: And when they meet those who believe they say: We believe, and when they are alone one with another they say: Do you talk to them of what Allah has disclosed to you that they may contend with you by this before your Lord? Do you not then understand?

002.077
YUSUFALI: Know they not that Allah knoweth what they conceal and what they reveal?
PICKTHAL: Are they then unaware that Allah knoweth that which they keep hidden and that which they proclaim?
SHAKIR: Do they not know that Allah knows what they keep secret and what they make known?

002.078
YUSUFALI: And there are among them illiterates, who know not the Book, but (see therein their own) desires, and they do nothing but conjecture.
PICKTHAL: Among them are unlettered folk who know the Scripture not except from hearsay. They but guess.
SHAKIR: And there are among them illiterates who know not the Book but only lies, and they do but conjecture.

002.079
YUSUFALI: Then woe to those who write the Book with their own hands, and then say:"This is from Allah," to traffic with it for miserable price!- Woe to them for what their hands do write, and for the gain they make thereby.
PICKTHAL: Therefore woe be unto those who write the Scripture with their hands and then say, "This is from Allah," that they may purchase a small gain therewith. Woe unto them for that their hands have written, and woe unto them for that they earn thereby.
SHAKIR: Woe, then, to those who write the book with their hands and then say: This is from Allah, so that they may take for it a small price; therefore woe to them for what their hands have written and woe to them for what they earn.

002.080
YUSUFALI: And they say: "The Fire shall not touch us but for a few numbered days:" Say: "Have ye taken a promise from Allah, for He never breaks His promise? or is it that ye say of Allah what ye do not know?"
PICKTHAL: And they say: The Fire (of punishment) will not touch us save for a certain number of days. Say: Have ye received a covenant from Allah - truly Allah will not break His covenant - or tell ye concerning Allah that which ye know not?
SHAKIR: And they say: Fire shall not touch us but for a few days. Say: Have you received a promise from Allah, then Allah will not fail to perform His promise, or do you speak against Allah what you do not know?

002.081
YUSUFALI: Nay, those who seek gain in evil, and are girt round by their sins,- they are companions of the Fire: Therein shall they abide (For ever).
PICKTHAL: Nay, but whosoever hath done evil and his sin surroundeth him; such are rightful owners of the Fire; they will abide therein.
SHAKIR: Yea, whoever earns evil and his sins beset him on every side, these are the inmates of the fire; in it they shall abide.

002.082
YUSUFALI: But those who have faith and work righteousness, they are companions of the Garden: Therein shall they abide (For ever).
PICKTHAL: And those who believe and do good works: such are rightful owners of the Garden. They will abide therein.
SHAKIR: And (as for) those who believe and do good deeds, these are the dwellers of the garden; in it they shall abide.


Section 10

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed to remind the Children of Israel of the covenant which they made ipso facto with Allah when they accepted the Torah and yet persistently failed to abide by its stipulations.

2 : 83

83. Wa-ith akhathna meethaqa banee isra-eela la taAAbudoona illa Allaha wabialwalidayni ihsanan wathee alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeeni waqooloo lilnnasi husnan waaqeemoo alssalata waatoo alzzakata thumma tawallaytum illa qaleelan minkum waantum muAAridoona

And (remember) when We made a covenant with the Children of Israel (saying) : 'Worship none save Allah and be kind to your parents and to your kindred and to the orphans and to the destitutes; and be polite in your parlance and perpetuate worship and give to the deserving their due!' you retracted from it, except a few of you, because you are constantly engaged in disputes!
 

(In this verse our duties and responsibilities towards our parents are prioritized next only to our duty to worship none other than Allah, which highlights its importance. Being kind to them includes not saying anything or doing anything which could bruise their feelings; tending to their needs with our limbs and our belongings; being available to them in the moments of their need; speaking to them with due deference; maintaining a reconciliatory and amiable attitude towards them; not concealing our assets from them; giving them their final rites when they die and respecting their wishes in their Wills and bequests; giving alms for the absolution of their souls; including their names in our prayers for their forgiveness; visiting their graves, laying wreaths at them on appropriate occasions and looking after them etc.).
 

2 : 84

84. Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakum la tasfikoona dimaakum wala tukhrijoona anfusakum min diyarikum thumma aqrartum waantum tashhadoona

And when We made with you a Covenant saying : 'Do not draw the blood of your kinsmen nor drive any of them away from your homes!' you did ratify it and bore witness to it;

2 : 85

85. Thumma antum haola-i taqtuloona anfusakum watukhrijoona fareeqan minkum min diyarihim tathaharoona AAalayhim bial-ithmi waalAAudwani wa-in ya/tookum osara tufadoohum wahuwa muharramun AAalaykum ikhrajuhum afatu/minoona bibaAAdi alkitabi watakfuroona bibaAAdin fama jazao man yafAAalu thalika minkum illa khizyun fee alhayati alddunya wayawma alqiyamati yuraddoona ila ashaddi alAAathabi wama Allahu bighafilin AAamma taAAmaloona

Yet you slay one another and expel a group of them from your dwellings and encourage the commission of atrocities and excesses against them by their enemies; but if they are brought before you as captives, you ransom them even though their expulsion by itself was unlawful for you! Is it that you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject a part of it? The requital for those amongst you who perpetrate such deeds can be nothing but opprobrium in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection, a dire chastisement! Allah is not oblivious to your deeds!
 

(The first part of the covenant the Children of Israel made with Allah in the Torah lays down that they shall not slay their own folks nor turn them out of their homes nor encourage others to commit atrocities against them; and the second part of the covenant lays down that they shall ransom their brethren if they are brought before them in chains. If only because it worked out to their advantage, they fulfilled the second part of the contract and disregarded the first part saying : 'Thus has Allah ordained).
 

2 : 86

86. Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawoo alhayata alddunya bial-akhirati fala yukhaffafu AAanhumu alAAathabu wala hum yunsaroona

These are the people who have acquired the comforts of this world at the expense of the Hereafter and hence their torment will never be mitigated nor will they ever be helped! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

83. And (remember) when We took a covenant from the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none but Allāh (Alone) and be dutiful and good to parents, and to kindred, and to orphans and Al-Masākīn [] (the poor), [Tafsir At-Tabarī, Vol. 10, Page 158 (Verse 9:60)] and speak good to people [i.e. enjoin righteousness and forbid evil, and say the truth about Muhammad Peace be upon him ], and perform As-Salāt (Iqāmat-as-Salāt), and give Zakāt. Then you slid back, except a few of you, while you are backsliders. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubī, Vol. 2, Page 392).

84. And (remember) when We took your covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your people, nor turn out your own people from their dwellings. Then, (this) you ratified and (to this) you bear witness.

85. After this, it is you who kill one another and drive out a party of you from their homes, assist (their enemies) against them, in sin and transgression. And if they come to you as captives, you ransom them, although their expulsion was forbidden to you. Then do you believe in a part of the Scripture and reject the rest? Then what is the recompense of those who do so among you, except disgrace in the life of this world, and on the Day of Resurrection they shall be consigned to the most grievous torment. And Allāh is not unaware of what you do.

86. Those are they who have bought the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter. Their torment shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped.


002.083
YUSUFALI: And remember We took a covenant from the Children of Israel (to this effect): Worship none but Allah; treat with kindness your parents and kindred, and orphans and those in need; speak fair to the people; be steadfast in prayer; and practise regular charity. Then did ye turn back, except a few among you, and ye backslide (even now).
PICKTHAL: And (remember) when We made a covenant with the Children of Israel, (saying): Worship none save Allah (only), and be good to parents and to kindred and to orphans and the needy, and speak kindly to mankind; and establish worship and pay the poor-due. Then, after that, ye slid back, save a few of you, being averse.
SHAKIR: And when We made a covenant with the children of Israel: You shall not serve any but Allah and (you shall do) good to (your) parents, and to the near of kin and to the orphans and the needy, and you shall speak to men good words and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate. Then you turned back except a few of you and (now too) you turn aside.
002.084
YUSUFALI: And remember We took your covenant (to this effect): Shed no blood amongst you, nor turn out your own people from your homes: and this ye solemnly ratified, and to this ye can bear witness.
PICKTHAL: And when We made with you a covenant (saying): Shed not the blood of your people nor turn (a party of) your people out of your dwellings. Then ye ratified (Our covenant) and ye were witnesses (thereto).
SHAKIR: And when We made a covenant with you: You shall not shed your blood and you shall not turn your people out of your cities; then you gave a promise while you witnessed.
002.085
YUSUFALI: After this it is ye, the same people, who slay among yourselves, and banish a party of you from their homes; assist (Their enemies) against them, in guilt and rancour; and if they come to you as captives, ye ransom them, though it was not lawful for you to banish them. Then is it only a part of the Book that ye believe in, and do ye reject the rest? but what is the reward for those among you who behave like this but disgrace in this life?- and on the Day of Judgment they shall be consigned to the most grievous penalty. For Allah is not unmindful of what ye do.
PICKTHAL: Yet ye it is who slay each other and drive out a party of your people from their homes, supporting one another against them by sin and transgression? - and if they came to you as captives ye would ransom them, whereas their expulsion was itself unlawful for you - Believe ye in part of the Scripture and disbelieve ye in part thereof? And what is the reward of those who do so save ignominy in the life of the world, and on the Day of Resurrection they will be consigned to the most grievous doom. For Allah is not unaware of what ye do.
SHAKIR: Yet you it is who slay your people and turn a party from among you out of their homes, backing each other up against them unlawfully and exceeding the limits; and if they should come to you, as captives you would ransom them-- while their very turning out was unlawful for you. Do you then believe in a part of the Book and disbelieve in the other? What then is the re ward of such among you as do this but disgrace in the life of this world, and on the day of resurrection they shall be sent back to the most grievous chastisement, and Allah is not at all heedless of what you do.
002.086
YUSUFALI: These are the people who buy the life of this world at the price of the Hereafter: their penalty shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped.
PICKTHAL: Such are those who buy the life of the world at the price of the Hereafter. Their punishment will not be lightened, neither will they have support.
SHAKIR: These are they who buy the life of this world for the hereafter, so their chastisement shall not be lightened nor shall they be helped.


Section 11

2 : 87

87. Walaqad atayna moosa alkitaba waqaffayna min baAAdihi bialrrusuli waatayna AAeesa ibna maryama albayyinati waayyadnahu biroohi alqudusi afakullama jaakum rasoolun bima la tahwa anfusukumu istakbartum fafareeqan kaththabtum wafareeqan taqtuloona

Verily We gave Moses the Scripture and We sent a succession of messengers after him; We gave Jesus, son of Mary, many miracles and supported him with the Holy Spirit. Is it then to be the case that, whenever a messenger comes to you with a message that does not match your whims, you become hostile to them, slandering some and slaying some?

2 : 88

88. Waqaloo quloobuna ghulfun bal laAAanahumu Allahu bikufrihim faqaleelan ma yu/minoona

They say : 'Our hearts are covered in drapes!' Nay! Allah has cursed them for their heresy and therefore not much is there in which they believe!
 

(The Jews jeeringly said to the Prophet that their hearts were impervious to him and his message because there were covers wrapped around them that prevent it from reaching their hearts and their minds. It was unfortunate that they should think so. Allah has blessed every human with three priceless benefactions : a conscience which recognizes right from wrong; a mind which accepts what the conscience has recognized and a heart which absorbs what the mind has accepted. Those who keep their hearts thus wrapped up in covers have no idea of what they are missing out!)

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed with reference to Jews who persisted in repudiating the status of the Prophet as a messenger of Allah even though it went against the prophesy contained in their Torah.

2 : 89

89. Walamma jaahum kitabun min AAindi Allahi musaddiqun lima maAAahum wakanoo min qablu yastaftihoona AAala allatheena kafaroo falamma jaahum ma AAarafoo kafaroo bihi falaAAnatu Allahi AAala alkafireena

When there comes to them a Scripture from Allah confirming that which they already possess, - and prior to it they were seeking a decisive victory over those who disbelieve, - yet when there comes to them that which they know (to be the Truth), they disbelieve in it! So the curse of Allah is upon those who disbelieve!
 

(The Scripture of Allah refers to Qur'aan and that which they already possess refers to Torah. Before the Qur'aan was revealed, the Jews used to invoke Divine help under the auspices of the unlettered Prophet whose coming was foretold in the Torah. And yet, when that Prophet and that Scripture knocked on their doors, they rejected both).
 

2 : 90

90. Bi/sama ishtaraw bihi anfusahum an yakfuroo bima anzala Allahu baghyan an yunazzila Allahu min fadlihi AAala man yashao min AAibadihi fabaoo bighadabin AAala ghadabin walilkafireena AAathabun muheenun

Disgraceful is the price at which they sell their souls when they denounce what Allah has revealed, out of envy that Allah chooses whom He will of His bondsmen for revealing His ordinances, thereby meriting wrath upon wrath! For those who disbelieve awaits a most opprobrious castigation!
 

(It was an ardent desire and a firm conviction of the Jews that whenever Allah decided to choose the Last Prophet mentioned in the Torah, he would choose him from among the Children of Israel. But when Allah chose him from among the Children of Ishmael, they were devastated with envy and bitterness. Hence it is unequivocally asserted in this verse that Allah chooses whom He will of His bondsmen to reveal His ordinances, regardless of what they think and how they feel about it).

*  *  *

2 : 91

91. Wa-itha qeela lahum aminoo bima anzala Allahu qaloo nu/minu bima onzila AAalayna wayakfuroona bima waraahu wahuwa alhaqqu musaddiqan lima maAAahum qul falima taqtuloona anbiyaa Allahi min qablu in kuntum mu/mineena

And when it is said to them : 'Believe in what Allah has revealed!' they say : 'We believe in that which was revealed to us,' and repudiate the rest, even though it is the Truth and attests that which they possess. Say (O Mohammed) : 'Why then did you slay the prophets of Allah in the past, if you were such true believers?'
 

(Had the Children of Israel truly believed in the Torah as they claimed, they would not have repudiated the Qur'aan which confirms the Torah, nor vituperated the Prophet whose coming is prophesied in it, nor slain other messengers of Allah in the past).

2 : 92

92. Walaqad jaakum moosa bialbayyinati thumma ittakhathtumu alAAijla min baAAdihi waantum thalimoona

Moses came to you with definitive portents, yet you apotheosized a calf soon after he left you and turned yourselves into transgressors!
 

(If the Children of Israel genuinely believed in the definitive portents Mosses brought to them in proof of Allah’ s hegemony and of his own prophethood, they would not have been in such a rush to abandon their faith in their messenger in preference to the worship of a golden Calf, set up for them by the scheming reprobate Samiri)
 

2 : 93

93. Wa-ith akhathna meethaqakum warafaAAna fawqakumu alttoora khuthoo ma ataynakum biquwwatin waismaAAoo qaloo samiAAna waAAasayna waoshriboo fee quloobihimu alAAijla bikufrihim qul bi/sama ya/murukum bihi eemanukum in kuntum mu/mineena

When We made a covenant with you and raised the Mount over you saying : 'Hold on to that which We have given you and then listen to the message!' they said : 'We hear it but we repudiate it!' - and their hearts were infatuated by the spell of the calf on account of their disbelief! Say to them : 'How sinful are the deeds which your misguided convictions tempt you into perpetrating, - if you are but believers!'
 

(According to accepted tradition, when Allah’ s resentment was provoked by the intransigence of the Children of Israel, trifling with the portents which Moses had brought with him, refusing to follow the concepts preached by their own Scripture, implementing changes in it, making covenants and breaking them at will; one moment worshipping Allah and the next moment apotheosizing the Calf, thus turning their faith into a mockery and trading their souls away for trifling gains, the Archangel descended upon them at the behest of Allah, raised Mount Sinai on the palm of his right hand and poised it above their heads by way of a threat, making no secret of his intentions to drop it on them. Scared by the spectacle of the Mountain on top of their heads, they first said ‘We hear and we obey’ but changed their words and their will as soon as the threat was withdrawn).

2 : 94

94. Qul in kanat lakumu alddaru al-akhiratu AAinda Allahi khalisatan min dooni alnnasi fatamannawoo almawta in kuntum sadiqeena

Say to them : 'If the Abode of the Hereafter in the discretion of Allah is exclusively for you alone and not for anyone else, then long for death, if you are that sure!'
 

(If they were so firmly convinced that Paradise belonged exclusively to them and that there was no need for them to become believers or to perform righteous deeds in order to gain access to it, then why not do away with the transient comforts of this life and go for the everlasting bliss of Paradise in the other life?)
 

2 : 95

95. Walan yatamannawhu abadan bima qaddamat aydeehim waAllahu AAaleemun bialththalimeena

But they will never long for death because of that which their own hands have sent ahead of them! Allah is well aware of who the pernicious are!
   

2 : 96

96. Walatajidannahum ahrasa alnnasi AAala hayatin wamina allatheena ashrakoo yawaddu ahaduhum law yuAAammaru alfa sanatin wama huwa bimuzahzihihi mina alAAathabi an yuAAammara waAllahu baseerun bima yaAAmaloona

You will find them to be the greediest for life in the whole of mankind, greedier than even the idolaters, each of whom longs to live for a thousand years, though a long life by itself would hardly distance them from their destiny! Allah is perusing all their deeds. (R)
 

(The reference is to the pagan ritual in which, when they greeted one another, each of them wished for the other a thousand years of life).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

87. And indeed, We gave Mūsa (Moses) the Book and followed him up with a succession of Messengers. And We gave 'Iesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), clear signs and supported him with Rūh-ul-Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel) <><>]. Is it that whenever there came to you a Messenger with what you yourselves desired not, you grew arrogant? Some, you disbelieved and some, you killed.

88. And they say, "Our hearts are wrapped (i.e. do not hear or understand Allāh's Word)." Nay, Allāh has cursed them for their disbelief, so little is that which they believe.

89. And when there came to them (the Jews), a Book (this Qur'ān) from Allāh confirming what is with them [the Taurāt (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)], although aforetime they had invoked Allāh (for coming of Muhammad Peace be upon him ) in order to gain victory over those who disbelieved, then when there came to them that which they had recognised, they disbelieved in it. So let the Curse of Allāh be on the disbelievers.

90. How bad is that for which they have sold their ownselves, that they should disbelieve in that which Allāh has revealed (the Qur'ān), grudging that Allāh should reveal of His Grace unto whom He will of His slaves. So they have drawn on themselves wrath upon wrath. And for the disbelievers, there is disgracing torment.

91. And when it is said to them (the Jews), "Believe in what Allāh has sent down," they say, "We believe in what was sent down to us." And they disbelieve in that which came after it, while it is the truth confirming what is with them. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to them): "Why then have you killed the Prophets of Allāh aforetime, if you indeed have been believers?"

92. And indeed Mūsa (Moses) came to you with clear proofs, yet you worshipped the calf after he left, and you were Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers).

93. And (remember) when We took your covenant and We raised above you the Mount (saying), "Hold firmly to what We have given you and hear (Our Word). They said, "We have heard and disobeyed." And their hearts absorbed (the worship of) the calf because of their disbelief. Say: "Worst indeed is that which your faith enjoins on you if you are believers."

94. Say to (them): "If the home of the Hereafter with Allāh is indeed for you specially and not for others, of mankind, then long for death if you are truthful."

95. But they will never long for it because of what their hands have sent before them (i.e. what they have done). And Allāh is All-Aware of the Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers).

96. And verily, you will find them (the Jews) the greediest of mankind for life and (even greedier) than those who - ascribe partners to Allāh (and do not believe in Resurrection - Magians, pagans, and idolaters, etc.). Everyone of them wishes that he could be given a life of a thousand years. But the grant of such life will not save him even a little from (due) punishment. And Allāh is All-Seer of what they do.


002.087
YUSUFALI: We gave Moses the Book and followed him up with a succession of messengers; We gave Jesus the son of Mary Clear (Signs) and strengthened him with the holy spirit. Is it that whenever there comes to you a messenger with what ye yourselves desire not, ye are puffed up with pride?- Some ye called impostors, and others ye slay!
PICKTHAL: And verily We gave unto Moses the Scripture and We caused a train of messengers to follow after him, and We gave unto Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs (of Allah's sovereignty), and We supported him with the Holy spirit. Is it ever so, that, when there cometh unto you a messenger (from Allah) with that which ye yourselves desire not, ye grow arrogant, and some ye disbelieve and some ye slay?
SHAKIR: And most certainly We gave Musa the Book and We sent messengers after him one after another; and We gave Isa, the son of Marium, clear arguments and strengthened him with the holy spirit, What! whenever then a messenger came to you with that which your souls did not desire, you were insolent so you called some liars and some you slew.

002.088

YUSUFALI: They say, "Our hearts are the wrappings (which preserve Allah's Word: we need no more)." Nay, Allah's curse is on them for their blasphemy: Little is it they believe.
PICKTHAL: And they say: Our hearts are hardened. Nay, but Allah hath cursed them for their unbelief. Little is that which they believe.
SHAKIR: And they say: Our hearts are covered. Nay, Allah has cursed them on account of their unbelief; so little it is that they believe.

002.089

YUSUFALI: And when there comes to them a Book from Allah, confirming what is with them,- although from of old they had prayed for victory against those without Faith,- when there comes to them that which they (should) have recognised, they refuse to believe in it but the curse of Allah is on those without Faith.
PICKTHAL: And when there cometh unto them a scripture from Allah, confirming that in their possession - though before that they were asking for a signal triumph over those who disbelieved - and when there cometh unto them that which they know (to be the truth) they disbelieve therein. The curse of Allah is on disbelievers.
SHAKIR: And when there came to them a Book from Allah verifying that which they have, and aforetime they used to pray for victory against those who disbelieve, but when there came to them (Prophet) that which they did not recognize, they disbelieved in him; so Allah's curse is on the unbelievers.

002.090

YUSUFALI: Miserable is the price for which they have sold their souls, in that they deny (the revelation) which Allah has sent down, in insolent envy that Allah of His Grace should send it to any of His servants He pleases: Thus have they drawn on themselves Wrath upon Wrath. And humiliating is the punishment of those who reject Faith.
PICKTHAL: Evil is that for which they sell their souls: that they should disbelieve in that which Allah hath revealed, grudging that Allah should reveal of His bounty unto whom He will of His slaves. They have incurred anger upon anger. For disbelievers is a shameful doom.
SHAKIR: Evil is that for which they have sold their souls-- that they should deny what Allah has revealed, out of envy that Allah should send down of His grace on whomsoever of His servants He pleases; so they have made themselves deserving of wrath upon wrath, and there is a disgraceful punishment for the unbelievers.

002.091

YUSUFALI: When it is said to them, "Believe in what Allah Hath sent down, "they say, "We believe in what was sent down to us:" yet they reject all besides, even if it be Truth confirming what is with them. Say: "Why then have ye slain the prophets of Allah in times gone by, if ye did indeed believe?"
PICKTHAL: And when it is said unto them: Believe in that which Allah hath revealed, they say: We believe in that which was revealed unto us. And they disbelieve in that which cometh after it, though it is the truth confirming that which they possess. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Why then slew ye the prophets of Allah aforetime, if ye are (indeed) believers?
SHAKIR: And when it is said to them, Believe in what Allah has revealed, they say: We believe in that which was revealed to us; and they deny what is besides that, while it is the truth verifying that which they have. Say: Why then did you kill Allah's Prophets before if you were indeed believers?

002.092

YUSUFALI: There came to you Moses with clear (Signs); yet ye worshipped the calf (Even) after that, and ye did behave wrongfully.
PICKTHAL: And Moses came unto you with clear proofs (of Allah's Sovereignty), yet, while he was away, ye chose the calf (for worship) and ye were wrong-doers.
SHAKIR: And most certainly Musa came to you with clear arguments, then you took the calf (for a god) in his absence and you were unjust.

002.093

YUSUFALI: And remember We took your covenant and We raised above you (the towering height) of Mount (Sinai): (Saying): "Hold firmly to what We have given you, and hearken (to the Law)": They said:" We hear, and we disobey:" And they had to drink into their hearts (of the taint) of the calf because of their Faithlessness. Say: "Vile indeed are the behests of your Faith if ye have any faith!"
PICKTHAL: And when We made with you a covenant and caused the Mount to tower above you, (saying): Hold fast by that which We have given you, and hear (Our Word), they said: We hear and we rebel. And (worship of) the calf was made to sink into their hearts because of their rejection (of the covenant). Say (unto them): Evil is that which your belief enjoineth on you, if ye are believers.
SHAKIR: And when We made a covenant with you and raised the mountain over you: Take hold of what We have given you with firmness and be obedient. They said: We hear and disobey. And they were made to imbibe (the love of) the calf into their hearts on account of their unbelief Say: Evil is that which your belief bids you if you are believers.

002.094

YUSUFALI: Say: "If the last Home, with Allah, be for you specially, and not for anyone else, then seek ye for death, if ye are sincere."
PICKTHAL: Say (unto them): If the abode of the Hereafter in the providence of Allah is indeed for you alone and not for others of mankind (as ye pretend), then long for death (for ye must long for death) if ye are truthful.
SHAKIR: Say: If the future abode with Allah is specially for you to the exclusion of the people, then invoke death if you are truthful.

002.095

YUSUFALI: But they will never seek for death, on account of the (sins) which their hands have sent on before them. and Allah is well-acquainted with the wrong-doers.
PICKTHAL: But they will never long for it, because of that which their own hands have sent before them. Allah is aware of evil-doers.
SHAKIR: And they will never invoke it on account of what their hands have sent before, and Allah knows the unjust.

002.096

YUSUFALI: Thou wilt indeed find them, of all people, most greedy of life,-even more than the idolaters: Each one of them wishes He could be given a life of a thousand years: But the grant of such life will not save him from (due) punishment. For Allah sees well all that they do.
PICKTHAL: And thou wilt find them greediest of mankind for life and (greedier) than the idolaters. (Each) one of them would like to be allowed to live a thousand years. And to live (a thousand years) would be no means remove him from the doom. Allah is Seer of what they do.
SHAKIR: And you will most certainly find them the greediest of men for life (greedier) than even those who are polytheists; every one of them loves that he should be granted a life of a thousand years, and his being granted a long life will in no way remove him further off from the chastisement, and Allah sees what they do.

 

Section 12

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when the Jews expressed their intense hostility to Angel Gabrielle who had, by the will and command of Allah, brought upon them and upon their forefathers many a devastating pestilence : the fatal thunderbolt that struck them dead, the devastating cataclysm, the shower of pebbles, the downpour of vermin, - besides a host of others as catalogued in the Qur'aan).

2 : 97

 97. Qul man kana AAaduwwan lijibreela fa-innahu nazzalahu AAala qalbika bi-ithni Allahi musaddiqan lima bayna yadayhi wahudan wabushra lilmu/mineena

Say (O Mohammed) to anyone who is an enemy of Gabriel that he it is who has inspired the Qur'aan in your heart by the Command of Allah, confirming the Scriptures revealed before it and containing guidance and glad tidings for those who believe.

2 : 98

98. Man kana AAaduwwan lillahi wamala-ikatihi warusulihi wajibreela wameekala fa-inna Allaha AAaduwwun lilkafireena

Whoever is an enemy of Allah and of His angels and of His messengers and of Gabriel and of Michael, let him know that Allah is a formidable enemy of those who disbelieve!
 

(It is made clear in this verse that hostility to Allah's Angels and Allah's messengers tantamount to hostility to Allah Himself!).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a very prominent Jew asserted that the Prophet did not possess any such credentials of his prophethood which they could recognize, nor has he brought with him any portents which they could interpret.

2 : 99

99. Walaqad anzalna ilayka ayatin bayyinatin wama yakfuru biha illa alfasiqoona

We have revealed to you incontrovertible tokens and none but the invidious could dare deny them!

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the Jews denied that there was a Covenant made between their forefathers and Allah even though this is clearly asserted in the Torah.

2 : 100

100. Awa kullama AAahadoo AAahdan nabathahu fareequn minhum bal aktharuhum la yu/minoona

Does it always have to be the case that, whenever you make a covenant, a group out of you come along and dismiss it? Nay, most of them are bereft of belief!
 

(The group referred in this verse are those Children of Israel who are categorized in the Qur'aan as the ‘disbelievers amongst the Children of Israel’ because they repudiated both the Gospel as well as the Qur'aan, even treated their own Scripture with contempt by introducing random changes in it with their own hands and then assigned them to Allah in order to discredit the Prophet.

Besides them, there are other categories mentioned in the Qur'aan as 'Hypocrites among the Children of Israel’ and 'the uninformed among the Children of Israel. As the names suggest, the former were pretenders who feigned belief in order to further their own ulterior motives, and the latter, themselves bereft of knowledge, formed wrong opinions on the strength of what they heard from others and forced them on those who were even less informed. There is only one group among them who is acknowledged by the Qur'aan as People of the Scripture because they believed in the Torah with truth, recited it with dedication, respected the dictums contained in it, disapproved of introducing any kind of alterations in the script and also gave the Qur'aan the status it deserved).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses refer to the reign of King Solomon who was not given the status of a Prophet by the Jews, but it was conferred upon him by Islam. In those days, the Children of Israel were obsessed with practising witchcraft they had learned from the two Angels of Babel called Harut and Marut. When Solomon heard about it, he confiscated the implements they used and parchments on which their incantations were written and got them buried underneath his throne. However, after he died, the jinn retrieved them and gave them back to the Children of Israel, imputing that King Solomon also practised the Craft and learned from it how to communicate with animals and to control the Elements.

The verse makes clear that Solomon was not a disbeliever; that the Angels were given the knowledge of the Craft only to test who is obedient and who is disobedient; that they never taught it to anyone without first warning them that they were only temptations and hence not to sacrifice their faith in order to learn it; that the Children of Israel misused the knowledge by using it for causing dissension between husbands and wives for money, although they could harm no one except by the will of Allah. It clarifies that the Children of Israel knowingly traded away their faith in order to acquire a knowledge that did more harm than good and that, if they had believed in Allah and warded off evil, their reward would surely have been far greater.

2 : 101

101. Walamma jaahum rasoolun min AAindi Allahi musaddiqun lima maAAahum nabatha fareequn mina allatheena ootoo alkitaba kitaba Allahi waraa thuhoorihim kaannahum la yaAAlamoona

When there comes to them a messenger of Allah, confirming that which they already possessed, a group of those who received the previous Scripture toss the new Scripture of Allah behind their backs and pretend as if they know nothing about it, -

2 : 102

102. WaittabaAAoo ma tatloo alshshayateenu AAala mulki sulaymana wama kafara sulaymanu walakinna alshshayateena kafaroo yuAAallimoona alnnasa alssihra wama onzila AAala almalakayni bibabila haroota wamaroota wama yuAAallimani min ahadin hatta yaqoola innama nahnu fitnatun fala takfur fayataAAallamoona minhuma ma yufarriqoona bihi bayna almar-i wazawjihi wama hum bidarreena bihi min ahadin illa bi-ithni Allahi wayataAAallamoona ma yadurruhum wala yanfaAAuhum walaqad AAalimoo lamani ishtarahu ma lahu fee al-akhirati min khalaqin walabi/sa ma sharaw bihi anfusahum law kanoo yaAAlamoona

And follow that which the devils alleged against the reign of King Solomon. Solomon himself was not a disbeliever, but the devils were, teaching mankind the Occult revealed to the two angels of Babel, Harut and Marut. And the angels taught it not to anyone without saying : 'We are only a temptation so renounce not the Guidance of Allah for our sake!' but they learnt from them the charms which cause rifts between husbands and wives, though none can hurt none save by Allah's leave; and they learnt from them that which yields loss rather than lucre, although they knew that whoever indulges in such a wicked trade forgoes his share in the Hereafter and that verily evil is the reward for which they sell their souls, if they but knew!

2 : 103

103. Walaw annahum amanoo waittaqaw lamathoobatun min AAindi Allahi khayrun law kanoo yaAAlamoona

If they had believed and warded off evil, their reward with Allah would have been far more prosperous, if they but knew! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

97. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ): "Whoever is an enemy to Jibrael (Gabriel) (let him die in his fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'ān) down to your heart by Allāh's Permission, confirming what came before it [i.e. the Taurāt (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)] and guidance and glad tidings for the believers.

98. "Whoever is an enemy to Allāh, His Angels, His Messengers, Jibrael (Gabriel) and Mikael (Michael), then verily, Allāh is an enemy to the disbelievers."

99. And indeed We have sent down to you manifest Ayāt (these Verses of the Qur'ān which inform in detail about the news of the Jews and their secret intentions, etc.), and none disbelieve in them but Fāsiqūn (those who rebel against Allāh's Command).

100. Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throw it aside? Nay! the truth is most of them believe not.

101. And when there came to them a Messenger from Allāh (i.e. Muhammad Peace be upon him ) confirming what was with them, a party of those who were given the Scripture threw away the Book of Allāh behind their backs as if they did not know!

102. They followed what the Shayātin (devils) gave out (falsely of the magic) in the lifetime of Sulaimān (Solomon). Sulaimān did not disbelieve, but the Shayātin (devils) disbelieved, teaching men magic and such things that came down at Babylon to the two angels, Hārūt and Mārūt, but neither of these two (angels) taught anyone (such things) till they had said, "We are only for trial, so disbelieve not (by learning this magic from us)." And from these (angels) people learn that by which they cause separation between man and his wife, but they could not thus harm anyone except by Allāh's Leave. And they learn that which harms them and profits them not. And indeed they knew that the buyers of it (magic) would have no share in the Hereafter. And how bad indeed was that for which they sold their ownselves, if they but knew.

103. And if they had believed, and guarded themselves from evil and kept their duty to Allāh, far better would have been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew!


002.097
YUSUFALI: Say: Whoever is an enemy to Gabriel-for he brings down the (revelation) to thy heart by Allah's will, a confirmation of what went before, and guidance and glad tidings for those who believe,-
PICKTHAL: Say (O Muhammad, to mankind): Who is an enemy to Gabriel! For he it is who hath revealed (this Scripture) to thy heart by Allah's leave, confirming that which was (revealed) before it, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers;
SHAKIR: Say: Whoever is the enemy of Jibreel-- for surely he revealed it to your heart by Allah's command, verifying that which is before it and guidance and good news for the believers.

002.098

YUSUFALI: Whoever is an enemy to Allah and His angels and messengers, to Gabriel and Michael,- Lo! Allah is an enemy to those who reject Faith.
PICKTHAL: Who is an enemy to Allah, and His angels and His messengers, and Gabriel and Michael! Then, lo! Allah (Himself) is an enemy to the disbelievers.
SHAKIR: Whoever is the enemy of Allah and His angels and His messengers and Jibreel and Meekaeel, so surely Allah is the enemy of the unbelievers.

002.099

YUSUFALI: We have sent down to thee Manifest Signs (ayat); and none reject them but those who are perverse.
PICKTHAL: Verily We have revealed unto thee clear tokens, and only miscreants will disbelieve in them.
SHAKIR: And certainly We have revealed to you clear communications and none disbelieve in them except the transgressors.

002.100

YUSUFALI: Is it not (the case) that every time they make a covenant, some party among them throw it aside?- Nay, Most of them are faithless.
PICKTHAL: Is it ever so that when they make a covenant a party of them set it aside? The truth is, most of them believe not.
SHAKIR: What! whenever they make a covenant, a party of them cast it aside? Nay, most of them do not believe.

002.101

YUSUFALI: And when there came to them a messenger from Allah, confirming what was with them, a party of the people of the Book threw away the Book of Allah behind their backs, as if (it had been something) they did not know!
PICKTHAL: And when there cometh unto them a messenger from Allah, confirming that which they possess, a party of those who have received the Scripture fling the Scripture of Allah behind their backs as if they knew not,
SHAKIR: And when there came to them a Messenger from Allah verifying that which they have, a party of those who were given the Book threw the Book of Allah behind their backs as if they knew nothing.

002.102

YUSUFALI: They followed what the evil ones gave out (falsely) against the power of Solomon: the blasphemers Were, not Solomon, but the evil ones, teaching men Magic, and such things as came down at babylon to the angels Harut and Marut. But neither of these taught anyone (Such things) without saying: "We are only for trial; so do not blaspheme." They learned from them the means to sow discord between man and wife. But they could not thus harm anyone except by Allah's permission. And they learned what harmed them, not what profited them. And they knew that the buyers of (magic) would have no share in the happiness of the Hereafter. And vile was the price for which they did sell their souls, if they but knew!
PICKTHAL: And follow that which the devils falsely related against the kingdom of Solomon. Solomon disbelieved not; but the devils disbelieved, teaching mankind magic and that which was revealed to the two angels in Babel, Harut and Marut. Nor did they (the two angels) teach it to anyone till they had said: We are only a temptation, therefore disbelieve not (in the guidance of Allah). And from these two (angles) people learn that by which they cause division between man and wife; but they injure thereby no-one save by Allah's leave. And they learn that which harmeth them and profiteth them not. And surely they do know that he who trafficketh therein will have no (happy) portion in the Hereafter; and surely evil is the price for which they sell their souls, if they but knew.
SHAKIR: And they followed what the Shaitans chanted of sorcery in the reign of Sulaiman, and Sulaiman was not an unbeliever, but the Shaitans disbelieved, they taught men sorcery and that was sent down to the two angels at Babel, Harut and Marut, yet these two taught no man until they had said, "Surely we are only a trial, therefore do not be a disbeliever." Even then men learned from these two, magic by which they might cause a separation between a man and his wife; and they cannot hurt with it any one except with Allah's permission, and they learned what harmed them and did not profit them, and certainly they know that he who bought it should have no share of good in the hereafter and evil was the price for which they sold their souls, had they but known this.

002.103

YUSUFALI: If they had kept their Faith and guarded themselves from evil, far better had been the reward from their Lord, if they but knew!
PICKTHAL: And if they had believed and kept from evil, a recompense from Allah would be better, if they only knew.
SHAKIR: And if they had believed and guarded themselves (against evil), reward from Allah would certainly have been better; had they but known (this).


Section 13.

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed to prevent people from interrupting the Prophet during his sermons with words which, if expressed in the Hebrew language instead of in Arabic, conveyed a derogatory meaning, and the Jews exploited it for casting aspersions on him.

2 : 104

104. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la taqooloo raAAina waqooloo onthurna waismaAAoo walilkafireena AAathabun aleemun

O those of you who believe! Do not say to the Prophet raa ‘inaa, but say unzurnaa and concentrate upon his sermon from the start. As for those who disparage, theirs is an acerbic castigation!
 

(The Arabic word raa’iana, which means ‘look at us’, could easily be swapped for the Hebrew word unzurnaa, which conveys a disparaging sense and was often used by the Jews in the Prophet's congregation to embarrass him

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed, warning the believers not to take their pretentious well-wishers on their face value.

2 : 105

105. Ma yawaddu allatheena kafaroo min ahli alkitabi wala almushrikeena an yunazzala AAalaykum min khayrin min rabbikum waAllahu yakhtassu birahmatihi man yashao waAllahu thoo alfadli alAAatheemi

Neither the disbelievers among the people of the Scriptures nor the idolaters bear to see that a benefaction is bestowed on you by your Lord! But Allah chooses whom He will for bestowing His special mercy, and Allah is profoundly merciful!

*  *  *

Context of Revelation: The following verses were revealed in answer to aspersions cast upon Allah and His revelations by the Jews whenever an ordinance was either superseded or scrapped.

2 : 106

106. Ma nansakh min ayatin aw nunsiha na/ti bikhayrin minha aw mithliha alam taAAlam anna Allaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun

When We repeal or delete any of Our edicts, We always replace it with something better or something similar. Know they not that Allah is Omnipotent over all things?

2 : 107

107. Alam taAAlam anna Allaha lahu mulku alssamawati waal-ardi wama lakum min dooni Allahi min waliyyin wala naseerin

And know you not that to Allah belongs the sovereignty of the heavens and the earth and that you have neither a stalwart nor a cohort besides Allah?
 

(It is in the nature of events as devised by Allah that one is superseded by the other : night is superseded by day; winter is superseded by summer; youth is superseded by senility; illness is superseded by healing; spring is superseded by fall. Thus, Guidance given to Adam was superseded by guidance given to the subsequent Prophets. For instance, engrossment in earthly matters that was made unlawful for the Jews on one Saturday was lawful for them on the Saturdays which came before it; or, consumption of certain animals made lawful for Noah and his folk were made unlawful for Moses and his folks! Yet, the unreasonably critical Jews were ready to cast aspersions on the revelations of Allah whenever they found an excuse to do so).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the Jews demanded that the Prophet produced a Scripture which was inspirited in him in the form one volume.

2 : 108

 

108. Am tureedoona an tas-aloo rasoolakum kama su-ila moosa min qablu waman yatabaddali alkufra bial-eemani faqad dalla sawaa alssabeeli

Or, wish you to ask of your messenger the same question as was asked of Moses in the past? Then beware that he who trades away his faith in return for heresy deflects from the path of righteousness!
 
 

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a group of Jews tried to persuade two devout believers to relinquish their new religion and return to the old ways, but without success.

2 : 109

109. Wadda katheerun min ahli alkitabi law yaruddoonakum min baAAdi eemanikum kuffaran hasadan min AAindi anfusihim min baAAdi ma tabayyana lahumu alhaqqu faoAAfoo waisfahoo hatta ya/tiya Allahu bi-amrihi inna Allaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun

Many a people of the Scriptures ardently wish to turn you back into heresy after you became believers, out of envy seated deep inside their hearts, despite the fact that the truth has become clearly manifest to them! Forgive and disregard them until Allah's command prevails. Allah has control over all things!

*  *  *

2 : 110

110. Waaqeemoo alssalata waatoo alzzakata wama tuqaddimoo li-anfusikum min khayrin tajidoohu AAinda Allahi inna Allaha bima taAAmaloona baseerun

Perform regular worship and give to the deserving their due and rest assured that whatever good you send ahead of you for the good of your souls, you will find it with Allah! And Allah is constantly perusing all your deeds!

2 : 111

111. Waqaloo lan yadkhula aljannata illa man kana hoodan aw nasara tilka amaniyyuhum qul hatoo burhanakum in kuntum sadiqeena

And they say : 'No one enters paradise save him who is either a Jew or a Christian!' This is the flight of their imagination! Say to them : 'Produce your proof, if you are truthful!'
 

(The reference is to the Jews who claimed that only the Jews shall enter Paradise and to the Christians who claimed that only the Christians shall enter Paradise, both making a firm bid to sow seeds of doubt in the minds of ordinary Muslims. Allah's reassurance to them is summed up in the following verse).
 

2 : 112

112. Bala man aslama wajhahu lillahi wahuwa muhsinun falahu ajruhu AAinda rabbihi wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona

Nay, but those who submit to the will of Allah and are righteous, their reward is in the safekeeping of their Lord and they have no cause for concern nor for any distress! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

104. O you who believe! Say not (to the Messenger Peace be upon him ) Rā'ina [] but say Unzurna (Do make us understand) and hear. And for the disbelievers there is a painful torment. (See Verse 4:46)

105. Neither those who disbelieve among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) nor Al-Mushrikūn (the disbelievers in the Oneness of Allāh, idolaters, polytheists, pagans, etc.) like that there should be sent down unto you any good from your Lord. But Allāh chooses for His Mercy whom He wills. And Allāh is the Owner of Great Bounty.

106. Whatever a Verse (revelation) do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring a better one or similar to it. Know you not that Allāh is able to do all things?

107. Know you not that it is Allāh to Whom belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth? And besides Allāh you have neither any Walī (protector or guardian) nor any helper.

108. Or do you want to ask your Messenger (Muhammad Peace be upon him ) as Mūsa (Moses) was asked before (i.e. show us openly our Lord?) And he who changes Faith for disbelief, verily, he has gone astray from the right way.

109. Many of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) wish that if they could turn you away as disbelievers after you have believed, out of envy from their ownselves, even, after the truth (that Muhammad Peace be upon him is Allāh's Messenger) has become manifest unto them. But forgive and overlook, till Allāh brings His Command. Verily, Allāh is Able to do all things.

110. And perform As-Salāt (Iqāmat-as-Salāt), and give Zakāt, and whatever of good (deeds that Allāh loves) you send forth for yourselves before you, you shall find it with Allāh. Certainly, Allāh is All-Seer of what you do.

111. And they say, "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian." These are their own desires. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ), "Produce your proof if you are truthful."

112. Yes, but whoever submits his face (himself) to Allāh (i.e. follows Allāh's Religion of Islāmic Monotheism) and he is a Muhsin (good-doer i.e. performs good deeds totally for Allāh's sake only without any show off or to gain praise or fame, etc., and in accordance with the Sunnah of Allāh's Messenger Muhammad Peace be upon him ) then his reward is with his Lord (Allāh), on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. [See Tafsir Ibn Kathīr, Vol.1, Page 154].


 

002.104
YUSUFALI: O ye of Faith! Say not (to the Messenger) words of ambiguous import, but words of respect; and hearken (to him): To those without Faith is a grievous punishment.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe, say not (unto the Prophet): "Listen to us" but say "Look upon us," and be ye listeners. For disbelievers is a painful doom.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not say Raina and say Unzurna and listen, and for the unbelievers there is a painful chastisement.

002.105

YUSUFALI: It is never the wish of those without Faith among the People of the Book, nor of the Pagans, that anything good should come down to you from your Lord. But Allah will choose for His special Mercy whom He will - for Allah is Lord of grace abounding.
PICKTHAL: Neither those who disbelieve among the people of the Scripture nor the idolaters love that there should be sent down unto you any good thing from your Lord. But Allah chooseth for His mercy whom He will, and Allah is of Infinite Bounty.
SHAKIR: Those who disbelieve from among the followers of the Book do not like, nor do the polytheists, that the good should be sent down to you from your Lord, and Allah chooses especially whom He pleases for His mercy, and Allah is the Lord of mighty grace.

002.106

YUSUFALI: None of Our revelations do We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, but We substitute something better or similar: Knowest thou not that Allah Hath power over all things?
PICKTHAL: Nothing of our revelation (even a single verse) do we abrogate or cause be forgotten, but we bring (in place) one better or the like thereof. Knowest thou not that Allah is Able to do all things?
SHAKIR: Whatever communications We abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring one better than it or like it. Do you not know that Allah has power over all things?

002.107

YUSUFALI: Knowest thou not that to Allah belongeth the dominion of the heavens and the earth? And besides Him ye have neither patron nor helper.
PICKTHAL: Knowest thou not that it is Allah unto Whom belongeth the Sovereignty of the heavens and the earth; and ye have not, beside Allah, any guardian or helper?
SHAKIR: Do you not know that Allah's is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, and that besides Allah you have no guardian or helper?

002.108

YUSUFALI: Would ye question your Messenger as Moses was questioned of old? but whoever changeth from Faith to Unbelief, Hath strayed without doubt from the even way.
PICKTHAL: Or would ye question your messenger as Moses was questioned aforetime? He who chooseth disbelief instead of faith, verily he hath gone astray from a plain road.
SHAKIR: Rather you wish to put questions to your Messenger, as Musa was questioned before; and whoever adopts unbelief instead of faith, he indeed has lost the right direction of the way.

002.109

YUSUFALI: Quite a number of the People of the Book wish they could Turn you (people) back to infidelity after ye have believed, from selfish envy, after the Truth hath become Manifest unto them: But forgive and overlook, Till Allah accomplish His purpose; for Allah Hath power over all things.
PICKTHAL: Many of the people of the Scripture long to make you disbelievers after your belief, through envy on their own account, after the truth hath become manifest unto them. Forgive and be indulgent (toward them) until Allah give command. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: Many of the followers of the Book wish that they could turn you back into unbelievers after your faith, out of envy from themselves, (even) after the truth has become manifest to them; but pardon and forgive, so that Allah should bring about His command; surely Allah has power over all things.

002.110

YUSUFALI: And be steadfast in prayer and regular in charity: And whatever good ye send forth for your souls before you, ye shall find it with Allah: for Allah sees Well all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: Establish worship, and pay the poor-due; and whatever of good ye send before (you) for your souls, ye will find it with Allah. Lo! Allah is Seer of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate and whatever good you send before for yourselves, you shall find it with Allah; surely Allah sees what you do.

002.111

YUSUFALI: And they say: "None shall enter Paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian." Those are their (vain) desires. Say: "Produce your proof if ye are truthful."
PICKTHAL: And they say: None entereth paradise unless he be a Jew or a Christian. These are their own desires. Say: Bring your proof (of what ye state) if ye are truthful.
SHAKIR: And they say: None shall enter the garden (or paradise) except he who is a Jew or a Christian. These are their vain desires. Say: Bring your proof if you are truthful.

002.112

YUSUFALI: Nay,-whoever submits His whole self to Allah and is a doer of good,- He will get his reward with his Lord; on such shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
PICKTHAL: Nay, but whosoever surrendereth his purpose to Allah while doing good, his reward is with his Lord; and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
SHAKIR: Yes! whoever submits himself entirely to Allah and he is the doer of good (to others) he has his reward from his Lord, and there is no fear for him nor shall he grieve.

 

Section 14.

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the Jews came to know that a delegation of Christians had come to talk to the Prophet about Islam and joined them in order to participate in the discussion, but ended up decrying one another.

2 : 113

113. Waqalati alyahoodu laysati alnnasara AAala shay-in waqalati alnnasara laysati alyahoodu AAala shay-in wahum yatloona alkitaba kathalika qala allatheena la yaAAlamoona mithla qawlihim faAllahu yahkumu baynahum yawma alqiyamati feema kanoo feehi yakhtalifoona

The Jews say : 'Christians are not true to their religion!' and the Christians say : 'Jews are not true to their religion!' although both are readers of  Scriptures! They say the same things the ignorant say and hence Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that over which they argue.
 

(Both are readers of their respective Scriptures and each is familiar with the Scripture and the Prophet of the other and yet they talk like ignoramus talk : the ignoramus meaning idolaters and pagans who did not have the benefit of Divine guidance and therefore uttered whatever they liked about whichever religion they chose to denigrate).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when some of the idolaters desecrated the Holy House in Mecca and then imposed severe restrictions on the believers from gaining access to it for offering worship.

2 : 114

114. Waman athlamu mimman manaAAa masajida Allahi an yuthkara feeha ismuhu wasaAAa fee kharabiha ola-ika ma kana lahum an yadkhulooha illa kha-ifeena lahum fee alddunya khizyun walahum fee al-akhirati AAathabun AAatheemun

Who is a worse offender than him who bars men from entering the sanctuaries of Allah lest His name is echoed inside them, and abets in their vandalisation? It is not lawful for anyone to enter them except him who enters them with reverence! Theirs is disgrace in this world and theirs is a severe castigation in the Hereafter!
 

(According to Islamic scholars, the sanctuaries referred to in this verse were : al-Masjid-al- Haram in Mecca and al-Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem. At one time or the other Muslims were hindered from entering them by the Jews, the Christians as well as the idolaters).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a group of believers came to the Prophet and told him that, during a nocturnal journey when there was pitch darkness, they were unable to determine the correct direction of the Qiblah for offering worship and hence each of them faced a direction which he thought was the correct direction.

2 : 115

115. Walillahi almashriqu waalmaghribu faaynama tuwalloo fathamma wajhu Allahi inna Allaha wasiAAun AAaleemun

To Allah belongs the East and the West! Whichever direction you turn, you come face to face with Allah's countenance. Allah is Ubiquitous and Erudite!
 

(This verse asserts that, if you are on a journey and are in a situation at the time of worship that makes it difficult for you to determine the right direction to turn, it is no sin for you to approximate the direction and offer worship, because both the East and the West belong to the same Lord).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when the Jews claimed that a Prophet of theirs called Uzair was the son of God, and the Christians claimed that Jesus was the son of God and the pagans claimed the Angels were daughters of God!

2 : 116

116. Waqaloo itakhatha Allahu waladan subhanahu bal lahu ma fee alssamawati waal-ardi kullun lahu qanitoona

They say : 'Allah has taken for Himself a son!' May He rise above such a senseless blasphemy. Nay, but whatever is in the heavens and upon earth belongs to Him and everything is subservient to Him -

2 : 117

117. BadeeAAu alssamawati waal-ardi wa-itha qada amran fa-innama yaqoolu lahu kun fayakoonu

(Who is) the Originator of the heavens and the earth! When He decrees a thing, all He says is : 'Be!' and it is!
 

(When Allah decided to create the Universe, all He said was : ‘Be!’ and it was).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the Prophet was challenged by the pagan Arabs to make Allah speak with them face to face.

2 : 118

 

 

118. Waqala allatheena la yaAAlamoona lawla yukallimuna Allahu aw ta/teena ayatun kathalika qala allatheena min qablihim mithla qawlihim tashabahat quloobuhum qad bayyanna al-ayati liqawmin yooqinoona

Those who are devoid of knowledge say : 'Why does Allah speak not with us nor make manifest to us a clear sign?' This they say in the same way as others before them used to say because the hearts of these and the hearts of those are so much alike! We did make manifest many a sign, but only for those who are firm in faith.

*  *  *

2 : 119

119. Inna arsalnaka bialhaqqi basheeran wanatheeran wala tus-alu Aaan as-habi aljaheemi

Verily We have sent you (O Mohammed) with the Truth as a bearer of good tidings and a warner, and you will not be questioned about those who are the denizens of Hell!
 

('You shall not be questioned about those who entered hell despite the guidance provided to them because, as far as you are concerned, you have discharged your responsibility in full by passing it on to them).

2 : 120

120. Walan tarda AAanka alyahoodu wala alnnasara hatta tattabiAAa millatahum qul inna huda Allahi huwa alhuda wala-ini ittabaAAta ahwaahum baAAda allathee jaaka mina alAAilmi ma laka mina Allahi min waliyyin wala naseerin

And the Jews will never co-operate with you nor will the Christians, until you surrender to their dogmas, so say to them : 'The guidance given by Allah is the only worthwhile guidance!' But if you succumb to their persuasion even after the knowledge that has dawned on you, then beware that you too will have no guardian nor a cohort to protect you from Allah!
 

(The hostility of the followers of Torah and the followers of Gospel towards the followers of Qur'aan is historic and spans over centuries upon centuries. For the benefit of the readers of this translation who belong to a denomination other than Islam, it should be made clear that Islam did not set itself up as a rival to Judaism or to Christianity but is merely an extension of the two faiths.

From the very inception of mankind which began with the expulsion of Adam from Paradise, a tussle has carried on between forces of good and evil, - the good being the constant endeavour of man to regain his place in the Garden of Eden, and the evil being the constant endeavour of Satan to hamper him from doing so, - a war which commenced in heaven and can only end in heaven. Meanwhile there are battles going on between him and us, some of which we win and some of which we lose. For that reason Allah had promised Adam that He would, from time to time, choose messengers from the midst of man's own brotherhood and through them provide His Guidance to those who are facing defeats so that they stand firm in their resolve.

It was in keeping with this reassurance that, whenever too many men strayed away from the right path, Allah at once entrusted a messenger to guide them back to it. Such was Noah, such was Abraham, such was Moses, such was Jesus and such was Mohammed (may Allah's peace be on all of them) Each and every Scripture revealed to them bears the same message, the same guidelines and the same warning: 'Beware of the devil and forget Him not Who created you!' All the Qur'aan does is to remind mankind of what befell those who surrendered to the devil and forsook their Lord; it is a Reminder of the past and a Criterion of right and wrong for the future.

No doubt, it does differ from the Torah and the Gospel to a certain extent, but only in detail and not in essence, and only where the texts were tampered with by the hand of man and then assigned to the hand of God. No Christian nor a Jew can put his hand on his heart and swear that such a tampering was not carried out in their Scriptures. That is why, learning from experience, the learned men who compiled these verses revealed by Allah in the form of a single volume made sure that such tampering would not be done in the case of the Qur'aan, so that in a thousand years and beyond, a Muslim can always put his hand upon his heart and swear that no human hand ever dared to touch or to change or to dilute the message of his Lord.

There can therefore be no reason nor grounds for animosity between these three branches of a great religion. Time and again Allah asks the Prophet to declare it to them : 'We worship the same God whom you worship; we believe in the same messengers in whom you believe; we endorse the same values which you endorse, we are exhorted to follow the same path which you were exhorted to follow, so what is the problem? Why should there be any rivalry between us? Why can we not join our hands in accomplishing a common mission and unite against the devil?)

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a delegation of African and Syrian Jews met the Prophet and he found them to be flawless in their recital of the Torah.

2 : 121

121. Allatheena ataynahumu alkitaba yatloonahu haqqa tilawatihi ola-ika yu/minoona bihi waman yakfur bihi faola-ika humu alkhasiroona

Those to whom We have given the Scripture and who recite it as it ought to be recited, they are believers. And those who believe not in it, they are the forfeited! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

113. The Jews said that the Christians follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); and the Christians said that the Jews follow nothing (i.e. are not on the right religion); though they both recite the Scripture. Like unto their word, said (the pagans) who know not. Allāh will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection about that wherein they have been differing.

114. And who is more unjust than those who forbid that Allāh's Name be glorified and mentioned much (i.e. prayers and invocations, etc.) in Allāh's Mosques and strive for their ruin? It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them (Allāh's Mosques) except in fear. For them there is disgrace in this world, and they will have a great torment in the Hereafter.

115. And to Allāh belong the east and the west, so wherever you turn yourselves or your faces there is the Face of Allāh (and He is High above, over His Throne). Surely! Allāh is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knowing.

116. And they (Jews, Christians and pagans) say: Allāh has begotten a son (children or offspring). [] Glory be to Him (Exalted be He above all that they associate with Him). Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth, and all surrender with obedience (in worship) to Him.

117. The Originator of the heavens and the earth. When He decrees a matter, He only says to it : "Be!" - and it is.

118. And those who have no knowledge say: "Why does not Allāh speak to us (face to face) or why does not a sign come to us?" So said the people before them words of similar import. Their hearts are alike, We have indeed made plain the signs for people who believe with certainty.

119. Verily, We have sent you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) with the truth (Islām), a bringer of glad tidings (for those who believe in what you brought, that they will enter Paradise) and a warner (for those who disbelieve in what you brought, they will enter the Hell-fire). [] And you will not be asked about the dwellers of the blazing Fire.

120. Never will the Jews nor the Christians be pleased with you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) till you follow their religion. Say: "Verily, the Guidance of Allāh (i.e. Islāmic Monotheism) that is the (only) Guidance. And if you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) were to follow their (Jews and Christians) desires after what you have received of Knowledge (i.e. the Qur'ān), then you would have against Allāh neither any Walī (protector or guardian) nor any helper.

121. Those (who embraced Islām from Banī Israel) to whom We gave the Book [the Taurāt (Torah)] [or those (Muhammad's Peace be upon him companions) to whom We have given the Book (the Qur'ān)] recite it (i.e. obey its orders and follow its teachings) as it should be recited (i.e. followed), they are the ones that believe therein. And whoso disbelieves in it (the Qur'ān), those are they who are the losers. (Tafsir Al-Qurtubī. Vol. 2, Page 95).


002.113
YUSUFALI: The Jews say: "The Christians have naught (to stand) upon; and the Christians say: "The Jews have naught (To stand) upon." Yet they (Profess to) study the (same) Book. Like unto their word is what those say who know not; but Allah will judge between them in their quarrel on the Day of Judgment.
PICKTHAL: And the Jews say the Christians follow nothing (true), and the Christians say the Jews follow nothing (true); yet both are readers of the Scripture. Even thus speak those who know not. Allah will judge between them on the Day of Resurrection concerning that wherein they differ.
SHAKIR: And the Jews say: The Christians do not follow anything (good) and the Christians say: The Jews do not follow anything (good) while they recite the (same) Book. Even thus say those who have no knowledge, like to what they say; so Allah shall judge between them on the day of resurrection in what they differ.

002.114

YUSUFALI: And who is more unjust than he who forbids that in places for the worship of Allah, Allah's name should be celebrated?-whose zeal is (in fact) to ruin them? It was not fitting that such should themselves enter them except in fear. For them there is nothing but disgrace in this world, and in the world to come, an exceeding torment.
PICKTHAL: And who doth greater wrong than he who forbiddeth the approach to the sanctuaries of Allah lest His name should be mentioned therein, and striveth for their ruin. As for such, it was never meant that they should enter them except in fear. Theirs in the world is ignominy and theirs in the Hereafter is an awful doom.
SHAKIR: And who is more unjust than he who prevents (men) from the masjids of Allah, that His name should be remembered in them, and strives to ruin them? (As for) these, it was not proper for them that they should have entered them except in fear; they shall meet with disgrace in this world, and they shall have great chastisement in the hereafter.

002.115

YUSUFALI: To Allah belong the east and the West: Whithersoever ye turn, there is the presence of Allah. For Allah is all-Pervading, all-Knowing.
PICKTHAL: Unto Allah belong the East and the West, and whithersoever ye turn, there is Allah's Countenance. Lo! Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.
SHAKIR: And Allah's is the East and the West, therefore, whither you turn, thither is Allah's purpose; surely Allah is Amplegiving, Knowing.

002.116

YUSUFALI: They say: "Allah hath begotten a son" :Glory be to Him.-Nay, to Him belongs all that is in the heavens and on earth: everything renders worship to Him.
PICKTHAL: And they say: Allah hath taken unto Himself a son. Be He glorified! Nay, but whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth is His. All are subservient unto Him.
SHAKIR: And they say: Allah has taken to himself a son. Glory be to Him; rather, whatever is in the heavens and the earth is His; all are obedient to Him.

002.117

YUSUFALI: To Him is due the primal origin of the heavens and the earth: When He decreeth a matter, He saith to it: "Be," and it is.
PICKTHAL: The Originator of the heavens and the earth! When He decreeth a thing, He saith unto it only: Be! and it is.
SHAKIR: Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth, and when He decrees an affair, He only says to it, Be, so there it is.

002.118

YUSUFALI: Say those without knowledge: "Why speaketh not Allah unto us? or why cometh not unto us a Sign?" So said the people before them words of similar import. Their hearts are alike. We have indeed made clear the Signs unto any people who hold firmly to Faith (in their hearts).
PICKTHAL: And those who have no knowledge say: Why doth not Allah speak unto us, or some sign come unto us? Even thus, as they now speak, spake those (who were) before them. Their hearts are all alike. We have made clear the revelations for people who are sure.
SHAKIR: And those who have no knowledge say: Why does not Allah speak to us or a sign come to us? Even thus said those before them, the like of what they say; their hearts are all alike. Indeed We have made the communications clear for a people who are sure.

002.119

YUSUFALI: Verily We have sent thee in truth as a bearer of glad tidings and a warner: But of thee no question shall be asked of the Companions of the Blazing Fire.
PICKTHAL: Lo! We have sent thee (O Muhammad) with the truth, a bringer of glad tidings and a warner. And thou wilt not be asked about the owners of hell-fire.
SHAKIR: Surely We have sent you with the truth as a bearer of good news and as a warner, and you shall not be called upon to answer for the companions of the flaming
fire.

002.120

YUSUFALI: Never will the Jews or the Christians be satisfied with thee unless thou follow their form of religion. Say: "The Guidance of Allah,-that is the (only) Guidance." Wert thou to follow their desires after the knowledge which hath reached thee, then wouldst thou find neither Protector nor helper against Allah.
PICKTHAL: And the Jews will not be pleased with thee, nor will the Christians, till thou follow their creed. Say: Lo! the guidance of Allah (Himself) is Guidance. And if thou shouldst follow their desires after the knowledge which hath come unto thee, then wouldst thou have from Allah no protecting guardian nor helper.
SHAKIR: And the Jews will not be pleased with you, nor the Christians until you follow their religion. Say: Surely Allah's guidance, that is the (true) guidance. And if you follow their desires after the knowledge that has come to you, you shall have no guardian from Allah, nor any helper.

002.121

YUSUFALI: Those to whom We have sent the Book study it as it should be studied: They are the ones that believe therein: Those who reject faith therein,- the loss is their own.
PICKTHAL: Those unto whom We have given the Scripture, who read it with the right reading, those believe in it. And whoso disbelieveth in it, those are they who are the losers.
SHAKIR: Those to whom We have given the Book read it as it ought to be read. These believe in it; and whoever disbelieves in it, these it is that are the losers.


 
Section 15.

2 : 122

 122. Ya banee isra-eela othkuroo niAAmatiya allatee anAAamtu AAalaykum waannee faddaltukum AAala alAAalameena

O Children of Israel! Remember the favour I bestowed upon you when I gave you precedence over all My other bondsmen -

2 : 123

123. Waittaqoo yawman la tajzee nafsun AAan nafsin shay-an wala yuqbalu minha AAadlun wala tanfaAAuha shafaAAatun wala hum yunsaroona

And prepare for the Day when no soul will be able to avail another soul nor will any ransom be accepted from it nor will intercession be of any use to it nor will help be given to it!
 

(The above verses were aimed at the Jews who used to boast that the men of wisdom and virtue from amongst their ancestors were bound to ransom their souls or intercede on their behalf or help them out in their hour of need, even if it be true that they were brought before their Lord on a certain Day).
 

2 : 124

124. Wa-ithi ibtala ibraheema rabbuhu bikalimatin faatammahunna qala innee jaAAiluka lilnnasi imaman qala wamin thurriyyatee qala la yanalu AAahdee alththalimeena

And (remember) when his Lord tested Abraham with certain commands and he succeeded in all, He said : 'I shall make you a leader amongst men!' Abraham said : 'And from among my seed?' He said : 'My promise extends not to the disbelievers among them!' -

2 : 125

125. Wa-ith jaAAalna albayta mathabatan lilnnasi waamnan waittakhithoo min maqami ibraheema musallan waAAahidna ila ibraheema wa-ismaAAeela an tahhira baytiya liltta-ifeena waalAAakifeena waalrrukkaAAi alssujoodi

When We appointed the House a nucleus and a safe haven for all mankind saying : 'Let the spot where
Abraham stood and prayed be a place of worship for all of you!' And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael saying : 'Consecrate My House for those who come there to go around it and to meditate and to bow to Me and to prostrate before Me!'
 

(A safe haven because no form of bloodshed or persecution is allowed in its sacrosanct perimeters, including game; and according to certain commentators, if a criminal has taken shelter in it, he becomes immune from arrest in the same way as a believer who has entered its doors is reprieved by Allah from divine castigation).
 

2 : 126

126. Wa-ith qala ibraheemu rabbi ijAAal hatha baladan aminan waorzuq ahlahu mina alththamarati man amana minhum biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri qala waman kafara faomattiAAuhu qaleelan thumma adtarruhu ila AAathabi alnnari wabi/sa almaseeru

When Abraham prayed : 'O Lord! Make this territory a haven of peace and bestow on those of its denizens who believe in Allah and in the Last Day a diversity of fruit!'  He said : 'As for him that  disbelieves, I shall give him a small portion and then impel him towards the torment of Fire, - a dreadful prospect!'
 

('A small portion’ refers to the comforts of the life of this world which are bestowed upon any man or woman who performs righteous deeds and follows the same code of conduct ordained for the believers by Allah, whether or not they acknowledge Him to be their Lord and surrender  to the His hegemony)
 

2 : 127

127. Wa-ith yarfaAAu ibraheemu alqawaAAida mina albayti wa-ismaAAeelu rabbana taqabbal minna innaka anta alssameeAAu alAAaleemu

And while raising the foundations of the House along with Ishmael, Abraham prayed : 'O Lord! Accept this from us, for verily You and only You hear and know everything! ' -
 

(According to tradition, the foundation stone for the Ka'ba, or the al-Hajar-al-Aswad as it is now known, was first laid by Adam, and after the Great Deluge of Noah, it fell into the share of Abraham's luck to re-lay it for the second time).
 

2 : 128

128. Rabbana waijAAalna muslimayni laka wamin thurriyyatina ommatan muslimatan laka waarina manasikana watub AAalayna innaka anta alttawwabu alrraheemu

'O Lord! Make us a people obedient to You and raise from our seed a nation obedient to You and show us our ways of worship and look upon us with mercy, for You and only You are the most Magnanimous and the most Merciful!' -

2 : 129

129. Rabbana waibAAath feehim rasoolan minhum yatloo AAalayhim ayatika wayuAAallimuhumu alkitaba waalhikmata wayuzakkeehim innaka anta alAAazeezu alhakimeen
 

'O Lord! And appoint for them a messenger chosen from their own brotherhood who shall recite to them Your Revelations and shall give them a firm knowledge about the Scripture and augment their wisdom and cleanse their souls! Verily You and only You are the Meritorious and the Sagacious!' (R)
 

(The messenger whom Allah appointed in response to this memorable prayer of Abraham was indeed our own beloved Prophet who did recite the Qur'aan to his fellow believers and augment their wisdom and cleanse their souls).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

122. O Children of Israel! Remember My Favour which I bestowed upon you and that I preferred you to the 'Alamīn (mankind and jinns) (of your time-period, in the past).

123. And fear the Day (of Judgement) when no person shall avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from him, nor shall intercession be of use to him, nor shall they be helped.

124. And (remember) when the Lord of Ibrāhim (Abraham) [i.e., Allāh] tried him with (certain) Commands, which he fulfilled. He (Allāh) said (to him), "Verily, I am going to make you a leader (Prophet) of mankind." [Ibrāhim (Abraham)] said, "And of my offspring (to make leaders)." (Allāh) said, "My Covenant (Prophethood, etc.) includes not Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers)."

125. And (remember) when We made the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) a place of resort for mankind and a place of safety. And take you (people) the Maqām (place) of Ibrāhim (Abraham) [or the stone on which Ibrāhim (Abraham) <><> stood while he was building the Ka'bah] as a place of prayer (for some of your prayers, e.g. two Rak'at after the Tawāf of the Ka'bah at Makkah), and We commanded Ibrāhim (Abraham) and Ismā'il (Ishmael) that they should purify My House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) for those who are circumambulating it, or staying (I'tikāf), or bowing or prostrating themselves (there, in prayer).

126. And (remember) when Ibrāhim (Abraham) said, "My Lord, make this city (Makkah) a place of security and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allāh and the Last Day." He (Allāh) answered: "As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that destination!"

127. And (remember) when Ibrāhim (Abraham) and (his son) Ismā'il (Ishmael) were raising the foundations of the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah), (saying), "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us. Verily! You are the All-Hearer, the All-Knower." []

128. "Our Lord! And make us submissive unto You and of our offspring a nation submissive unto You, and show us our Manāsik [] (all the ceremonies of pilgrimage - Hajj and 'Umrah, etc.), and accept our repentance. Truly, You are the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

129. "Our Lord! Send amongst them a Messenger of their own (and indeed Allāh answered their invocation by sending Muhammad Peace be upon him ), who shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (this Qur'ān) and Al-Hikmah (full knowledge of the Islāmic laws and jurisprudence or wisdom or Prophethood, etc.), and sanctify them. Verily! You are the All-Mighty, the All-Wise."


002.122
YUSUFALI: O Children of Israel! call to mind the special favour which I bestowed upon you, and that I preferred you to all others (for My Message).
PICKTHAL: O Children of Israel! Remember My favour wherewith I favoured you and how I preferred you to (all) creatures.
SHAKIR: O children of Israel, call to mind My favor which I bestowed on you and that I made you excel the nations.
002.123
YUSUFALI: Then guard yourselves against a-Day when one soul shall not avail another, nor shall compensation be accepted from her nor shall intercession profit her nor shall anyone be helped (from outside).
PICKTHAL: And guard (yourselves) against a day when no soul will in aught avail another, nor will compensation be accepted from it, nor will intercession be of use to it; nor will they be helped.
SHAKIR: And be on your guard against a day when no soul shall avail another in the least neither shall any compensation be accepted from it, nor shall intercession profit it, nor shall they be helped.
002.124
YUSUFALI: And remember that Abraham was tried by his Lord with certain commands, which he fulfilled: He said: "I will make thee an Imam to the Nations." He pleaded: "And also (Imams) from my offspring!" He answered: "But My Promise is not within the reach of evil-doers."
PICKTHAL: And (remember) when his Lord tried Abraham with (His) commands, and he fulfilled them, He said: Lo! I have appointed thee a leader for mankind. (Abraham) said: And of my offspring (will there be leaders)? He said: My covenant includeth not wrong-doers.
SHAKIR: And when his Lord tried Ibrahim with certain words, he fulfilled them. He said: Surely I will make you an Imam of men. Ibrahim said: And of my offspring? My covenant does not include the unjust, said He.
002.125
YUSUFALI: Remember We made the House a place of assembly for men and a place of safety; and take ye the station of Abraham as a place of prayer; and We covenanted with Abraham and Isma'il, that they should sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or use it as a retreat, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer).
PICKTHAL: And when We made the House (at Makka) a resort for mankind and sanctuary, (saying): Take as your place of worship the place where Abraham stood (to pray). And We imposed a duty upon Abraham and Ishmael, (saying): Purify My house for those who go around and those who meditate therein and those who bow down and prostrate themselves (in worship).
SHAKIR: And when We made the House a pilgrimage for men and a (place of) security, and: Appoint for yourselves a place of prayer on the standing-place of Ibrahim. And We enjoined Ibrahim and Ismail saying: Purify My House for those who visit (it) and those who abide (in it) for devotion and those who bow down (and) those who prostrate themselves.
002.126
YUSUFALI: And remember Abraham said: "My Lord, make this a City of Peace, and feed its people with fruits,-such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day." He said: "(Yea), and such as reject Faith,-for a while will I grant them their pleasure, but will soon drive them to the torment of Fire,- an evil destination (indeed)!"
PICKTHAL: And when Abraham prayed: My Lord! Make this a region of security and bestow upon its people fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day, He answered: As for him who disbelieveth, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the doom of Fire - a hapless journey's end!
SHAKIR: And when Ibrahim said: My Lord, make it a secure town and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the last day. He said: And whoever disbelieves, I will grant him enjoyment for a short while, then I will drive him to the chastisement of the fire; and it is an evil destination.
002.127
YUSUFALI: And remember Abraham and Isma'il raised the foundations of the House (With this prayer): "Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: For Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-knowing.
PICKTHAL: And when Abraham and Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House, (Abraham prayed): Our Lord! Accept from us (this duty). Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Hearer, the Knower.
SHAKIR: And when Ibrahim and Ismail raised the foundations of the House: Our Lord! accept from us; surely Thou art the Hearing, the Knowing:
002.128
YUSUFALI: "Our Lord! make of us Muslims, bowing to Thy (Will), and of our progeny a people Muslim, bowing to Thy (will); and show us our place for the celebration of (due) rites; and turn unto us (in Mercy); for Thou art the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Our Lord! And make us submissive unto Thee and of our seed a nation submissive unto Thee, and show us our ways of worship, and relent toward us. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Relenting, the Merciful.
SHAKIR: Our Lord! and make us both submissive to Thee and (raise) from our offspring a nation submitting to Thee, and show us our ways of devotion and turn to us (mercifully), surely Thou art the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.
002.129
YUSUFALI: "Our Lord! send amongst them a Messenger of their own, who shall rehearse Thy Signs to them and instruct them in scripture and wisdom, and sanctify them: For Thou art the Exalted in Might, the Wise."
PICKTHAL: Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a messenger from among them who shall recite unto them Thy revelations, and shall instruct them in the Scripture and in wisdom and shall make them grow. Lo! Thou, only Thou, art the Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: Our Lord! and raise up in them a Messenger from among them who shall recite to them Thy communications and teach them the Book and the wisdom, and purify them; surely Thou art the Mighty, the Wise.


 
Section 16

Context of Revelation: The following verses were revealed when a learned Jew embraced Islam and invited his nephew and his niece to do the same, reminding them of the prediction in the Torah that the Last of the Prophets would hail from the seed of Abraham. While she accepted his advice, his nephew turned it down.

2 : 130

130. Waman yarghabu AAan millati ibraheema illa man safiha nafsahu walaqadi istafaynahu fee alddunya wa-innahu fee al-akhirati lamina alssaliheena

And who reviles the religion of Abraham but he who is an imbecile in his core! We cherished him in this world, and in the Hereafter We gave him a place among the most righteous!

2 : 131

131. Ith qala lahu rabbuhu aslim qala aslamtu lirabbi alAAalameena

When his Lord said to him : 'Surrender!' he said : 'I surrender to Him who is the Lord of the Worlds!'

2 : 132

 

 

132. Wawassa biha ibraheemu baneehi wayaAAqoobu ya baniyya inna Allaha istafa lakumu alddeena fala tamootunna illa waantum muslimoona

It was the same faith which Abraham handed down to his sons and to Jacob saying : 'O my sons! Allah has chosen this religion for you too, so die not except as those who have surrendered to Him!'

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when the Jewish clerics claimed that, at the time of his death, Prophet Jacob exhorted his progeny to adhere to no other creed save Judaism.

2 : 133

133. Am kuntum shuhadaa ith hadara yaAAqooba almawtu ith qala libaneehi ma taAAbudoona min baAAdee qaloo naAAbudu ilahaka wa-ilaha aba-ika ibraheema wa-ismaAAeela wa-ishaqa ilahan wahidan wanahnu lahu muslimoona

Were you a witness when the moment of death arrived for Jacob? He said to his sons : 'Whom will you worship after my death?' They said : 'We will worship Him who is your  God and God of your forefathers Abraham and Ishmael and of Isaac! He is the One and the Only God and it is to Him that we surrender!

2 : 134

134. Tilka ommatun qad khalat laha ma kasabat walakum ma kasabtum wala tus-aloona AAamma kano yaAAmaloona

Theirs was a generation that has passed away! To them belongs that which they earned and to you belongs that which you earn and you will not be questioned about their deeds!
 

(Let those who level false imputations against the souls of those who passed away do well to remember that they are answerable for their own convictions and actions in the same way as you are answerable for yours).
 
 

*   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when Jews and Christians kept persistently claiming that only Judaism and Christianity are the true religions of God.

2 : 135

 

135. Waqaloo koonoo hoodan aw nasara tahtadoo qul bal millata ibraheema haneefan wama kana mina almushrikeena

They say : 'Be either a Jew or a Christian and you will find the right guidance!' Say to them : 'Nay, we prefer to follow the religion of Abraham, the upright, who was not of the idolaters!

2 : 136

136. Qooloo amanna biAllahi wama onzila ilayna wama onzila ila ibraheema wa-ismaAAeela wa-ishaqa wayaAAqooba waal-asbati wama ootiya moosa waAAeesa wama ootiya alnnabiyyoona min rabbihim la nufarriqu bayna ahadin minhum wanahnu lahu muslimoona

Say (together O believers!) : 'We believe in Allah and in that which is revealed to us and in that which was revealed to Abraham and to Ishmael and to Isaac and to Jacob and their descendants, and in the miracles that were bestowed by their Lord upon Moses and upon Jesus and upon all the other Prophets! And we discriminate not between them and we surrender not to anyone but Him!'
 

(Openly acknowledging and solemnly believing in this complex asseveration is at the core of Islam. A true Muslim not only believes in Allah and in the last of His Prophets and the last of His Scriptures, but also in all of His Prophets and all of His Scriptures with equal ardour).
 

2 : 137

137. Fa-in amanoo bimithli ma amantum bihi faqadi ihtadaw wa-in tawallaw fa-innama hum fee shiqaqin fasayakfeekahumu Allahu wahuwa alssameeAAu alAAaleemu

And if they believe as you believe, then they have found guidance; but if they refute, they remain tangled in controversies. Allah's strength will suffice you against their strength, for He hears everything and knows everything!
 

(Allah bound Himself with a promise in these memorable words, - which are recited again and again on the rosary by most devout Muslims, - that His strength and His backing will suffice those who believe in Him against the combined might of their adversaries, - a promise and a candid prediction which eventually did come true!)
 

2 : 138

138. Sibghata Allahi waman ahsanu mina Allahi sibghatan wanahnu lahu AAabidoona

We take our colour from Allah, and who is better at colouring than Allah? We worship Him alone.
 

(During those days, the Christian priests used to baptize their converts and new born babies with water tinted with yellow colour by dipping their head in a tub filled with yellow coloured water so that the hue caught on and only then accepted that the person or the baby had become a true Christian.

In sharp contrast to this ritual, Allah asks the believers to declare that we take our colour from Allah in the same way as a fabric takes its tone from a dye into which it is soaked, in totality and in entirety,- our hearts and our minds and our souls soaked in a colour that will last forever!)
 
 

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when the Jews argued with Muslims that they were the adherents of the first revealed Scripture; that their Qiblah was the oldest Qiblah; that their religion was the most enduring religion; that all the Prophets in the past hailed from their creed and therefore, if their Prophet was also a true Prophet, he too would have hailed from the Jewish creed.

2 : 139

139. Qul atuhajjoonana fee Allahi wahuwa rabbuna warabbukum walana aAAmaluna walakum aAAmalukum wanahnu lahu mukhlisoona

Say to them : 'Why altercate with us over Allah when He is our Lord as well as your Lord? Our deeds are our concern and your deeds are your concern and we belong to no one but Him!
 

(After taking a good hard look at this glorious verse, can there be anyone in the entire world who can dub Islam an inflexible and fanatical religion, not prepared to co-exist with any other creed, as it is so often claimed?)

2 : 140

140. Am taqooloona inna ibraheema wa-ismaAAeela wa-ishaqa wayaAAqooba waal-asbata kanoo hoodan aw nasara qul aantum aAAlamu ami Allahu waman athlamu mimman katama shahadatan AAindahu mina Allahi wama Allahu bighafilin AAamma taAAmaloona

Or claim you that Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Tribes were either Jews or Christians? Say to them : 'Do you claim to know more than Allah?' Who can be more impetuous than him that conceals a testimony which he has received from Allah? Allah is not oblivious to your deeds!
 

(The Jews concealed from people the truth about Abraham as mentioned in the Torah that he was not an idolater but worshipped Allah alone as his only Lord, and the truth about Prophet Mohammed as prophesied in the same Scripture that the religion he was destined to preach was the only true religion of Allah).

2 : 141

141. Tilka ommatun qad khalat laha ma kasabat walakum ma kasabtum wala tus-aloona AAamma kanoo yaAAmaloona

Theirs was a generation that has passed away! To them belongs that which they earned and to you belongs that which you earn and you will not be questioned about their deeds! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

130. And who turns away from the religion of Ibrāhim (Abraham) (i.e. Islāmic Monotheism) except him who befools himself? Truly, We chose him in this world and verily, in the Hereafter he will be among the righteous.

131. When his Lord said to him, "Submit (i.e. be a Muslim)!" He said, "I have submitted myself (as a Muslim) to the Lord of the 'Alamīn (mankind, jinns and all that exists)."

132. And this (submission to Allāh, Islām) was enjoined by Ibrāhim (Abraham) upon his sons and by Ya'qūb (Jacob), (saying), "O my sons! Allāh has chosen for you the (true) religion, then die not except in the Faith of Islām (as Muslims - Islāmic Monotheism)."

133. Or were you witnesses when death approached Ya'qūb (Jacob)? When he said unto his sons, "What will you worship after me?" They said, "We shall worship your Ilāh [] (God - Allāh), the Ilāh (God) of your fathers, Ibrāhim (Abraham), Ismā'il (Ishmael), Ishāque (Isaac), One Ilāh (God), and to Him we submit (in Islām)."

134. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.

135. And they say, "Be Jews or Christians, then you will be guided." Say (to them, O Muhammad Peace be upon him ), "Nay, (We follow) only the religion of Ibrāhim (Abraham), Hanifa [Islāmic Monotheism, i.e. to worship none but Allāh (Alone)], and he was not of Al-Mushrikūn (those who worshipped others along with Allāh - see V.2:105)." []

136. Say (O Muslims), "We believe in Allāh and that which has been sent down to us and that which has been sent down to Ibrāhim (Abraham), Ismā'il (Ishmael), Ishāque (Isaac), Ya'qūb (Jacob), and to Al-Asbāt [the twelve sons of Ya'qūb (Jacob)], and that which has been given to Mūsa (Moses) and 'Iesa (Jesus), and that which has been given to the Prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and to Him we have submitted (in Islām)."

137. So if they believe in the like of that which you believe, then they are rightly guided, but if they turn away, then they are only in opposition. So Allāh will suffice you against them. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.

138. [Our Sibghah (religion) is] the Sibghah (Religion) of Allāh (Islām) and which Sibghah (religion) can be better than Allāh's? And we are His worshippers. [Tafsir Ibn Kathīr.]

139. Say (O Muhammad Peace be upon him to the Jews and Christians), "Dispute you with us about Allāh while He is our Lord and your Lord? And we are to be rewarded for our deeds and you for your deeds. [] And we are sincere to Him in worship and obedience (i.e. we worship Him Alone and none else, and we obey His Orders)."

140. Or say you that Ibrāhim (Abraham), Ismā'il (Ishmael), Ishāque (Isaac), Ya'qūb (Jacob) and Al-Asbāt [the twelve sons of Ya'qūb (Jacob)] were Jews or Christians? Say, "Do you know better or does Allāh (knows better… that they all were Muslims)? And who is more unjust than he who conceals the testimony [i.e. to believe in Prophet Muhammad Peace be upon him when he comes, written in their Books. (See Verse 7:157)] he has from Allāh? And Allāh is not unaware of what you do."

141. That was a nation who has passed away. They shall receive the reward of what they earned, and you of what you earn. And you will not be asked of what they used to do.


002.130
YUSUFALI: And who turns away from the religion of Abraham but such as debase their souls with folly? Him We chose and rendered pure in this world: And he will be in the Hereafter in the ranks of the Righteous.
PICKTHAL: And who forsaketh the religion of Abraham save him who befooleth himself? Verily We chose him in the world, and lo! in the Hereafter he is among the righteous.
SHAKIR: And who forsakes the religion of Ibrahim but he who makes himself a fool, and most certainly We chose him in this world, and in the hereafter he is most surely among the righteous.
002.131
YUSUFALI: Behold! his Lord said to him: "Bow (thy will to Me):" He said: "I bow (my will) to the Lord and Cherisher of the Universe."
PICKTHAL: When his Lord said unto him: Surrender! he said: I have surrendered to the Lord of the Worlds.
SHAKIR: When his Lord said to him, Be a Muslim, he said: I submit myself to the Lord of the worlds.
002.132
YUSUFALI: And this was the legacy that Abraham left to his sons, and so did Jacob; "Oh my sons! Allah hath chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the Faith of Islam."
PICKTHAL: The same did Abraham enjoin upon his sons, and also Jacob, (saying): O my sons! Lo! Allah hath chosen for you the (true) religion; therefore die not save as men who have surrendered (unto Him).
SHAKIR: And the same did Ibrahim enjoin on his sons and (so did) Yaqoub. O my sons! surely Allah has chosen for you (this) faith, therefore die not unless you are Muslims.
002.133
YUSUFALI: Were ye witnesses when death appeared before Jacob? Behold, he said to his sons: "What will ye worship after me?" They said: "We shall worship Thy god and the god of thy fathers, of Abraham, Isma'il and Isaac,- the one (True) Allah: To Him we bow (in Islam)."
PICKTHAL: Or were ye present when death came to Jacob, when he said unto his sons: What will ye worship after me? They said: We shall worship thy god, the god of thy fathers, Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac, One Allah, and unto Him we have surrendered.
SHAKIR: Nay! were you witnesses when death visited Yaqoub, when he said to his sons: What will you serve after me? They said: We will serve your god and the god of your fathers, Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq, one Allah only, and to Him do we submit.
002.134
YUSUFALI: That was a people that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of what they did, and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no question in your case!
PICKTHAL: Those are a people who have passed away. Theirs is that which they earned, and yours is that which ye earn. And ye will not be asked of what they used to do.
SHAKIR: This is a people that have passed away; they shall have what they earned and you shall have what you earn, and you shall not be called upon to answer for what they did.
002.135
YUSUFALI: They say: "Become Jews or Christians if ye would be guided (To salvation)." Say thou: "Nay! (I would rather) the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with Allah."
PICKTHAL: And they say: Be Jews or Christians, then ye will be rightly guided. Say (unto them, O Muhammad): Nay, but (we follow) the religion of Abraham, the upright, and he was not of the idolaters.
SHAKIR: And they say: Be Jews or Christians, you will be on the right course. Say: Nay! (we follow) the religion of Ibrahim, the Hanif, and he was not one of the polytheists.
002.136
YUSUFALI: Say ye: "We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Abraham, Isma'il, Isaac, Jacob, and the Tribes, and that given to Moses and Jesus, and that given to (all) prophets from their Lord: We make no difference between one and another of them: And we bow to Allah (in Islam)."
PICKTHAL: Say (O Muslims): We believe in Allah and that which is revealed unto us and that which was revealed unto Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes, and that which Moses and Jesus received, and that which the prophets received from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and unto Him we have surrendered.
SHAKIR: Say: We believe in Allah and (in) that which had been revealed to us, and (in) that which was revealed to Ibrahim and Ismail and Ishaq and Yaqoub and the tribes, and (in) that which was given to Musa and Isa, and (in) that which was given to the prophets from their Lord, we do not make any distinction between any of them, and to Him do we submit.
002.137
YUSUFALI: So if they believe as ye believe, they are indeed on the right path; but if they turn back, it is they who are in schism; but Allah will suffice thee as against them, and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing.
PICKTHAL: And if they believe in the like of that which ye believe, then are they rightly guided. But if they turn away, then are they in schism, and Allah will suffice thee (for defence) against them. He is the Hearer, the Knower.
SHAKIR: If then they believe as you believe in Him, they are indeed on the right course, and if they turn back, then they are only in great opposition, so Allah will suffice you against them, and He is the Hearing, the Knowing.
002.138
YUSUFALI: (Our religion is) the Baptism of Allah: And who can baptize better than Allah? And it is He Whom we worship.
PICKTHAL: (We take our) colour from Allah, and who is better than Allah at colouring. We are His worshippers.
SHAKIR: (Receive) the baptism of Allah, and who is better than Allah in baptising? and Him do we serve.
002.139
YUSUFALI: Say: Will ye dispute with us about Allah, seeing that He is our Lord and your Lord; that we are responsible for our doings and ye for yours; and that We are sincere (in our faith) in Him?
PICKTHAL: Say (unto the People of the Scripture): Dispute ye with us concerning Allah when He is our Lord and your Lord? Ours are our works and yours your works. We look to Him alone.
SHAKIR: Say: Do you dispute with us about Allah, and He is our Lord and your Lord, and we shall have our deeds and you shall have your deeds, and we are sincere to Him.
002.140
YUSUFALI: Or do ye say that Abraham, Isma'il Isaac, Jacob and the Tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know better than Allah? Ah! who is more unjust than those who conceal the testimony they have from Allah? but Allah is not unmindful of what ye do!
PICKTHAL: Or say ye that Abraham, and Ishmael, and Isaac, and Jacob, and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Do ye know best, or doth Allah? And who is more unjust than he who hideth a testimony which he hath received from Allah? Allah is not unaware of what ye do.
SHAKIR: Nay! do you say that Ibrahim and Ismail and Yaqoub and the tribes were Jews or Christians? Say: Are you better knowing or Allah? And who is more unjust than he who conceals a testimony that he has from Allah? And Allah is not at all heedless of what you do.
002.141
YUSUFALI: That was a people that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of what they did, and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no question in your case:
PICKTHAL: Those are a people who have passed away; theirs is that which they earned and yours that which ye earn. And ye will not be asked of what they used to do.
SHAKIR: This is a people that have passed away; they shall have what they earned and you shall have what you earn, and you shall not be called upon to answer for what they did.


 

Section 17

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the Qiblah was changed for the Muslims from the Ka'ba in Mecca to Jerusalem at which the Jews, the Christians, the hypocrites and the idolaters poured scorn in one voice, claiming that the Prophet had lost his sense of direction and succumbed to the Jews

2 : 142

142. Sayaqoolu alssufahao mina alnnasi ma wallahum AAan qiblatihimu allatee kanoo AAalayha qul lillahi almashriqu waalmaghribu yahdee man yashao ila siratin mustaqeemin

Some fools among mankind say : 'Who has turned them away from the Qiblah which they once observed?' Say : 'To Allah belongs the East and the West! He guides whom He will on to the righteous path!
 

(Subsequent to the Prophet's emigration from Mecca to Madina along with his associates, Muslims were asked to face Jerusalem for a short time when offering worship. It upset the Jewish clerics because that was the same direction at which they faced when praying. Those who ridiculed the Prophet are referred to in the verse as fools because it stands to reason that the East belongs to Allah as much as the West does, and that facing a particular direction at the time of worship was merely a protocol imposed in order to bring about a synthesis between the peoples of different nations, scattered across the world).

*  *  *

2 : 143

143. Wakathalika jaAAalnakum ommatan wasatan litakoonoo shuhadaa AAala alnnasi wayakoona alrrasoolu AAalaykum shaheedan wama jaAAalna alqiblata allatee kunta AAalayha illa linaAAlama man yattabiAAu alrrasoola mimman yanqalibu AAala AAaqibayhi wa-in kanat lakabeeratan illa AAala allatheena hada Allahu wama kana Allahu liyudeeAAa eemanakum inna Allaha bialnnasi laraoofun raheemun

And such is the case that We made you an intermediary nation so that you may be a witness against all mankind and this messenger a witness against you. The Qiblah you once observed, We appointed that as well, so that We know who obeys the messenger and who turns round on his heels. It was, indeed, a hard test, except for those whom Allah has guided. It befits not Allah to render futile your faith, for verily Allah is full of kindness and pity towards mankind!
 

(On the Day of Judgement Allah will demand of His messengers the proof that they did what they were entrusted to do : conveyed His message to mankind with punctiliousness and efficacy. Whilst the rest of mankind would deny that their Prophets brought them Divine messages, the Muslims would stand firm in testifying that their Prophet did bring them a Divine message from Allah.

The verse clarifies that Jerusalem, which was decreed as the Qiblah for the Muslims in the past was also decreed by the same Allah in order to test who remained rooted to their faith and who would falter. Allah reassures us that, whichever direction we face when we worship, East or West, Jerusalem or Mecca, He will never render futile the faith which we conserve inside the inner sanctums of our hearts and our minds).
 

2 : 144

 

 

144. Qad nara taqalluba wajhika fee alssama-i falanuwalliyannaka qiblatan tardaha fawalli wajhaka shatra almasjidi alharami wahaythu ma kuntum fawalloo wujoohakum shatrahu wa-inna allatheena ootoo alkitaba layaAAlamoona annahu alhaqqu min rabbihim wama Allahu bighafilin AAamma yaAAmaloona

We have observed how you turn your face towards the heavens for guidance (O Mohammed), and We shall surely let you turn towards the Qiblah that you cherish! Turn towards the Hallowed Mosque, and you too (O Muslims), wherever you may be, turn your faces towards it when you pray. Those to whom the Scriptures were given before know well that this Revelation is the truth from their Lord! Allah is not oblivious to what they do!
 

(When this verse was revealed, the Prophet was leading a congregation and facing Jerusalem, but turned towards the al-Masjid-al-Haram in Mecca in course of the prayer, followed by the columns of Muslims standing behind him).
 

2 : 145

145. Wala-in atayta allatheena ootoo alkitaba bikulli ayatin ma tabiAAoo qiblataka wama anta bitabiAAin qiblatahum wama baAAduhum bitabiAAin qiblata baAAdin wala-ini ittabaAAta ahwaahum min baAAdi ma jaaka mina alAAilmi innaka ithan lamina alththalimeena

And even if you show to the people who have received the previous Scriptures any number of signs, they will not accept your Qiblah; nor is it binding on you to accept their Qiblah; nor are some of them followers of the Qiblah of others! And if you succumb to their whims after knowledge has come to you, then surely you too will be one with the sinful!
 

(The verse highlights how divided and distanced the Peoples of previous Scriptures had become over the centuries, each insisting on a Qiblah of their own, - the Qiblah being the direction at which we face at the time of worship, - the Jews facing Jerusalem, the Christians facing the Eastern wing of Jerusalem where the crucifixion of Jesus, according to them, had taken place, - as chosen by their own whims and not as ordained by Allah. On the contrary, the Prophet and his adherents faced the direction as ordained for them by Allah, - Jerusalem it was, if Jerusalem was ordained; Mecca it was if Mecca was ordained; regardless of what we cherished, regardless of how we felt, regardless how much we were ridiculed!

The verse also contains an admonishment to the Muslims not to succumb to their maverick whims and fancies lest they too became transgressors like them).
 

2 : 146

146. Allatheena ataynahumu alkitaba yaAArifoonahu kama yaAArifoona abnaahum wa-inna fareeqan minhum layaktumoona alhaqqa wahum yaAAlamoona

And those to whom We gave the Scripture are familiar with this messenger as intimately as they are with their own sons and yet a group of them knowingly suppress the truth!
 

(This familiarity stemmed from the vivid description of the Last Prophet mentioned in the Torah and in the Gospel about which the learned pedagogues of both communities were well aware).
 

2 : 147

147. Alhaqqu min rabbika fala takoonanna mina almumtareena

This is the truth from your Lord (O Mohammed) so be not of those who hesitate! (R)


 

EXAMPLES OF OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

142. The fools (pagans, hypocrites, and Jews) among the people will say, "What has turned them (Muslims) from their Qiblah [prayer direction (towards Jerusalem)] to which they were used to face in prayer." Say, (O Muhammad SAW) "To Allāh belong both, east and the west. He guides whom He wills to a Straight Way."

143. Thus We have made you [true Muslims - real believers of Islāmic Monotheism, true followers of Prophet Muhammad SAW and his Sunnah (legal ways)], a Wasat (just) (and the best) nation, that you be witnesses over mankind[] and the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) be a witness over you. And We made the Qiblah (prayer direction towards Jerusalem) which you used to face, only to test those who followed the Messenger (Muhammad SAW) from those who would turn on their heels (i.e. disobey the Messenger). Indeed it was great (heavy) except for those whom Allāh guided. And Allāh would never make your faith (prayers) to be lost (i.e. your prayers offered towards Jerusalem). Truly, Allāh is full of kindness, the Most Merciful towards mankind.

144. Verily! We have seen the turning of your (Muhammad's SAW) face towards the heaven. Surely, We shall turn you to a Qiblah (prayer direction) that shall please you, so turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid- al-Harām (at Makkah). And wheresoever you people are, turn your faces (in prayer) in that direction. Certainly, the people who were given the Scriptures (i.e. Jews and the Christians) know well that, that (your turning towards the direction of the Ka'bah at Makkah in prayers) is the truth from their Lord. And Allāh is not unaware of what they do.

145. And even if you were to bring to the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) all the Ayāt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.), they would not follow your Qiblah (prayer direction), nor are you going to follow their Qiblah (prayer direction). And they will not follow each other's Qiblah (prayer direction). Verily, if you follow their desires after that which you have received of knowledge (from Allāh), then indeed you will be one of the Zālimūn (polytheists, wrong-doers, etc.).

146. Those to whom We gave the Scripture (Jews and Christians) recognise him (Muhammad SAW or the Ka'bah at Makkah) as they recongise their sons. But verily, a party of them conceal the truth while they know it - [i.e. the qualities of Muhammad SAW which are written in the Taurāt (Torah) and the Injeel (Gospel)][].

147. (This is) the truth from your Lord. So be you not one of those who doubt.


002.142
YUSUFALI: The fools among the people will say: "What hath turned them from the Qibla to which they were used?" Say: To Allah belong both east and West: He guideth whom He will to a Way that is straight.
PICKTHAL: The foolish of the people will say: What hath turned them from the qiblah which they formerly observed? Say: Unto Allah belong the East and the West. He guideth whom He will unto a straight path.
SHAKIR: The fools among the people will say: What has turned them from their qiblah which they had? Say: The East and the West belong only to Allah; He guides whom He likes to the right path.
002.143
YUSUFALI: Thus, have We made of you an Ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves; and We appointed the Qibla to which thou wast used, only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels (From the Faith). Indeed it was (A change) momentous, except to those guided by Allah. And never would Allah Make your faith of no effect. For Allah is to all people Most surely full of kindness, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Thus We have appointed you a middle nation, that ye may be witnesses against mankind, and that the messenger may be a witness against you. And We appointed the qiblah which ye formerly observed only that We might know him who followeth the messenger, from him who turneth on his heels. In truth it was a hard (test) save for those whom Allah guided. But it was not Allah's purpose that your faith should be in vain, for Allah is Full of Pity, Merciful toward mankind.
SHAKIR: And thus We have made you a medium (just) nation that you may be the bearers of witness to the people and (that) the Messenger may be a bearer of witness to you; and We did not make that which you would have to be the qiblah but that We might distinguish him who follows the Messenger from him who turns back upon his heels, and this was surely hard except for those whom Allah has guided aright; and Allah was not going to make your faith to be fruitless; most surely Allah is Affectionate, Merciful to the people.
002.144
YUSUFALI: We see the turning of thy face (for guidance to the heavens: now Shall We turn thee to a Qibla that shall please thee. Turn then Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque: Wherever ye are, turn your faces in that direction. The people of the Book know well that that is the truth from their Lord. Nor is Allah unmindful of what they do.
PICKTHAL: We have seen the turning of thy face to heaven (for guidance, O Muhammad). And now verily We shall make thee turn (in prayer) toward a qiblah which is dear to thee. So turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship, and ye (O Muslims), wheresoever ye may be, turn your faces (when ye pray) toward it. Lo! Those who have received the Scripture know that (this revelation) is the Truth from their Lord. And Allah is not unaware of what they do.
SHAKIR: Indeed We see the turning of your face to heaven, so We shall surely turn you to a qiblah which you shall like; turn then your face towards the Sacred Mosque, and wherever you are, turn your face towards it, and those who have been given the Book most surely know that it is the truth from their Lord; and Allah is not at all heedless of what they do.
002.145
YUSUFALI: Even if thou wert to bring to the people of the Book all the Signs (together), they would not follow Thy Qibla; nor art thou going to follow their Qibla; nor indeed will they follow each other's Qibla. If thou after the knowledge hath reached thee, Wert to follow their (vain) desires,-then wert thou Indeed (clearly) in the wrong.
PICKTHAL: And even if thou broughtest unto those who have received the Scripture all kinds of portents, they would not follow thy qiblah, nor canst thou be a follower of their qiblah; nor are some of them followers of the qiblah of others. And if thou shouldst follow their desires after the knowledge which hath come unto thee, then surely wert thou of the evil-doers.
SHAKIR: And even if you bring to those who have been given the Book every sign they would not follow your qiblah, nor can you be a follower of their qiblah, neither are they the followers of each other's qiblah, and if you follow their desires after the knowledge that has come to you, then you shall most surely be among the unjust.
002.146
YUSUFALI: The people of the Book know this as they know their own sons; but some of them conceal the truth which they themselves know.
PICKTHAL: Those unto whom We gave the Scripture recognise (this revelation) as they recognise their sons. But lo! a party of them knowingly conceal the truth.
SHAKIR: Those whom We have given the Book recognize him as they recognize their sons, and a party of them most surely conceal the truth while they know (it).
002.147
YUSUFALI: The Truth is from thy Lord; so be not at all in doubt.
PICKTHAL: It is the Truth from thy Lord (O Muhammad), so be not thou of those who waver.
SHAKIR: The truth is from your Lord, therefore you should not be of the doubters.


 
Section 18.


2 : 148

148. Walikullin wijhatun huwa muwalleeha faistabiqoo alkhayrati aynama takoonoo ya/ti bikumu Allahu jameeAAan inna Allaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun

Each and everyone of you has a goal of his own towards which he is drawn, so let your goal be to outdo one another in the performance of righteous deeds! Wherever you may be, Allah will gather you together! Verily Allah is Omnipotent over all things!
 

(It is in the ethos and in the entelechy of our hearts to set for ourselves a realistic goal and then strive to accomplish it. Different people have different goals according to which they organize their portfolio of priorities; some to wed a sweetheart, some to buy a dream house, some to scale the Everest, some to wear crowns and build empires. In this verse Allah admonishes us to set righteousness and munificence as our ultimate goals and compete with each other towards their accomplishment)
 

2 : 149

149. Wamin haythu kharajta fawalli wajhaka shatra almasjidi alharami wa-innahu lalhaqqu min rabbika wama Allahu bighafilin AAamma taAAmaloona

And wherever you emerge from, turn your face towards the Hallowed Mosque when you pray. Verily this is the truth from your Lord! Allah is not oblivious to your deeds!

2 : 150

 

 

150. Wamin haythu kharajta fawalli wajhaka shatra almasjidi alharami wahaythu ma kuntum fawalloo wujoohakum shatrahu li-alla yakoona lilnnasi AAalaykum hujjatun illa allatheena thalamoo minhum fala takhshawhum waikhshawnee wali-otimma niAAmatee AAalaykum walaAAallakum tahtadoona

Wherever you emerge from for your prayers (O Mohammed), turn your face towards the Hallowed Mosque; and wherever you are (O Muslims), turn your faces towards it so that none can argue with you about which direction you face except those who are troublesome. Fear them not but fear Me so that I may augment My benefactions to you and so that you are given the right guidance -

2 : 151

151. Kama arsalna feekum rasoolan minkum yatloo AAalaykum ayatina wayuzakkeekum wayuAAallimukumu alkitaba waalhikmata wayuAAallimukum ma lam takoonoo taAAlamoona

Such as this messenger whom We have sent to you, chosen from your own midst, who will recite to you Our Revelations and purify you; and who will teach you the Scripture and the Wisdom and teach you that which you knew not!

2 : 152

152. Faothkuroonee athkurkum waoshkuroo lee wala takfurooni

And hence remember Me so that  I remember you and tender your gratitude to Me and reject Me not. (R)

(Remembrance of Allah does not simply mean offering worship five times a day; it includes looking at the marvels of His Divinity and Ubiquity which are scattered all around us and reflecting on them, drawing inspiration from them, paying tribute to Him who is the Creator of all things great and small, saying His name as often as possible, acknowledging His hegemony and surrendering to His will! If we do this with solemnity and sincerity, He too will remember us, respond to us, reward us!).
 


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

148. For every nation there is a direction to which they face (in their prayers). So hasten towards all that is good. Wheresoever you may be, Allāh will bring you together (on the Day of Resurrection). Truly, Allāh is Able to do all things.

149. And from wheresoever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Harām (at Makkah), that is indeed the truth from your Lord. And Allāh is not unaware of what you do.

150. And from wheresoever you start forth (for prayers), turn your face in the direction of Al-Masjid-al-Harām (at Makkah), and wheresoever you are, turn your faces towards, it (when you pray) so that men may have no argument against you except those of them that are wrong-doers, so fear them not, but fear Me! - And so that I may complete My Blessings on you and that you may be guided.

151. Similarly (to complete My Blessings on you) We have sent among you a Messenger (Muhammad SAW) of your own, reciting to you Our Verses (the Qur'ān) and sanctifying you, and teaching you the Book (the Qur'ān) and the Hikmah (i.e. Sunnah, Islāmic laws and Fiqh - jurisprudence), and teaching you that which you used not to know.

152. Therefore remember Me (by praying, glorifying, etc.).[] I will remember you, and be grateful to Me (for My countless Favours on you) and never be ungrateful to Me.

153. O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salāt (the prayer). Truly! Allāh is with As-Sābirin (the patient ones, etc.).

154. And say not of those who are killed in the Way of Allāh, "They are dead." Nay, they are living, but you perceive (it) not.

155. And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sābirin (the patient ones, etc.).

156. Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: "Truly! To Allāh we belong and truly, to Him we shall return."

157. They are those on whom are the Salawāt (i.e. blessings, etc.) (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided-ones.

158. Verily! As-Safā and Al-Marwah (two mountains in Makkah) are of the Symbols of Allāh. So it is not a sin on him who perform Hajj or 'Umrah (pilgrimage) of the House (the Ka'bah at Makkah) to perform the going (Tawāf) between them (As-Safā and Al-Marwah).[] And whoever does good voluntarily, then verily, Allāh is All-Recogniser, All-Knower.

159. Verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allāh and cursed by the cursers.



002.148  

YUSUFALI: To each is a goal to which Allah turns him; then strive together (as in a race) Towards all that is good. Wheresoever ye are, Allah will bring you Together. For Allah Hath power over all things.
PICKTHAL: And each one hath a goal toward which he turneth; so vie with one another in good works. Wheresoever ye may be, Allah will bring you all together. Lo! Allah is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: And every one has a direction to which he should turn, therefore hasten to (do) good works; wherever you are, Allah will bring you all together; surely Allah has power over all things.
002.149
YUSUFALI: From whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; that is indeed the truth from the Lord. And Allah is not unmindful of what ye do.
PICKTHAL: And whencesoever thou comest forth (for prayer, O Muhammad) turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship. Lo! it is the Truth from thy Lord. Allah is not unaware of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And from whatsoever place you come forth, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque; and surely it is the very truth from your Lord, and Allah is not at all heedless of what you do.
002.150
YUSUFALI: So from whencesoever Thou startest forth, turn Thy face in the direction of the sacred Mosque; and wheresoever ye are, Turn your face thither: that there be no ground of dispute against you among the people, except those of them that are bent on wickedness; so fear them not, but fear Me; and that I may complete My favours on you, and ye May (consent to) be guided;
PICKTHAL: Whencesoever thou comest forth turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship; and wheresoever ye may be (O Muslims) turn your faces toward it (when ye pray) so that men may have no argument against you, save such of them as do injustice - Fear them not, but fear Me! - and so that I may complete My grace upon you, and that ye may be guided.
SHAKIR: And from whatsoever place you come forth, turn your face towards the Sacred Mosque; and wherever you are turn your faces towards it, so that people shall have no accusation against you, except such of them as are unjust; so do not fear them, and fear Me, that I may complete My favor on you and that you may walk on the right course.
002.151
YUSUFALI: A similar (favour have ye already received) in that We have sent among you a Messenger of your own, rehearsing to you Our Signs, and sanctifying you, and instructing you in Scripture and Wisdom, and in new knowledge.
PICKTHAL: Even as We have sent unto you a messenger from among you, who reciteth unto you Our revelations and causeth you to grow, and teacheth you the Scripture and wisdom, and teacheth you that which ye knew not.
SHAKIR: Even as We have sent among you a Messenger from among you who recites to you Our communications and purifies you and teaches you the Book and the wisdom and teaches you that which you did not know.
002.152
YUSUFALI: Then do ye remember Me; I will remember you. Be grateful to Me, and reject not Faith.
PICKTHAL: Therefore remember Me, I will remember you. Give thanks to Me, and reject not Me.
SHAKIR: Therefore remember Me, I will remember you, and be thankful to Me, and do not be ungrateful to Me.

 


Section 19.

2 : 153

153. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo istaAAeenoo bialssabri waalssalati inna Allaha maAAa alssabireena

O those of you who believe! Seek help with equanimity and through invocation, for verily Allah is on the side of those who are equanimous.

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed in honour of martyrs, especially those who had lost their lives in the blood-soaked battle of Badr.

2 : 154

154. Wala taqooloo liman yuqtalu fee sabeeli Allahi amwatun bal ahyaon walakin la tashAAuroona

Refer not to those who laid down their lives in the way of Allah as 'dead'. Nay, but they are very much alive, though you see them not!
 

(Martyrs are Muslims who were slain whilst striving for the Cause of Allah. They are not to be thought of as dead because a new life begins for them after they have fallen and been laid to rest; their sustenance is provided for them by Allah from the bounties of Paradise, their righteous deeds continue and their rewards accumulate until the very Day of Judgement).

*  *  *

2 : 155

155. Walanabluwannakum bishay-in mina alkhawfi waaljooAAi wanaqsin mina al-amwali waal-anfusi waalththamarati wabashshiri alssabireena

And verily We shall try you from time to time with consternation and starvation and loss of possessions and of lives and of crops! But give glad tidings to those who are equanimous -

2 : 156

156. Allatheena itha asabat-hum museebatun qaloo inna lillahi wa-inna ilayhi rajiAAoona

And (who) say whenever a misfortune befalls them : 'We belong to Allah and we must return to Him in the end!

2 : 157

157. Ola-ika AAalayhim salawatun min rabbihim warahmatun waola-ika humu almuhtadoona

These are the people on whom shower blessings and mercies of their Lord and these are the people who are given the right guidance.
 

(In the above verses, Allah reminds us that we will be put through our paces from time to time by means of natural disasters such as famine, floods, storms, plagues, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires, blizzards, tornadoes, mostly inspiring fear and invariably resulting in loss of life and property and crops, in addition to man-made disasters such as nuclear warfare, experimentation, erosion of natural resources, abuse of our atmosphere, disbalancing the balance of nature as envisaged by Allah and a lot more besides, the examples of which are becoming manifest to us day after day. Although it is true that we are incapable of aborting or overcoming any of these, the righteous amongst us say at the onset of a disaster that we are all the property of Allah and therefore sooner or later we must return to Him. If deep down in our hearts we truly believe in this and reinforce our conviction with the spoken word by repeating these verses below our breath, no hurdle would seem beyond the scope of negotiating and no trial insurmountable. Let us all repeat these words as often as we can, either in the mornings when we are getting ready to face the rigours of an arduous new day, or at night before we fall asleep and escape into the unpredictable, - and see what a difference it makes!)

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed in order to reassure pilgrims that going around the mountains of As-Safa and Al-Marvah during pilgrimage is no longer to be treated as a pagan ritual.

2 : 158

158. Inna alssafa waalmarwata min shaAAa-iri Allahi faman hajja albayta awi iAAtamara fala junaha AAalayhi an yattawwafa bihima waman tatawwaAAa khayran fa-inna Allaha shakirun AAaleemun

The mountains of As-Safa and Al-Marvah are among the landmarks of Allah, so it is not sinful for those who are on a pilgrimage to the House of God, or are paying an informal visit, to circle around them. He who does good of his own accord, Allah is there to reward him for it and to take care of him!
 

(As-Safa and Al-Marvah are the two hills situated on the eastern side of the Ka'ba. According to Islamic tradition, at a time when this terrain was extremely hostile for human habitation, the barren desert land beleaguered by blistering heat and devastating sandstorms, without any water in sight nor any vegetation, Prophet Abraham's wife Hijrah took up residence there with her infant child Ishmael. Once, when the infant was badly dehydrated from lack of fluids and almost on the verge of death, she set out in search of water and, in sheer desperation, went round and round these hills one after the other. To commemorate the scale of dedication of these noble souls towards Allah, pilgrims are required  to perform the ritual of “sa'y” between these hills. In the beginning, the Muslims were hesitant to do this because the pagan Arabs had lodged on them two idols and also went round the hills to venerate their own deities, but after this reassuring verse was revealed, their concerns also quelled).
 
 

 *  *  *

2 : 159

159. Inna allatheena yaktumoona ma anzalna mina albayyinati waalhuda min baAAdi ma bayyannahu lilnnasi fee alkitabi ola-ika yalAAanuhumu Allahu wayalAAanuhumu allaAAinoona

Those who conceal the portents and the guidance which We revealed, even after We had elucidated them in the Scripture for the benefit of all mankind, Allah's curse is on them and the curse of those who have the prerogative to curse -

2 : 160

160. Illa allatheena taboo waaslahoo wabayyanoo faola-ika atoobu AAalayhim waana alttawwabu alrraheemu

Except on those who repent and restitute and confess to their guilt! These are they whom I shall forgive. I am the Magnanimous and the Merciful!

2 : 161

161. Inna allatheena kafaroo wamatoo wahum kuffarun ola-ika AAalayhim laAAnatu Allahi waalmala-ikati waalnnasi ajmaAAeena

Those who disbelieve and die as disbelievers, Allah's curse is on them and the curse of His angels and the curse of all mankind -

2 : 162

162. Khalideena feeha la yukhaffafu AAanhumu alAAathabu wala hum yuntharoona

They will remain thus accursed forever! Neither their torment will be alleviated nor will they be reprieved!

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when some of the disbelievers demanded the Prophet to define for them the Core of Divinity.

2 : 163

163. Wa-ilahukum ilahun wahidun la ilaha illa huwa alrrahmanu alrraheemu

Your God is One God! There is no God other than Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

153. O you who believe! Seek help in patience and As-Salāt (the prayer). Truly! Allāh is with As-Sābirin (the patient ones, etc.).

154. And say not of those who are killed in the Way of Allāh, “They are dead.” Nay, they are living, but you perceive (it) not.

155. And certainly, We shall test you with something of fear, hunger, loss of wealth, lives and fruits, but give glad tidings to As-Sābirin (the patient ones, etc.).

156. Who, when afflicted with calamity, say: “Truly! To Allāh we belong and truly, to Him we shall return.”

157. They are those on whom are the Salawāt (i.e. blessings, etc.) (i.e. who are blessed and will be forgiven) from their Lord, and (they are those who) receive His Mercy, and it is they who are the guided-ones.

158. Verily! As-Safā and Al-Marwah (two mountains in Makkah) are of the Symbols of Allāh. So it is not a sin on him who perform Hajj or ‘Umrah (pilgrimage) of the House (the Ka’bah at Makkah) to perform the going (Tawāf) between them (As-Safā and Al-Marwah).[] And whoever does good voluntarily, then verily, Allāh is All-Recogniser, All-Knower.

159. Verily, those who conceal the clear proofs, evidences and the guidance, which We have sent down, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book, they are the ones cursed by Allāh and cursed by the cursers.

160. Except those who repent and do righteous deeds, and openly declare (the truth which they concealed). These, I will accept their repentance. And I am the One Who accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.

161. Verily, those who disbelieve, and die while they are disbelievers, it is they on whom is the Curse of Allāh and of the angels and of mankind, combined.

162. They will abide therein (under the curse in Hell), their punishment will neither be lightened, nor will they be reprieved.

163. And your Ilāh (God) is One Ilāh (God – Allāh), Lā ilāha illa Huwa (there is none who has the right to be worshipped but He), the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful.


002.153
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! seek help with patient perseverance and prayer; for Allah is with those who patiently persevere.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Seek help in steadfastness and prayer. Lo! Allah is with the steadfast.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! seek assistance through patience and prayer; surely Allah is with the patient.
002.154
YUSUFALI: And say not of those who are slain in the way of Allah: "They are dead." Nay, they are living, though ye perceive (it) not.
PICKTHAL: And call not those who are slain in the way of Allah "dead." Nay, they are living, only ye perceive not.
SHAKIR: And do not speak of those who are slain in Allah's way as dead; nay, (they are) alive, but you do not perceive.
002.155
YUSUFALI: Be sure we shall test you with something of fear and hunger, some loss in goods or lives or the fruits (of your toil), but give glad tidings to those who patiently persevere,
PICKTHAL: And surely We shall try you with something of fear and hunger, and loss of wealth and lives and crops; but give glad tidings to the steadfast,
SHAKIR: And We will most certainly try you with somewhat of fear and hunger and loss of property and lives and fruits; and give good news to the patient,
002.156
YUSUFALI: Who say, when afflicted with calamity: "To Allah We belong, and to Him is our return":-
PICKTHAL: Who say, when a misfortune striketh them: Lo! we are Allah's and lo! unto Him we are returning.
SHAKIR: Who, when a misfortune befalls them, say: Surely we are Allah's and to Him we shall surely return.
002.157
YUSUFALI: They are those on whom (Descend) blessings from Allah, and Mercy, and they are the ones that receive guidance.
PICKTHAL: Such are they on whom are blessings from their Lord, and mercy. Such are the rightly guided.
SHAKIR: Those are they on whom are blessings and mercy from their Lord, and those are the followers of the right course.
002.158
YUSUFALI: Behold! Safa and Marwa are among the Symbols of Allah. So if those who visit the House in the Season or at other times, should compass them round, it is no sin in them. And if any one obeyeth his own impulse to good,- be sure that Allah is He Who recogniseth and knoweth.
PICKTHAL: Lo! (the mountains) As-Safa and Al-Marwah are among the indications of Allah. It is therefore no sin for him who is on pilgrimage to the House (of Allah) or visiteth it, to go around them (as the pagan custom is). And he who doeth good of his own accord, (for him) lo! Allah is Responsive, Aware.
SHAKIR: Surely the Safa and the Marwa are among the signs appointed by Allah; so whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no blame on him if he goes round them both; and whoever does good spontaneously, then surely Allah is Grateful, Knowing.
002.159
YUSUFALI: Those who conceal the clear (Signs) We have sent down, and the Guidance, after We have made it clear for the people in the Book,-on them shall be Allah's curse, and the curse of those entitled to curse,-
PICKTHAL: Lo! Those who hide the proofs and the guidance which We revealed, after We had made it clear to mankind in the Scripture: such are accursed of Allah and accursed of those who have the power to curse.
SHAKIR: Surely those who conceal the clear proofs and the guidance that We revealed after We made it clear in the Book for men, these it is whom Allah shall curse, and those who curse shall curse them (too).
002.160
YUSUFALI: Except those who repent and make amends and openly declare (the Truth): To them I turn; for I am Oft-returning, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Except those who repent and amend and make manifest (the truth). These it is toward whom I relent. I am the Relenting, the Merciful.
SHAKIR: Except those who repent and amend and make manifest (the truth), these it is to whom I turn (mercifully); and I am the Oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful.
002.161
YUSUFALI: Those who reject Faith, and die rejecting,- on them is Allah's curse, and the curse of angels, and of all mankind;
PICKTHAL: Lo! Those who disbelieve, and die while they are disbelievers; on them is the curse of Allah and of angels and of men combined.
SHAKIR: Surely those who disbelieve and die while they are disbelievers, these it is on whom is the curse of Allah and the angels and men all;
002.162
YUSUFALI: They will abide therein: Their penalty will not be lightened, nor will respite be their (lot).
PICKTHAL: They ever dwell therein. The doom will not be lightened for them, neither will they be reprieved.
SHAKIR: Abiding in it; their chastisement shall not be lightened nor shall they be given respite.
002.163
YUSUFALI: And your Allah is One Allah: There is no god but He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Your Allah is One Allah; there is no Allah save Him, the Beneficent, the Merciful.
SHAKIR: And your Allah is one Allah! there is no god but He; He is the Beneficent, the Merciful.


Section 20.

2 : 164

164. Inna fee khalqi alssamawati waal-ardi waikhtilafi allayli waalnnahari waalfulki allatee tajree fee albahri bima yanfaAAu alnnasa wama anzala Allahu mina alssama-i min ma-in faahya bihi al-arda baAAda mawtiha wabaththa feeha min kulli dabbatin watasreefi alrriyahi waalssahabi almusakhkhari bayna alssama-i waal-ardi laayatin liqawmin yaAAqiloona

Verily in the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the progression of nights and days; in the ships that sail for the good of mankind; in the rain that Allah sends down from the sky for the revival of dead earth; in the scattering of beasts on it; in the turbulence of winds and the suspension of clouds between the heavens and the earth, there are clear portents for those who introspect!
 

(The Meccan idolaters had scattered no less than three hindered and sixty idols on mountains surrounding the city. When they heard about the One God being preached by the Prophet, they could not understand how one God could do the job of three hundred and sixty gods and demanded the Prophet to explain it to them. This verse was revealed to connote the magnitude of Divinity which is manifest in everything visible to the eye : the infinite dome of the azure sky, the wafting clouds, the dazzling sun, the twinkling stars and the gleaming moon; the vastness of the copious earth; the beasts scattered in them; the towering mountains; the turbulent seas; the ships afloat on the mighty waves; the birds in flight; the changing of seasons; the mingling of days into nights and of nights into days, - every one of which is nothing short of a wondrous marvel, an incredible miracle, an awe inspiring feat, all performed by One and only One Lord to whom belongs the kingdom of the heavens and of the earth!)
 

2 : 165

 

165. Wamina alnnasi man yattakhithu min dooni Allahi andadan yuhibboonahum kahubbi Allahi waallatheena amanoo ashaddu hubban lillahi walaw yara allatheena thalamoo ith yarawna alAAathaba anna alquwwata lillahi jameeAAan waanna Allaha shadeedu alAAathabi

Yet among mankind are those who set up gods other than Allah and cherish them as they should cherish Allah alone, - and those who believe in Allah do cherish Him more ardently than anyone else - If only the recusants could behold it when their doom stares them in the eye that all power belongs to Allah and that Allah is unsparing in His retribution!

2 : 166

166. Ith tabarraa allatheena ittubiAAoo mina allatheena ittabaAAoo waraawoo alAAathaba wataqattaAAat bihimu al-asbabu

On the Day when their demigods would behold their own doom, renounce those who followed them and sever their links -

2 : 167

167. Waqala allatheena ittabaAAoo law anna lana karratan fanatabarraa minhum kama tabarraoo minna kathalika yureehimu Allahu aAAmalahum hasaratin AAalayhim wama hum bikharijeena mina alnnari

Those who had acquiesced to them will say : 'If only we could return to earth and sever our links with them in the same way as they are severing all their links with us!' Thus will Allah turn their deeds into anguish for them so that they realize they would never be able to emerge from the fire of hell! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

164. Verily! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of night and day, and the ships which sail through the sea with that which is of use to mankind, and the water (rain) which Allāh sends down from the sky and makes the earth alive therewith after its death, and the moving (living) creatures of all kinds that He has scattered therein, and in the veering of winds and clouds which are held between the sky and the earth, are indeed Ayāt (proofs, evidences, signs, etc.) for people of understanding.

165. And of mankind are some who take (for worship) others besides Allāh as rivals[] (to Allāh). They love them as they love Allāh. But those who believe, love Allāh more (than anything else). If only, those who do wrong could see, when they will see the torment, that all power belongs to Allāh and that Allāh is Severe in punishment.

166. When those who were followed, disown (declare themselves innocent of) those who followed (them), and they see the torment, then all their relations will be cut off from them.

167. And those who followed will say: "If only we had one more chance to return (to the worldly life), we would disown (declare ourselves as innocent from) them as they have disowned (declared themselves as innocent from) us." Thus Allāh will show them their deeds as regrets for them. And they will never get out of the Fire .


002.164
YUSUFALI: Behold! in the creation of the heavens and the earth; in the alternation of the night and the day; in the sailing of the ships through the ocean for the profit of mankind; in the rain which Allah Sends down from the skies, and the life which He gives therewith to an earth that is dead; in the beasts of all kinds that He scatters through the earth; in the change of the winds, and the clouds which they Trail like their slaves between the sky and the earth;- (Here) indeed are Signs for a people that are wise.
PICKTHAL: Lo! In the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the difference of night and day, and the ships which run upon the sea with that which is of use to men, and the water which Allah sendeth down from the sky, thereby reviving the earth after its death, and dispersing all kinds of beasts therein, and (in) the ordinance of the winds, and the clouds obedient between heaven and earth: are signs (of Allah's Sovereignty) for people who have sense.
SHAKIR: Most surely in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day, and the ships that run in the sea with that which profits men, and the water that Allah sends down from the cloud, then gives life with it to the earth after its death and spreads in it all (kinds of) animals, and the changing of the winds and the clouds made subservient between the heaven and the earth, there are signs for a people who understand.
002.165
YUSUFALI: Yet there are men who take (for worship) others besides Allah, as equal (with Allah): They love them as they should love Allah. But those of Faith are overflowing in their love for Allah. If only the unrighteous could see, behold, they would see the penalty: that to Allah belongs all power, and Allah will strongly enforce the penalty.
PICKTHAL: Yet of mankind are some who take unto themselves (objects of worship which they set as) rivals to Allah, loving them with a love like (that which is the due) of Allah (only) - those who believe are stauncher in their love for Allah - Oh, that those who do evil had but known, (on the day) when they behold the doom, that power belongeth wholly to Allah, and that Allah is severe in punishment!
SHAKIR: And there are some among men who take for themselves objects of worship besides Allah, whom they love as they love Allah, and those who believe are stronger in love for Allah and O, that those who are unjust had seen, when they see the chastisement, that the power is wholly Allah's and that Allah is severe in requiting (evil).
002.166
YUSUFALI: Then would those who are followed clear themselves of those who follow (them) : They would see the penalty, and all relations between them would be cut off.
PICKTHAL: (On the day) when those who were followed disown those who followed (them), and they behold the doom, and all their aims collapse with them.
SHAKIR: When those who were followed shall renounce those who followed (them), and they see the chastisement and their ties are cut asunder.
002.167
YUSUFALI: And those who followed would say: "If only We had one more chance, We would clear ourselves of them, as they have cleared themselves of us." Thus will Allah show them (The fruits of) their deeds as (nothing but) regrets. Nor will there be a way for them out of the Fire.
PICKTHAL: And those who were but followers will say: If a return were possible for us, we would disown them even as they have disowned us. Thus will Allah show them their own deeds as anguish for them, and they will not emerge from the Fire.
SHAKIR: And those who followed shall say: Had there been for us a return, then we would renounce them as they have renounced us. Thus will Allah show them their deeds to be intense regret to them, and they shall not come forth from the fire.


 
Section 21.

2 : 168

168. Ya ayyuha alnnasu kuloo mimma fee al-ardi halalan tayyiban wala tattabiAAoo khutuwati alshshaytani innahu lakum AAaduwwun mubeenun

O Mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and salubrious in the earth and place not your feet in the footprints of the devil, for verily he is your sworn enemy -

2 : 169

169. Innama ya/murukum bialssoo-i waalfahsha-i waan taqooloo AAala Allahi ma la taAAlamoona

He enjoins upon you the vicious and the salacious and tempts you into making imputations against Allah about which you have no knowledge.
 

(The verse forbids the believers from deeming unlawful anything which Allah has deemed lawful for them because, from the very inception of mankind, Allah created man free of guilt until the devil confused him about what is lawful and what is unlawful, as it happened to Adam and Eve in the matter of the forbidden fruit. So do not succumb to the ruse of the devil, for he is your sworn enemy.

It is said that if a believer fills his belly with one morsel of forbidden food on one day, he deprives himself of Allah's attention for forty days!).

2 : 170

 

170. Wa-itha qeela lahumu ittabiAAoo ma anzala Allahu qaloo bal nattabiAAu ma alfayna AAalayhi abaana awa law kana abaohum la yaAAqiloona shay-an wala yahtadoona

And when it is said to them : 'Follow that which Allah has revealed!' they say : 'We follow that which we found our forefathers to be following!' What! Even if their forefathers had neither knowledge nor guidance?
 

(This verse emphasizes that, if we think the understanding of our elders and our peers about the dictums of true faith is at odds with ours, we are under no moral or conscientious obligation to follow their lead)
 

2 : 171

171. Wamathalu allatheena kafaroo kamathali allathee yanAAiqu bima la yasmaAAu illa duAAaan wanidaan summun bukmun AAumyun fahum la yaAAqiloona

The likeness of disbelievers is similar to (beasts) who have no ability to do anything other than hearing the shouts and cries of their shepherd! Deaf, dumb and blind, they are devoid of all comprehension!
 

(Like the sheep who do hear the voice of the shepherd but cannot understand what he says).
 

2 : 172

172. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo kuloo min tayyibati ma razaqnakum waoshkuroo lillahi in kuntum iyyahu taAAbudoona

O those of you who believe! Eat of the clean things with which We have provided you and tender your thanks to Allah, - if it is He whom you worship!
 

(It is obligatory upon the believers to be thankful to Allah for all the good things in life with which He has provided us. A true believer begins his meal in the name of Allah and ends it with a solemn expression of his gratitude to Him).
 

2 : 173

173. Innama harrama AAalaykumu almaytata waalddama walahma alkhinzeeri wama ohilla bihi lighayri Allahi famani idturra ghayra baghin wala AAadin fala ithma AAalayhi inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun

He has forbidden you only carrion and blood and swine flesh and any animal that has been immolated in the name of a deity other than Allah. But he who is driven by necessity, it is no sin for him to eat even that, provided he is not relishing it nor being gluttonous. Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful!
 

(The verse demonstrates how lenient and compassionate Allah is towards those who are facing an ordeal and makes it easy for them to overcome the test and at the same time keep their faith in tact. If a man is facing possible death as a result of starvation, or sickness from mal-nourishment, it is no sin for him to consume the forbidden to save himself, provided he is not relishing the food he is eating nor is gorging himself with it because he relishes it! The proviso is mainly intended for those who slink behind pretexts and violate the ordinance of Allah).
 
 

 *  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when the Jewish pedagogues deliberately altered the revelations in the Torah which contained a clear description of the Prophet in order to make a financial gain out of it.

2 : 174

174. Inna allatheena yaktumoona ma anzala Allahu mina alkitabi wayashtaroona bihi thamanan qaleelan ola-ika ma ya/kuloona fee butoonihim illa alnnara wala yukallimuhumu Allahu yawma alqiyamati wala yuzakkeehim walahum AAathabun aleemun

Verily those who conceal the contents of the Scripture Allah has revealed in order to make a trivial financial gain, they gorge their bellies with nothing but cinders! And Allah will not communicate with them on the Day of Resurrection nor will He purify them! For them there only is an acerbic castigation!

2 : 175

175. Ola-ika allatheena ishtarawoo alddalalata bialhuda waalAAathaba bialmaghfirati fama asbarahum AAala alnnari

These are the people who purchase guile at the expense of guidance and retribution at the expense of redemption. How resolutely do they hanker after the Fire!
 

(In the above verses, the reference is to Jewish clerics who were banking on the expectation that the Last Prophet would be chosen by Allah from among the Children of Israel. But when that did not happen, they concealed those parts of the Torah which contained a vivid description of him, lest those of their brethren who relied on them for guidance and paid them for providing it abandoned them and their source of income dried out).
 

2 : 176

176. Thalika bi-anna Allaha nazzala alkitaba bialhaqqi wa-inna allatheena ikhtalafoo fee alkitabi lafee shiqaqin baAAeedin

That is because Allah has revealed the Scripture with the Truth and verily those who instil contradictions in it are the foremost of disputants. (R)

(In this verse, however, the reference is to both Jewish as well as Christian pedagogues who deliberately introduced elements of controversy in their Scriptures so that they could exploit them to their own advantage.

This warning applies equally to the self styled clerics of Islam who dare to add a little bit to the Qur'aan or take a little bit away from it so that it served a purpose that is beneficial to them. For instance, the fake priests wearing long beards and clad in green robes who feed upon the weaknesses of ageing and illiterate men and women by promising them all sorts of miracles and miracle cures from illnesses in order to earn a sinful livelihood).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

168. O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and good on the earth, and follow not the footsteps of Shaitān (Satan). Verily, he is to you an open enemy.

169. [Shaitān (Satan)] commands you only what is evil and Fahshā (sinful), and that you should say against Allāh what you know not.

170. When it is said to them: “Follow what Allāh has sent down.” They say: “Nay! We shall follow what we found our fathers following.” (Would they do that!) Even though their fathers did not understand anything nor were they guided?

171. And the example of those who disbelieve, is as that of him who shouts to the (flock of sheep) that hears nothing but calls and cries. (They are) deaf, dumb and blind. So they do not understand.

172. O you who believe (in the Oneness of Allāh – Islāmic Monotheism)! Eat of the lawful things that We have provided you[] with, and be grateful to Allāh, if it is indeed He Whom you worship.

173. He has forbidden you only the Maytatah (dead animals), and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that which is slaughtered as a scrifice for others than Allāh (or has been slaughtered for idols, etc., on which Allāh’s Name has not been mentioned while slaughtering). But if one is forced by necessity without wilful disobedience nor transgressing due limits, then there is no sin on him. Truly, Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

174. Verily, those who conceal what Allāh has sent down of the Book, and purchase a small gain therewith (of worldly things), they eat into their bellies nothing but fire. Allāh will not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor purify them, and theirs will be a painful torment.

175. Those are they who have purchased error at the price of Guidance, and torment at the price of Forgiveness. So how bold they are (for evil deeds which will push them) to the Fire.

176. That is because Allāh has sent down the Book (the Qur’ān) in truth. And verily, those who disputed as regards the Book are far away in opposition.


 
002.168 
YUSUFALI: O ye people! Eat of what is on earth, Lawful and good; and do not follow the footsteps of the evil one, for he is to you an avowed enemy. 
PICKTHAL: O mankind! Eat of that which is lawful and wholesome in the earth, and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Lo! he is an open enemy for you. 
SHAKIR: O men! eat the lawful and good things out of what is in the earth, and do not follow the footsteps of the Shaitan; surely he is your open enemy. 

002.169 
YUSUFALI: For he commands you what is evil and shameful, and that ye should say of Allah that of which ye have no knowledge. 
PICKTHAL: He enjoineth upon you only the evil and the foul, and that ye should tell concerning Allah that which ye know not. 
SHAKIR: He only enjoins you evil and indecency, and that you may speak against Allah what you do not know. 
002.170 
YUSUFALI: When it is said to them: "Follow what Allah hath revealed:" They say: "Nay! we shall follow the ways of our fathers." What! even though their fathers Were void of 
wisdom and guidance? 
PICKTHAL: And when it is said unto them: Follow that which Allah hath revealed, they say: We follow that wherein we found our fathers. What! Even though their fathers were 
wholly unintelligent and had no guidance? 
SHAKIR: And when it is said to them, Follow what Allah has revealed, they say: Nay! we follow what we found our fathers upon. What! and though their fathers had no sense 
at all, nor did they follow the right way. 
002.171 
YUSUFALI: The parable of those who reject Faith is as if one were to shout Like a goat-herd, to things that listen to nothing but calls and cries: Deaf, dumb, and blind, they are 
void of wisdom. 
PICKTHAL: The likeness of those who disbelieve (in relation to the messenger) is as the likeness of one who calleth unto that which heareth naught except a shout and cry. 
Deaf, dumb, blind, therefore they have no sense. 
SHAKIR: And the parable of those who disbelieve is as the parable of one who calls out to that which hears no more than a call and a cry; deaf, dumb (and) blind, so they 
do not understand. 
 
002.172 
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Eat of the good things that We have provided for you, and be grateful to Allah, if it is Him ye worship. 
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Eat of the good things wherewith We have provided you, and render thanks to Allah if it is (indeed) He Whom ye worship. 
SHAKIR: O you who believe! eat of the good things that We have provided you with, and give thanks to Allah if Him it is that you serve. 
002.173 
YUSUFALI: He hath only forbidden you dead meat, and blood, and the flesh of swine, and that on which any other name hath been invoked besides that of Allah. But if 
one is forced by necessity, without wilful disobedience, nor transgressing due limits,- then is he guiltless. For Allah is Oft-forgiving Most Merciful. 
PICKTHAL: He hath forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and swineflesh, and that which hath been immolated to (the name of) any other than Allah. But he who is driven 
by necessity, neither craving nor transgressing, it is no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 
SHAKIR: He has only forbidden you what dies of itself, and blood, and flesh of swine, and that over which any other (name) than (that of) Allah has been invoked; but whoever 
is driven to necessity, not desiring, nor exceeding the limit, no sin shall be upon him; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 
002.174 
YUSUFALI: Those who conceal Allah's revelations in the Book, and purchase for them a miserable profit,- they swallow into themselves naught but Fire; Allah will not address 
them on the Day of Resurrection. Nor purify them: Grievous will be their penalty. 
PICKTHAL: Lo! those who hide aught of the Scripture which Allah hath revealed and purchase a small gain therewith, they eat into their bellies nothing else than fire. Allah will 
not speak to them on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He make them grow. Theirs will be a painful doom. 
SHAKIR: Surely those who conceal any part of the Book that Allah has revealed and take for it a small price, they eat nothing but fire into their bellies, and Allah will not speak 
to them on the day of resurrection, nor will He purify them, and they shall have a painful chastisement. 
002.175 
YUSUFALI: They are the ones who buy Error in place of Guidance and Torment in place of Forgiveness. Ah! what boldness (They show) for the Fire! 
PICKTHAL: Those are they who purchase error at the price of guidance, and torment at the price of pardon. How constant are they in their strife to reach the Fire! 
SHAKIR: These are they who buy error for the right direction and chastisement for forgiveness; how bold they are to encounter fire. 
 
002.176 
YUSUFALI: (Their doom is) because Allah sent down the Book in truth but those who seek causes of dispute in the Book are in a schism Far (from the purpose). 
PICKTHAL: That is because Allah hath revealed the Scripture with the truth. Lo! those who find (a cause of) disagreement in the Scripture are in open schism. 
SHAKIR: This is because Allah has revealed the Book with the truth; and surely those who go against the Book are in a great opposition. 




Section 
22. 

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when Jewish and Christian clerics clashed with each other over which direction to face for offering worship.

2 : 177

177. Laysa albirra an tuwalloo wujoohakum qibala almashriqi waalmaghribi walakinna albirra man amana biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri waalmala-ikati waalkitabi waalnnabiyyeena waata almala AAala hubbihi thawee alqurba waalyatama waalmasakeena waibna alssabeeli waalssa-ileena wafee alrriqabi waaqama alssalata waata alzzakata waalmoofoona biAAahdihim itha AAahadoo waalssabireena fee alba/sa-i waalddarra-i waheena alba/si ola-ika allatheena sadaqoo waola-ika humu almuttaqoona

Righteousness does not stem from facing either the East or the West! True probity is believing in Allah and in the Last Day and in the Angels and the Scriptures and the Prophets; and sharing your wealth with your kinsmen, the orphans, the destitute, the wayfarers and the suppliant; liberating slaves, offering worship, giving to the deserving their due, keeping your pledges after having made them, and staying calm in the face of adversity and in moments of stress. These are the truthful and these are the righteous!
 

(In this verse the requisites of true probity are clearly defined as (i) believing in the absolute hegemony of Allah and in the inevitability of the Day of Judgement and in the existence of Angels and in the verity of all the Scriptures and of all the Prophets; (ii) sharing your wealth with others; (iii) establishing regular worship; (iv) giving to the poor their due; (v) keeping your vows and (vi) being patient,- all adding up to solemn belief combined with righteous deeds).

*    *    *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed, making retaliation lawful, but at the same time introducing elements of moderation as opposed to the excesses practised during the times of paganism.

2 : 178

178. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo kutiba AAalaykumu alqisasu fee alqatla alhurru bialhurri waalAAabdu bialAAabdi waalontha bialontha faman AAufiya lahu min akheehi shay-on faittibaAAun bialmaAAroofi waadaon ilayhi bi-ihsanin thalika takhfeefun min rabbikum warahmatun famani iAAtada baAAda thalika falahu AAathabun aleemun

O those of you who believe! It is has been made incumbent on you to retaliate against murder : a free man in return for a free man and a slave in return for a slave and a woman in return for a woman. But if the wronged brother is willing to forgive, then let him seek a recompense in keeping with the tradition, and payment made to him with due dignity. This is a dispensation and a gesture of mercy from your Lord; but whoever transgresses after this will be meted out an acerbic punishment

(This verse provides the basis for a Criminal Justice System prevalent in most Islamic states all over the world.

During the days of paganism, the established practice was to retaliate for the life of a slave by taking the life of a free man; for the life of a woman by taking the life of a man; for the life of one by taking the lives of two.

This verse was revealed to scrap the old system and replace it with a new system that was fairer and more judicious. The life of a slave was made equal in worth to the life of a slave; the life of a woman was made equal in worth to the life of a woman; the life of a free man was made equal in worth to the life of a free man.

As certain critics of the Qur'aan would like to suggest, this verse does not give a license to take the life of a slave in retaliation for the murder of a slave, nor of a woman in retaliation for the murder of a woman; nor of a free man in retaliation for the murder of a free man. It merely states that one for one ought to be enough to balance the scales of justice and redress the wrong done.

In a vast majority of secular countries, crimes are treated as an offence against the people of the state; the culprit is brought to justice and punished according to the laws of the land and the bereaved parties have no say in the matter, nor do they benefit in any way from the penalty, other than perhaps a sense of satisfaction that justice was done. For instance, criminals in the United Kingdom are prosecuted by the Crown Prosecution service, judged by a jury and then sentenced by a Judge according to the verdict. In the United States, criminals are prosecuted by the Public Prosecutor on behalf of the people of the State in which the crime had been committed and similarly disposed. In either case, there is no place for the bereaved party in any of the proceedings; they are neither consulted nor are they represented nor do they benefit from them.

Islam addresses this injustice and imbalance in clear terms and ordains that aggrieved parties are duly represented in the criminal proceedings and their loss and their feelings are taken into consideration by the judge before passing a sentence. If a slave belonging to one tribe is murdered by a rival tribe, a slave of the rival tribe is held to ransom for the offence and the ransom paid to the bereaved parties. The same applies to free women and to free men. And if the bereaved parties are disposed to forgive the offender, whether in return for an agreed sum of money payable to them, or to be given away in charity, then so be it. This is an important choice which is given to those who sustained the loss, - a more satisfactory system of justice by any standards).

2 : 179

179. Walakum fee alqisasi hayatun ya olee al-albabi laAAallakum tattaqoona

In retaliation there is life for you, O men of understanding, so be on your guard!
 

(It means that lawful retaliation, - not vigilante justice - acts as an effective deterrent against crime and thereby saves the lives of the innocent).

*  *  *

2 : 180

 

 

180. Kutiba AAalaykum itha hadara ahadakumu almawtu in taraka khayran alwasiyyatu lilwalidayni waal-aqrabeena bialmaAAroofi haqqan AAala almuttaqeena

It has been made incumbent on you that, when the moment of death arrives for any of you, and you are leaving behind an estate, you bequeath it to your parents and your close relatives by means of a Will and in keeping with tradition. This is a duty imposed on those of you who revere Allah
 

(In keeping with traditions implies in keeping with justice and equity. At this stage, the rule was not to bequeath by means of a will more than one third of the residual estate and not to give priority to wealthy relatives in preference to the impoverished).

2 : 181

181. Faman baddalahu baAAda ma samiAAahu fa-innama ithmuhu AAala allatheena yubaddiloonahu inna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleemun

And whoever alters the terms of a Will after having heard it, the sin of tampering rests on him who does the tampering. Allah hears and knows everything!
 

(Whether he is the heir to the estate or a beneficiary under the terms of a will, or a witness).

2 : 182

182. Faman khafa min moosin janafan aw ithman faaslaha baynahum fala ithma AAalayhi inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun

But he who has reason to believe that the testator might have included in his Will an unfair or a sinful stipulation, it is no sin for him to intervene or negotiate a settlement between contesting beneficiaries. Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

177. It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, and each and every act of obedience to Allāh, etc.) that you turn your faces towards east and (or) west (in prayers); but Al-Birr is (the quality of) the one who believes in Allāh, the Last Day, the Angels, the Book, the Prophets[] and gives his wealth, in spite of love for it, to the kinsfolk, to the orphans, and to Al-Masākin (the poor), and to the wayfarer, and to those who ask, and to set slaves free, performs As-Salāt (Iqāmat-as-Salāt), and gives the Zakāt, and who fulfill their covenant when they make it, and who are As-Sābirin (the patient ones, etc.) in extreme poverty and ailment (disease) and at the time of fighting (during the battles). Such are the people of the truth and they are Al­Muttaqūn (pious - see V.2:2).

178. O you who believe! Al-Qisās (the Law of Equality in punishment) is prescribed for you in case of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. But if the killer is forgiven by the brother (or the relatives, etc.) of the killed against blood money, then adhering to it with fairness and payment of the blood money, to the heir should be made in fairness. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. So after this whoever transgresses the limits (i.e. kills the killer after taking the blood money), he shall have a painful torment.

179. And there is (a saving of) life for you in Al-Qisās (the Law of Equality in punishment), O men of understanding, that you may become Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2).

180. It is prescribed for you, when death approaches any of you, if he leaves wealth, that he make a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable manners. (This is) a duty upon Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2).

181. Then whoever changes the bequest after hearing it, the sin shall be on those who make the change. Truly, Allāh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

182. But he who fears from a testator some unjust act or wrong-doing, and thereupon he makes peace between the parties concerned, there shall be no sin on him. Certainly, Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.


002.177
YUSUFALI: It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces Towards east or West; but it is righteousness- to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity; to fulfil the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the people of truth, the Allah-fearing.
PICKTHAL: It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces to the East and the West; but righteous is he who believeth in Allah and the Last Day and the angels and the Scripture and the prophets; and giveth wealth, for love of Him, to kinsfolk and to orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and to those who ask, and to set slaves free; and observeth proper worship and payeth the poor-due. And those who keep their treaty when they make one, and the patient in tribulation and adversity and time of stress. Such are they who are sincere. Such are the Allah-fearing.
SHAKIR: It is not righteousness that you turn your faces towards the East and the West, but righteousness is this that one should believe in Allah and the last day and the angels and the Book and the prophets, and give away wealth out of love for Him to the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer and the beggars and for (the emancipation of) the captives, and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate; and the performers of their promise when they make a promise, and the patient in distress and affliction and in time of conflicts-- these are they who are true (to themselves) and these are they who guard (against evil).
002.178
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! the law of equality is prescribed to you in cases of murder: the free for the free, the slave for the slave, the woman for the woman. But if any remission is made by the brother of the slain, then grant any reasonable demand, and compensate him with handsome gratitude, this is a concession and a Mercy from your Lord. After this whoever exceeds the limits shall be in grave penalty.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the murdered; the freeman for the freeman, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female. And for him who is forgiven somewhat by his (injured) brother, prosecution according to usage and payment unto him in kindness. This is an alleviation and a mercy from your Lord. He who transgresseth after this will have a painful doom.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! retaliation is prescribed for you in the matter of the slain, the free for the free, and the slave for the slave, and the female for the female, but if any remission is made to any one by his (aggrieved) brother, then prosecution (for the bloodwit) should be made according to usage, and payment should be made to him in a good manner; this is an alleviation from your Lord and a mercy; so whoever exceeds the limit after this he shall have a painful chastisement.
002.179
YUSUFALI: In the Law of Equality there is (saving of) Life to you, o ye men of understanding; that ye may restrain yourselves.
PICKTHAL: And there is life for you in retaliation, O men of understanding, that ye may ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: And there is life for you in (the law of) retaliation, O men of understanding, that you may guard yourselves.
002.180
YUSUFALI: It is prescribed, when death approaches any of you, if he leave any goods that he make a bequest to parents and next of kin, according to reasonable usage; this is due from the Allah-fearing.
PICKTHAL: It is prescribed for you, when death approacheth one of you, if he leave wealth, that he bequeath unto parents and near relatives in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those who ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: Bequest is prescribed for you when death approaches one of you, if he leaves behind wealth for parents and near relatives, according to usage, a duty (incumbent) upon those who guard (against evil).
002.181
YUSUFALI: If anyone changes the bequest after hearing it, the guilt shall be on those who make the change. For Allah hears and knows (All things).
PICKTHAL: And whoso changeth (the will) after he hath heard it - the sin thereof is only upon those who change it. Lo! Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: Whoever then alters it after he has heard it, the sin of it then is only upon those who alter it; surely Allah is Hearing, Knowing.
002.182
YUSUFALI: But if anyone fears partiality or wrong-doing on the part of the testator, and makes peace between (The parties concerned), there is no wrong in him: For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: But he who feareth from a testator some unjust or sinful clause, and maketh peace between the parties, (it shall be) no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: But he who fears an inclination to a wrong course or an act of disobedience on the part of the testator, and effects an agreement between the parties, there is no blame on him. Surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.

 

Section 23.

 

The following verses deal with fasting. By definition fasting means giving up food and drink and contact with the opposite sex from dawn till dusk as a token of worship by Muslim men, and by women who are not menstruating.

2 : 183

183. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo kutiba AAalaykumu alssiyamu kama kutiba AAala allatheena min qablikum laAAallakum tattaqoona

O those of you who believe! Fasting has been ordained for you as it was ordained for those before you so that you become abstemious and thereby ward off evil.
 

(Note that fasting is not exclusive to Islam alone; according to some commentators, it dates back to Adam and Eve. The protocol of fasting may well have changed over the years, but the principle behind it has not. We fast so that we are able to voluntarily give up food and drink over a prolonged period of the day; we realize how it feels to be hungry and thirsty; we exercise a firm control over what we see with our eyes, what we hear with our ears and what we utter with our mouths; we shift our attention away from the terrestrial and focus it on the moral and the spiritual planes; we place a greater onus upon our physical cleanliness; we feel charitable towards our less fortunate brethren and give them more help; we spend more time in remembering Allah and offer worship with a greater ardour; we try not to perpetrate evil and think only of doing good).
 

2 : 184

184. Ayyaman maAAdoodatin faman kana minkum mareedan aw AAala safarin faAAiddatun min ayyamin okhara waAAala allatheena yuteeqoonahu fidyatun taAAamu miskeenin faman tatawwaAAa khayran fahuwa khayrun lahu waan tasoomoo khayrun lakum in kuntum taAAlamoona

Fasting is for a fixed number of days. But those among you who is sick or in transit during these days, fast on other days for a similar duration. And for those who can afford it, the ransom is feeding one destitute; but whoever does good of his own accord, it is a better thing for him; and that you fast is better for you, if you but knew!
 

(From reading the above verse, it is impossible not to see how graceful and generous Allah is towards those who believe in Him! Contrary to Western thinking, which casts Islam as a non-negotiable religion, the Qur'aan teaches us how to be good Muslims without subjecting ourselves to a harsh discipline of self-sacrifices and self-denials. Whereas Islam does not say to a Muslim man that, if he is unable to find for himself a woman with whom he could lawfully cohabit by means of wedlock, it is quite all right for him to become a homo-sexual; or, if a Muslim woman is unable to find a partner to admire her physical beauty through a sanctified relationship, it is all right for her to flaunt her body in front of strangers; it clearly lays down that, if we are unable to find salubrious and lawful nourishment for survival, it is all right for us to consume the forbidden to avoid death; or, if there are mitigating circumstances which prevent us from observing our fasts, it is all right for us to make up for the fasts missed in other ways, either by observing them when circumstances have changed or ransom ourselves by feeding a destitute for each day the fast was missed; but if even this is not possible, pray to Allah for forgiveness bearing in mind that Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful!).
 

2 : 185

185. Shahru ramadana allathee onzila feehi alqur-anu hudan lilnnasi wabayyinatin mina alhuda waalfurqani faman shahida minkumu alshshahra falyasumhu waman kana mareedan aw AAala safarin faAAiddatun min ayyamin okhara yureedu Allahu bikumu alyusra wala yureedu bikumu alAAusra walitukmiloo alAAiddata walitukabbiroo Allaha AAala ma hadakum walaAAallakum tashkuroona

Ramadan is the month in which the Qur'aan was revealed, as a guidance for all mankind, and definitive proofs of the Guidance and of the Criterion of right and wrong. So let those amongst you who are present observe the fast; and those amongst you who are sick or in transit, let them fast for a similar number of other days. Allah's intention is to make things easy on you and not difficult, so that you may complete the prescribed period, glorify Allah for His guidance and tender your gratitude to Him!
 

(There are many traditions in the interpretation of this verse. Some contend that the Qur'aan was revealed in this month because Ramadan is the most auspicious month in the Islamic calendar; some say the revelations of its verses was inaugurated in this month while others maintain that the it was transferred from Al-Lawh-al-Mahfuz (or the Book of Decrees) to Bayt al-Izza on the most important night of this month called Lailatul Qadr, from where the Archangel brought the revelations to the Prophet as and when he was bidden by Allah to do so).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a group of devout followers of the Prophet asked him - (out of devotion and not out of audacity) - about Allah's abode.

2 : 186

186. Wa-itha saalaka AAibadee AAannee fa-innee qareebun ojeebu daAAwata alddaAAi itha daAAani falyastajeeboo lee walyu/minoo bee laAAallahum yarshudoona

When My slaves question you about Me, verily I am close to them and I respond to the supplications of those who address Me. So let them hear my response and let them put their trust in Me so that they attain guidance!
 

(In this verse Allah is making a straightforward promise to those who put their trust in Him that He is close to them and always prepared to respond to their invocations. Sometimes our prayers bear fruit at once; sometimes they are delayed, often for our own good; sometimes we get what we seek in the life of this world and sometimes we get it in another; sometimes what we seek is replaced by something better, but at all times our invocations are heard and are responded).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed to supersede the erstwhile practice of fasting from dusk until dusk and abstention from conjugal relations during the nights that ensue in between the fasts.

2 : 187

187. Ohilla lakum laylata alssiyami alrrafathu ila nisa-ikum hunna libasun lakum waantum libasun lahunna AAalima Allahu annakum kuntum takhtanoona anfusakum fataba AAalaykum waAAafa AAankum faal-ana bashiroohunna waibtaghoo ma kataba Allahu lakum wakuloo waishraboo hatta yatabayyana lakumu alkhaytu al-abyadu mina alkhayti al-aswadi mina alfajri thumma atimmoo alssiyama ila allayli wala tubashiroohunna waantum AAakifoona fee almasajidi tilka hudoodu Allahi fala taqrabooha kathalika yubayyinu Allahu ayatihi lilnnasi laAAallahum yattaqoona

It is made lawful for you to approach your wives during the nights that ensue in between fasts, for they are your raiment and you are their raiment. Allah is aware of how you used to put your lives at risk in this context and has accepted your penance and has forgiven you. So hold intercourse with them and seek that which Allah has written down in your fates and eat and drink until you are able to distinguish between the white thread of daybreak and the dark thread of night. Then strictly observe the fast until dusk and touch them not, but carry on with your duties in the mosques. These are the bounds imposed upon you by Allah, so approach them not. Thus Allah explicates His Revelations for mankind so that they may succeed in being abstemious and thereby ward off evil!

*  *  *

2 : 188

188. Wala ta/kuloo amwalakum baynakum bialbatili watudloo biha ila alhukkami lita/kuloo fareeqan min amwali alnnasi bial-ithmi waantum taAAlamoona

And purloin not the properties of one another with lies, nor knowingly submit plaints before authorities with the intention of wrongfully devouring properties which belong to other people. (R)
 

(This verse renders unlawful for us anything which we acquire without justification, such as goods which have been looted or burgled or stolen or pillaged or seized or won in gambling or earned from obscenities or takings from forbidden sources such as prostitution, including money accepted as bribes or in lieu of falsifying testimonies or passing unfair judgements).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

183. O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting)[] is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2).

184. [Observing Saum (fasts)] for a fixed number of days, but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days. And as for those who can fast with difficulty, (e.g. an old man, etc.), they have (a choice either to fast or) to feed a Miskīn (poor person) (for every day). But whoever does good of his own accord, it is better for him. And that you fast, it is better for you if only you know.[]

185. The month of Ramadān in which was revealed the Qur'ān, a guidance for mankind and clear proofs for the guidance and the criterion (between right and wrong). So whoever of you sights (the crescent on the first night of) the month (of Ramadān i.e. is present at his home), he must observe Saum (fasts) that month, and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Saum (fasts) must be made up] from other days. Allāh intends for you ease, and He does not want to make things difficult for you. (He wants that you) must complete the same number (of days), and that you must magnify Allāh [i.e. to say Takbīr (Allāhu-Akbar; Allāh is the Most Great) on seeing the crescent of the months of Ramadān and Shawwāl] for having guided you so that you may be grateful to Him.[]

186. And when My slaves ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning Me, then (answer them), I am indeed near (to them by My Knowledge). I respond to the invocations of the supplicant when he calls on Me (without any mediator or intercessor). So let them obey Me and believe in Me, so that they may be led aright.[]

187. It is made lawful for you to have sexual relations with your wives on the night of As-Saum (the fasts). They are Lības [i.e. body cover, or screen, or Sakan, (i.e. you enjoy the pleasure of living with her - as in Verse 7:189) Tafsir At-Tabarī], for you and you are the same for them. Allāh knows that you used to deceive yourselves, so He turned to you (accepted your repentance) and forgave you. So now have sexual relations with them and seek that which Allāh has ordained for you (offspring), and eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of night), then complete your Saum (fast) till the nightfall. And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I'tikāf (i.e. confining oneself in a mosque for prayers and invocations leaving the worldly activities) in the mosques. These are the limits (set) by Allāh, so approach them not. Thus does Allāh make clear His Ayāt (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, revelations, verses, laws, legal and illegal things, Allāh's set limits, orders, etc.) to mankind that they may become Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2).

188. And eat up not one another's property unjustly (in any illegal way e.g. stealing, robbing, deceiving, etc.), nor give bribery to the rulers (judges before presenting your cases) that you may knowingly eat up a part of the property of others sinfully.


002.183
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed to you as it was prescribed to those before you, that ye may (learn) self-restraint,-
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, even as it was prescribed for those before you, that ye may ward off (evil);
SHAKIR: O you who believe! fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard (against evil).
002.184
YUSUFALI: (Fasting) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed number (Should be made up) from days later. For those who can do it (With hardship), is a ransom, the feeding of one that is indigent. But he that will give more, of his own free will,- it is better for him. And it is better for you that ye fast, if ye only knew.
PICKTHAL: (Fast) a certain number of days; and (for) him who is sick among you, or on a journey, (the same) number of other days; and for those who can afford it there is a ransom: the feeding of a man in need - but whoso doeth good of his own accord, it is better for him: and that ye fast is better for you if ye did but know -
SHAKIR: For a certain number of days; but whoever among you is sick or on a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; and those who are not able to do it may effect a redemption by feeding a poor man; so whoever does good spontaneously it is better for him; and that you fast is better for you if you know.
002.185
YUSUFALI: Ramadhan is the (month) in which was sent down the Qur'an, as a guide to mankind, also clear (Signs) for guidance and judgment (Between right and wrong). So every one of you who is present (at his home) during that month should spend it in fasting, but if any one is ill, or on a journey, the prescribed period (Should be made up) by days later. Allah intends every facility for you; He does not want to put to difficulties. (He wants you) to complete the prescribed period, and to glorify Him in that He has guided you; and perchance ye shall be grateful.
PICKTHAL: The month of Ramadan in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for mankind, and clear proofs of the guidance, and the Criterion (of right and wrong). And whosoever of you is present, let him fast the month, and whosoever of you is sick or on a journey, (let him fast the same) number of other days. Allah desireth for you ease; He desireth not hardship for you; and (He desireth) that ye should complete the period, and that ye should magnify Allah for having guided you, and that peradventure ye may be thankful.
SHAKIR: The month of Ramazan is that in which the Quran was revealed, a guidance to men and clear proofs of the guidance and the distinction; therefore whoever of you is present in the month, he shall fast therein, and whoever is sick or upon a journey, then (he shall fast) a (like) number of other days; Allah desires ease for you, and He does not desire for you difficulty, and (He desires) that you should complete the number and that you should exalt the greatness of Allah for His having guided you and that you may give thanks.
002.186
YUSUFALI: When My servants ask thee concerning Me, I am indeed close (to them): I listen to the prayer of every suppliant when he calleth on Me: Let them also, with a will, Listen to My call, and believe in Me: That they may walk in the right way.
PICKTHAL: And when My servants question thee concerning Me, then surely I am nigh. I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he crieth unto Me. So let them hear My call and let them trust in Me, in order that they may be led aright.
SHAKIR: And when My servants ask you concerning Me, then surely I am very near; I answer the prayer of the suppliant when he calls on Me, so they should answer My call and believe in Me that they may walk in the right way.
002.187
YUSUFALI: Permitted to you, on the night of the fasts, is the approach to your wives. They are your garments and ye are their garments. Allah knoweth what ye used to do secretly among yourselves; but He turned to you and forgave you; so now associate with them, and seek what Allah Hath ordained for you, and eat and drink, until the white thread of dawn appear to you distinct from its black thread; then complete your fast Till the night appears; but do not associate with your wives while ye are in retreat in the mosques. Those are Limits (set by) Allah: Approach not nigh thereto. Thus doth Allah make clear His Signs to men: that they may learn self-restraint.
PICKTHAL: It is made lawful for you to go in unto your wives on the night of the fast. They are raiment for you and ye are raiment for them. Allah is Aware that ye were deceiving yourselves in this respect and He hath turned in mercy toward you and relieved you. So hold intercourse with them and seek that which Allah hath ordained for you, and eat and drink until the white thread becometh distinct to you from the black thread of the dawn. Then strictly observe the fast till nightfall and touch them not, but be at your devotions in the mosques. These are the limits imposed by Allah, so approach them not. Thus Allah expoundeth His revelation to mankind that they may ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: It is made lawful to you to go into your wives on the night of the fast; they are an apparel for you and you are an apparel for them; Allah knew that you acted unfaithfully to yourselves, so He has turned to you (mercifully) and removed from you (this burden); so now be in contact with them and seek what Allah has ordained for you, and eat and drink until the whiteness of the day becomes distinct from the blackness of the night at dawn, then complete the fast till night, and have not contact with them while you keep to the mosques; these are the limits of Allah, so do not go near them. Thus does Allah make clear His communications for men that they may guard (against evil).
002.188
YUSUFALI: And do not eat up your property among yourselves for vanities, nor use it as bait for the judges, with intent that ye may eat up wrongfully and knowingly a little of (other) people's property.
PICKTHAL: And eat not up your property among yourselves in vanity, nor seek by it to gain the hearing of the judges that ye may knowingly devour a portion of the property of others wrongfully.
SHAKIR: And do not swallow up your property among yourselves by false means, neither seek to gain access thereby to the judges, so that you may swallow up a part of the property of men wrongfully while you know.

 

                      
Section 24.

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when some believers questioned the Prophet about changes in the size of the moon.

2 : 189

189. Yas-aloonaka AAani al-ahillati qul hiya mawaqeetu lilnnasi waalhajji walaysa albirru bi-an ta/too albuyoota min thuhooriha walakinna albirra mani ittaqa wa/too albuyoota min abwabiha waittaqoo Allaha laAAallakum tuflihoona

They ask you (O Mohammed) about the new moons. Say : 'They signify the passage of time for mankind in general, and for the performance of pilgrimage in particular. And it has no bearing on probity whether you enter houses through rear doors or (front doors)  - probity is righteous behaviour - so enter your houses through your front doors and fear Allah so that you may attain redemption!  

(This marks the beginning of the almanac of Islam that replaced the Christian calendar, enabling people to keep track of time in accordance with the size of the moon. If it appeared on the sky as a thin crescent, people knew it was the start of the month; and if it appeared as full moon, they knew the first half of the month was over and the second half was beginning. In the desert land of Arabia where a clouded sky was a rare sight, it served the purpose of an open almanac, visible to every eye and readable in any language. It helped people to organize their temporal and spiritual commitments; it was of great use for agriculture and commerce, for observing fasts, celebrating festivals, performing the pilgrimage, calculating the waiting term of divorced women, keeping track of menstrual cycles and for weaning babies).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed when the Prophet set out to perform Pilgrimage along with a group of believers an year after the ratification of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, which clearly stipulated that he and his adherents would be allowed to visit Mecca. But it being the Sacred month when battle and bloodshed were prohibited, the believers became uncertain what to do if the idolaters attacked them despite the sanctity of the month.

2 : 190

190. Waqatiloo fee sabeeli Allahi allatheena yuqatiloonakum wala taAAtadoo inna Allaha la yuhibbu almuAAtadeena

Take up arms for the cause of Allah against those who take up arms against you but do not transgress, for Allah cherishes not the transgressors -

(Fight those who confront you in arms with the inarguable intention of fighting you, but not the old and the infirm and the moronic, nor the disabled, the sick, the blind and women and children who pose you no threat.

According to several commentators, the exhortation ‘do not transgress’ means do not fight those with whom there is a treaty of peace in existence, nor commence an armed combat with the enemy without having first extended to them an invitation to embrace Islam so that there no longer would be a need for such a combat).

2 : 191

191. Waoqtuloohum haythu thaqiftumoohum waakhrijoohum min haythu akhrajookum waalfitnatu ashaddu mina alqatli wala tuqatiloohum AAinda almasjidi alharami hatta yuqatilookum feehi fa-in qatalookum faoqtuloohum kathalika jazao alkafireena

Slay them wherever you find them, and drive them out from wherever they drove you out, for feud and persecution is worse than bloodshed. But attack them not in the vicinity of the Hallowed Mosque unless they attack you first; however, if they attack you there, then slay them! This is the only appropriate requital for those who disbelieve!
 

(This verse exclusively deals with the contingency of believers coming under attack from the idolaters in the vicinity of the Hallowed Mosque and exhorts them that, if the skirmish was in self-defence, then slay them wherever they are found, whether inside the exclusion zone or outside, and drive them out of Mecca from whence they drove you out, because their effort to prevent you from visiting the mosque was worse than bloodshed). 

2 : 192

192. Fa-ini intahaw fa-inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun

But if they hold their peace, then verily Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful!

2 : 193

193. Waqatiloohum hatta la takoona fitnatun wayakoona alddeenu lillahi fa-ini intahaw fala AAudwana illa AAala alththalimeena

And pursue them until persecution is routed out and religion is exclusively for Allah alone! But if they hold their peace, then hurt them not, except those among them who are without scruples.

2 : 194

194. Alshshahru alharamu bialshshahri alharami waalhurumatu qisasun famani iAAtada AAalaykum faiAAtadoo AAalayhi bimithli ma iAAtada AAalaykum waittaqoo Allaha waiAAlamoo anna Allaha maAAa almuttaqeena

A forbidden month in return for a forbidden month and deference in return for deference is appropriate. He who oppresses you, oppress him as much as he oppressed you, and fear Allah, and know that Allah is always on the side of the abstemious!

*  *  *

2 : 195

195. Waanfiqoo fee sabeeli Allahi wala tulqoo bi-aydeekum ila alttahlukati waahsinoo inna Allaha yuhibbu almuhsineena

Spend from your wealth in the way of Allah and do not put yourselves in peril with your own hands and covet righteousness, for verily Allah covets the righteous!
 

(Spending in the way of Allah is not restricted to sharing the costs of warfare alone but it also includes spending on all the righteous causes which earn us Allah's accord.

Do not put yourselves in peril with your own hands means do not enter the enemy territory or a war zone unarmed; it is also taken by some commentators to include committing suicide or entering a township which is beleaguered by plague or infectious diseases, although for the residents of such a township it is forbidden to abandon it and take shelter elsewhere so that the affliction remains confined to one place).

*  *  *

2 : 196

196. Waatimmoo alhajja waalAAumrata lillahi fa-in ohsirtum fama istaysara mina alhadyi wala tahliqoo ruoosakum hatta yablugha alhadyu mahillahu faman kana minkum mareedan aw bihi athan min ra/sihi fafidyatun min siyamin aw sadaqatin aw nusukin fa-itha amintum faman tamattaAAa bialAAumrati ila alhajji fama istaysara mina alhadyi faman lam yajid fasiyamu thalathati ayyamin fee alhajji wasabAAatin itha rajaAAtum tilka AAasharatun kamilatun thalika liman lam yakun ahluhu hadiree almasjidi alharami waittaqoo Allaha waiAAlamoo anna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabi

Perform Pilgrimage or pay an informal visit to Mecca in the name of Allah. If you are prevented from it, then send what oblations you can afford with ease and do not shave your heads until they have reached their destination. In the case of those of you who are ill or have a problem with their scalps, the ransom is fasting or almsgiving or oblation. And as your resources improve and you wish to take advantage of the Visit instead of Pilgrimage, then give such oblations as you can afford. But he who cannot afford this, let him fast for three days in course of pilgrimage and seven more days upon returning home, making it a total of ten days. This is for him whose folk abide not in or around the Hallowed Mosque. Discharge your duty to Allah and beware that Allah's retribution is relentless. (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

189. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) about the new moons. Say: These are signs to mark fixed periods of time for mankind and for the pilgrimage. It is not Al-Birr (piety, righteousness, etc.) that you enter the houses from the back but Al-Birr (is the quality of the one) who fears Allāh. So enter houses through their proper doors, and fear Allāh that you may be successful.

190. And fight in the Way of Allāh[] those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly, Allāh likes not the transgressors. [This Verse is the first one that was revealed in connection with Jihād, but it was supplemented by another (V.9:36)].

191. And kill them wherever you find them, and turn them out from where they have turned you out. And Al-Fitnah[] is worse than killing. And fight not with them at Al-Masjid-al-Harām (the sanctuary at Makkah),[] unless they (first) fight you there. But if they attack you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers.

192. But if they cease, then Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

193. And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allāh) and (all and every kind of) worship is for Allāh (Alone).[] But if they cease, let there be no transgression except against Az-Zālimūn (the polytheists, and wrong-doers, etc.)

194. The sacred month is for the sacred month, and for the prohibited things, there is the Law of Equality (Qisās). Then whoever transgresses the prohibition against you, you transgress likewise against him. And fear Allāh, and know that Allāh is with Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2) .

195. And spend in the Cause of Allāh (i.e. Jihād of all kinds, etc.) and do not throw yourselves into destruction (by not spending your wealth in the Cause of Allāh), and do good. Truly, Allāh loves Al-Muhsinūn[] (the good-doers).

196. And perform properly (i.e. all the ceremonies according to the ways of Prophet Muhammad SAW), the Hajj and 'Umrah (i.e. the pilgrimage to Makkah) for Allāh. But if you are prevented (from completing them), sacrifice a Hady (animal, i.e. a sheep, a cow, or a camel, etc.) such as you can afford, and do not shave your heads until the Hady reaches the place of sacrifice. And whosoever of you is ill or has an ailment in his scalp (necessitating shaving), he must pay a Fidyah (ransom) of either observing Saum (fasts) (three days) or giving Sadaqah (charity - feeding six poor persons) or offering sacrifice (one sheep). Then if you are in safety and whosoever performs the 'Umrah in the months of Hajj, before (performing) the Hajj, (i.e. Hajj-at-Tamattu' and Al-Qirān), he must slaughter a Hady such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, he should observe Saum (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all. This is for him whose family is not present at Al-Masjid-al-Harām (i.e. non-resident of Makkah). And fear Allāh much and know that Allāh is Severe in punishment.[]


002.189
YUSUFALI: They ask thee concerning the New Moons. Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in (the affairs of) men, and for Pilgrimage. It is no virtue if ye enter your houses from the back: It is virtue if ye fear Allah. Enter houses through the proper doors: And fear Allah: That ye may prosper.
PICKTHAL: They ask thee, (O Muhammad), of new moons, say: They are fixed seasons for mankind and for the pilgrimage. It is not righteousness that ye go to houses by the backs thereof (as do the idolaters at certain seasons), but the righteous man is he who wardeth off (evil). So go to houses by the gates thereof, and observe your duty to Allah, that ye may be successful.
SHAKIR: They ask you concerning the new moon. Say: They are times appointed for (the benefit of) men, and (for) the pilgrimage; and it is not righteousness that you should enter the houses at their backs, but righteousness is this that one should guard (against evil); and go into the houses by their doors and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, that you may be successful.
002.190
YUSUFALI: Fight in the cause of Allah those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for Allah loveth not transgressors.
PICKTHAL: Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors.
SHAKIR: And fight in the way of Allah with those who fight with you, and do not exceed the limits, surely Allah does not love those who exceed the limits.
002.191
YUSUFALI: And slay them wherever ye catch them, and turn them out from where they have Turned you out; for tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter; but fight them not at the Sacred Mosque, unless they (first) fight you there; but if they fight you, slay them. Such is the reward of those who suppress faith.
PICKTHAL: And slay them wherever ye find them, and drive them out of the places whence they drove you out, for persecution is worse than slaughter. And fight not with them at the Inviolable Place of Worship until they first attack you there, but if they attack you (there) then slay them. Such is the reward of disbelievers.
SHAKIR: And kill them wherever you find them, and drive them out from whence they drove you out, and persecution is severer than slaughter, and do not fight with them at the Sacred Mosque until they fight with you in it, but if they do fight you, then slay them; such is the recompense of the unbelievers.
002.192
YUSUFALI: But if they cease, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: But if they desist, then lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: But if they desist, then surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
002.193
YUSUFALI: And fight them on until there is no more Tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in Allah; but if they cease, Let there be no hostility except to those who practise oppression.
PICKTHAL: And fight them until persecution is no more, and religion is for Allah. But if they desist, then let there be no hostility except against wrong-doers.
SHAKIR: And fight with them until there is no persecution, and religion should be only for Allah, but if they desist, then there should be no hostility except against the oppressors.
002.194
YUSUFALI: The prohibited month for the prohibited month,- and so for all things prohibited,- there is the law of equality. If then any one transgresses the prohibition against you, Transgress ye likewise against him. But fear Allah, and know that Allah is with those who restrain themselves.
PICKTHAL: The forbidden month for the forbidden month, and forbidden things in retaliation. And one who attacketh you, attack him in like manner as he attacked you. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is with those who ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: The Sacred month for the sacred month and all sacred things are (under the law of) retaliation; whoever then acts aggressively against you, inflict injury on him according to the injury he has inflicted on you and be careful (of your duty) to Allah and know that Allah is with those who guard (against evil).
002.195
YUSUFALI: And spend of your substance in the cause of Allah, and make not your own hands contribute to (your) destruction; but do good; for Allah loveth those who do good.
PICKTHAL: Spend your wealth for the cause of Allah, and be not cast by your own hands to ruin; and do good. Lo! Allah loveth the beneficent.
SHAKIR: And spend in the way of Allah and cast not yourselves to perdition with your own hands, and do good (to others); surely Allah loves the doers of good.
002.196
YUSUFALI: And complete the Hajj or 'umra in the service of Allah. But if ye are prevented (From completing it), send an offering for sacrifice, such as ye may find, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches the place of sacrifice. And if any of you is ill, or has an ailment in his scalp, (Necessitating shaving), (He should) in compensation either fast, or feed the poor, or offer sacrifice; and when ye are in peaceful conditions (again), if any one wishes to continue the 'umra on to the hajj, He must make an offering, such as he can afford, but if he cannot afford it, He should fast three days during the hajj and seven days on his return, Making ten days in all. This is for those whose household is not in (the precincts of) the Sacred Mosque. And fear Allah, and know that Allah Is strict in punishment.
PICKTHAL: Perform the pilgrimage and the visit (to Makka) for Allah. And if ye are prevented, then send such gifts as can be obtained with ease, and shave not your heads until the gifts have reached their destination. And whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head must pay a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or offering. And if ye are in safety, then whosoever contenteth himself with the visit for the pilgrimage (shall give) such gifts as can be had with ease. And whosoever cannot find (such gifts), then a fast of three days while on the pilgrimage, and of seven when ye have returned; that is, ten in all. That is for him whoso folk are not present at the Inviolable Place of Worship. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is severe in punishment.
SHAKIR: And accomplish the pilgrimage and the visit for Allah, but if, you are prevented, (send) whatever offering is easy to obtain, and do not shave your heads until the offering reaches its destination; but whoever among you is sick or has an ailment of the head, he (should effect) a compensation by fasting or alms or sacrificing, then when you are secure, whoever profits by combining the visit with the pilgrimage (should take) what offering is easy to obtain; but he who cannot find (any offering) should fast for three days during the pilgrimage and for seven days when you return; these (make) ten (days) complete; this is for him whose family is not present in the Sacred Mosque, and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, and know that Allah is severe in requiting (evil).

 

Section 25.

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed with reference to pilgrims who deliberately set out on their pilgrimage unprepared, expecting to be sustained along the way by their fellow pilgrims.

2 : 197

197. Alhajju ashhurun maAAloomatun faman farada feehinna alhajja fala rafatha wala fusooqa wala jidala fee alhajji wama tafAAaloo min khayrin yaAAlamhu Allahu watazawwadoo fa-inna khayra alzzadi alttaqwa waittaqooni ya olee al-albabi

The designated months for Pilgrimage are well known. Hence, let those who set out with the intention of performing Pilgrimage know that there is to be no salacious conversation on the way nor misbehaviour nor any frays; and that whatever good you do in course of your journey, Allah becomes aware of it. Take your own provision with you, though the best provision of all is self-restraint. And fear Me, O men of wisdom!
 

(According to some commentators, - and rightly so - taking your provision with you implies equipping yourself for your journey to the Hereafter, self-restraint and seemly deeds being by far the best provision all, if we have the wisdom to grasp).

*   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed to ease the concerns of some of the pilgrims who were unsure whether trading for gain in course of a pilgrimage is permissible.

2 : 198

198. Laysa AAalaykum junahun an tabtaghoo fadlan min rabbikum fa-itha afadtum min AAarafatin faothkuroo Allaha AAinda almashAAari alharami waothkuroohu kama hadakum wa-in kuntum min qablihi lamina alddalleena

It is no sin for you to seek the bounty of your Lord through trade in course of a pilgrimage. But when you are returning from Arafat along with the crowd of pilgrims, remember Allah by the Sacred Monument, and remember Him as the One who guided you, whereas before His guidance came to you, you were of those that had gone astray!
 

(Arafat is the name of one of the ritual sites visited by Pilgrims. Some commentators say that it was the spot where Eve reunited with Adam on earth which is why the day is called Arafa and the place Arafat. It is also because that is where the entire Muslim population from across the world come together, all clad in a seamless cloth which resembles the cerements wrapped around the dead at the time of burial, their hands empty, their hearts in communion with Allah, their mind focused upon redemption of the soul, reminiscent of the Day of Judgement as described in the Qur'aan).

*    *    *

2 : 199

199. Thumma afeedoo min haythu afada alnnasu waistaghfiroo Allaha inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun

Then press ahead with the crowd from where the rest of the pilgrims also press ahead, constantly seeking forgiveness of Allah! Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful!

2 : 200

200. Fa-itha qadaytum manasikakum faothkuroo Allaha kathikrikum abaakum aw ashadda thikran famina alnnasi man yaqoolu rabbana atina fee alddunya wama lahu fee al-akhirati min khalaqin

And when you have complied with all the proprieties, then remember Allah as you used to remember your forefathers, or with an even greater ardour! Among mankind there are those who say : 'O our Lord! Reward us in this world!' and give up your share in the Hereafter; -

2 : 201

201. Waminhum man yaqoolu rabbana atina fee alddunya hasanatan wafee al-akhirati hasanatan waqina AAathaba alnnari

But among mankind there are also those who say : 'Our Lord! Bless us with what is good in this world and what is good in the Hereafter, and protect us from the torment of Fire!'

2 : 202

202. Ola-ika lahum naseebun mimma kasaboo waAllahu sareeAAu alhisabi

For them is a generous reward in store towards that which they have earned in this life! And Allah is swift at rewarding.
 

(There are some people who beseech Allah to reward them in the life of this world for the pilgrimage they performed, while there are others who seek to be rewarded with a small portion in the life of this world, setting aside the most for the Hereafter. While the former will get their share in this life and nothing in the other life, the latter will be rewarded here as well as in the Hereafter for their patience and trust).
 

2 : 203

203. Waothkuroo Allaha fee ayyamin maAAdoodatin faman taAAajjala fee yawmayni fala ithma AAalayhi waman taakhkhara fala ithma AAalayhi limani ittaqa waittaqoo Allaha waiAAlamoo annakum ilayhi tuhsharoona

Remember Allah as often as possible throughout the duration of the pilgrimage. There is no sin for him who cuts short this duration by a day or two out of haste, nor is there any sin for him who lingers behind for a day or two, - a flexibility allowed for those who guard themselves against evil. Discharge your duty to Allah in full, and know that it is to Him you shall return one Day.
 

(The reference is to an old Arab custom according to which some of the pilgrims used to say to those who delayed their departure by a day or two that they were sinful and others used to say to those who hurried that they were sinful. In this verse it has been clarified that it is not sinful whether we lingered or we rushed).

*    *    *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed with reference to a certain Hypocrite who used to be charming in the presence of the Prophet but a downright scoundrel behind his back.

2 : 204

204. Wamina alnnasi man yuAAjibuka qawluhu fee alhayati alddunya wayushhidu Allaha AAala ma fee qalbihi wahuwa aladdu alkhisami

Of mankind is he whose affable words about the life of this world may seem pleasing to you (Mohammed) because he refers to Allah as his witness about that which is hidden in his heart, and yet he may well be the most virulent of your opponents -

2 : 205

205. Wa-itha tawalla saAAa fee al-ardi liyufsida feeha wayuhlika alhartha waalnnasla waAllahu la yuhibbu alfasada

For, when he turns away from you, his prime preoccupation is to spread feuds in the land, resulting in the destruction of crops and livestock! Allah has no relish for those that indulge in feuds!

2 : 206

206. Wa-itha qeela lahu ittaqi Allaha akhathat-hu alAAizzatu bial-ithmi fahasbuhu jahannamu walabi/sa almihadu

When it is said to him : 'Beware of your duty to Allah!' his arrogance entices him to commit worse sins. Hell suffices for such, - and what an awful bed it is to lie in!

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed to honour a devout believer who gave away his entire wealth to the Meccan disbelievers in return for safe conduct to Madina so that he could join the Prophet.

2 : 207

207. Wamina alnnasi man yashree nafsahu ibtighaa mardati Allahi waAllahu raoofun bialAAibadi

Of mankind is he who would sell himself in order to gain Allah's accord! Allah is generously disposed towards His bondsmen!

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed with reference to Jews who did embrace Islam but also followed the ordinances of the Torah which were not scrapped by the Qur'aan.

2 : 208

208. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo odkhuloo fee alssilmi kaffatan wala tattabiAAoo khutuwati alshshaytani innahu lakum AAaduwwun mubeenun

O those of you who believe! Enter the domain of Islam with total submission to Allah and follow not in the footsteps of the devil, for verily he is your most blatant enemy!
 

(Some Jews who embraced Islam continued to show deference to the Sabbath Day by refraining from hunting on Saturdays. They also avoided consumption of camel flesh and camel milk that were forbidden by the Torah because it did not necessarily clash with Islam. This verse reiterates that, when we become Muslims, we do so wholeheartedly and sever all other bonds of allegiance, whether to the preceding Scriptures or to any other spiritual affiliations we may have had in the past).

*  *  *

2 : 209

209. Fa-in zalaltum min baAAdi ma jaatkumu albayyinatu faiAAlamoo anna Allaha AAazeezun hakeemun

And if you roll back into apostasy even after these definitive portents have come to you, then know that Allah is Mighty and Wise!

2 : 210

210. Hal yanthuroona illa an ya/tiyahumu Allahu fee thulalin mina alghamami waalmala-ikatu waqudiya al-amru wa-ila Allahi turjaAAu al-omooru

Wait they for what save the ingress of doom from the impending clouds, and the descent of the angels to implement a verdict which is already passed? All actions are referred to Allah for His verdict! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

197. The Hajj (pilgrimage) is (in) the well-known (lunar year) months (i.e. the 10th month, the 11th month and the first ten days of the 12th month of the Islāmic calendar, i.e. two months and ten days). So whosoever intends to perform Hajj[] therein by assuming Ihrām), then he should not have sexual relations (with his wife), nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly during the Hajj. And whatever good you do, (be sure) Allāh knows it. And take a provision (with you) for the journey, but the best provision is At-Taqwa (piety, righteousness, etc.). So fear Me, O men of understanding!

198. There is no sin on you if you seek the Bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage by trading, etc.). Then when you leave 'Arafāt[], remember Allāh (by glorifying His Praises, i.e. prayers and invocations, etc.) at the Mash'ar-il-Harām.[] And remember Him (by invoking Allāh for all good, etc.) as He has guided you, and verily, you were, before, of those who were astray.

199. Then depart from the place whence all the people depart and ask Allāh for His Forgiveness. Truly, Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.

200. So when you have accomplished your Manasik [(i.e. Ihrām, Tawāf of the Ka'bah and As-Safā and Al-Marwah), stay at 'Arafāt, Muzdalifah and Mina, Ramy of Jamarāt, (stoning of the specified pillars in Mina) slaughtering of Hady (animal, etc.)]. Remember Allāh as you remember your forefathers or with a far more remembrance. But of mankind there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us (Your Bounties) in this world!" and for such there will be no portion in the Hereafter.

201. And of them there are some who say: "Our Lord! Give us in this world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and save us from the torment of the Fire!"

202. For them there will be alloted a share for what they have earned. And Allāh is Swift at reckoning.

203. And remember Allāh during the appointed Days.[] But whosoever hastens to leave in two days, there is no sin on him and whosoever stays on, there is no sin on him, if his aim is to do good and obey Allāh (fear Him), and know that you will surely be gathered unto Him.

204. And of mankind there is he whose speech may please you (O Muhammad SAW), in this worldly life, and he calls Allāh to witness as to that which is in his heart, yet he is the most quarrelsome of the opponents.[]

205. And when he turns away (from you "O Muhammad SAW "), his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle, and Allāh likes not mischief.

206. And when it is said to him, "Fear Allāh", he is led by arrogance to (more) crime. So enough for him is Hell, and worst indeed is that place to rest!

207. And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the Pleasure of Allāh. And Allāh is full of Kindness to (His) slaves.

208. O you who believe! Enter perfectly in Islām (by obeying all the rules and regulations of the Islāmic religion) and follow not the footsteps of Shaitān (Satan). Verily! He is to you a plain enemy.

209. Then if you slide back after the clear signs (Prophet Muhammad SAW and this Qur'ān, and Islām) have come to you, then know that Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.

210. Do they then wait for anything other than that Allāh should come to them in the shadows of the clouds and the angels? (Then) the case would be already judged. And to Allāh return all matters (for decision).


002.197
YUSUFALI: For Hajj are the months well known. If any one undertakes that duty therein, Let there be no obscenity, nor wickedness, nor wrangling in the Hajj. And whatever good ye do, (be sure) Allah knoweth it. And take a provision (With you) for the journey, but the best of provisions is right conduct. So fear Me, o ye that are wise.
PICKTHAL: The pilgrimage is (in) the well-known months, and whoever is minded to perform the pilgrimage therein (let him remember that) there is (to be) no lewdness nor abuse nor angry conversation on the pilgrimage. And whatsoever good ye do Allah knoweth it. So make provision for yourselves (Hereafter); for the best provision is to ward off evil. Therefore keep your duty unto Me, O men of understanding.
SHAKIR: The pilgrimage is (performed in) the well-known months; so whoever determines the performance of the pilgrimage therein, there shall be no intercourse nor fornication nor quarrelling amongst one another; and whatever good you do, Allah knows it; and make provision, for surely the provision is the guarding of oneself, and be careful (of your duty) to Me, O men of understanding.
002.198
YUSUFALI: It is no crime in you if ye seek of the bounty of your Lord (during pilgrimage). Then when ye pour down from (Mount) Arafat, celebrate the praises of Allah at the Sacred Monument, and celebrate His praises as He has directed you, even though, before this, ye went astray.
PICKTHAL: It is no sin for you that ye seek the bounty of your Lord (by trading). But, when ye press on in the multitude from 'Arafat, remember Allah by the sacred monument. Remember Him as He hath guided you, although before ye were of those astray.
SHAKIR: There is no blame on you in seeking bounty from your Lord, so when you hasten on from "Arafat", then remember Allah near the Holy Monument, and remember Him as He has guided you, though before that you were certainly of the erring ones.
002.199
YUSUFALI: Then pass on at a quick pace from the place whence it is usual for the multitude so to do, and ask for Allah's forgiveness. For Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Then hasten onward from the place whence the multitude hasteneth onward, and ask forgiveness of Allah. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: Then hasten on from the Place from which the people hasten on and ask the forgiveness of Allah; surely Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
002.200
YUSUFALI: So when ye have accomplished your holy rites, celebrate the praises of Allah, as ye used to celebrate the praises of your fathers,- yea, with far more Heart and soul. There are men who say: "Our Lord! Give us (Thy bounties) in this world!" but they will have no portion in the Hereafter.
PICKTHAL: And when ye have completed your devotions, then remember Allah as ye remember your fathers or with a more lively remembrance. But of mankind is he who saith: "Our Lord! Give unto us in the world," and he hath no portion in the Hereafter.
SHAKIR: So when you have performed your devotions, then laud Allah as you lauded your fathers, rather a greater lauding. But there are some people who say, Our Lord! give us in the world, and they shall have no resting place.
002.201
YUSUFALI: And there are men who say: "Our Lord! Give us good in this world and good in the Hereafter, and defend us from the torment of the Fire!"
PICKTHAL: And of them (also) is he who saith: "Our Lord! Give unto us in the world that which is good and in the Hereafter that which is good, and guard us from the doom of Fire."
SHAKIR: And there are some among them who say: Our Lord! grant us good in this world and good in the hereafter, and save us from the chastisement of the fire.
002.202
YUSUFALI: To these will be allotted what they have earned; and Allah is quick in account.
PICKTHAL: For them there is in store a goodly portion out of that which they have earned. Allah is swift at reckoning.
SHAKIR: They shall have (their) portion of what they have earned, and Allah is swift in reckoning.
002.203
YUSUFALI: Celebrate the praises of Allah during the Appointed Days. But if any one hastens to leave in two days, there is no blame on him, and if any one stays on, there is no blame on him, if his aim is to do right. Then fear Allah, and know that ye will surely be gathered unto Him.
PICKTHAL: Remember Allah through the appointed days. Then whoso hasteneth (his departure) by two days, it is no sin for him, and whoso delayeth, it is no sin for him; that is for him who wardeth off (evil). Be careful of your duty to Allah, and know that unto Him ye will be gathered.
SHAKIR: And laud Allah during the numbered days; then whoever hastens off in two days, there is no blame on him, and whoever remains behind, there is no blame on him, (this is) for him who guards (against evil), and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, and know that you shall be gathered together to Him.
002.204
YUSUFALI: There is the type of man whose speech about this world's life May dazzle thee, and he calls Allah to witness about what is in his heart; yet is he the most contentious of enemies.
PICKTHAL: And of mankind there is he whoso conversation on the life of this world pleaseth thee (Muhammad), and he calleth Allah to witness as to that which is in his heart; yet he is the most rigid of opponents.
SHAKIR: And among men is he whose speech about the life of this world causes you to wonder, and he calls on Allah to witness as to what is in his heart, yet he is the most violent of adversaries.
002.205
YUSUFALI: When he turns his back, His aim everywhere is to spread mischief through the earth and destroy crops and cattle. But Allah loveth not mischief.
PICKTHAL: And when he turneth away (from thee) his effort in the land is to make mischief therein and to destroy the crops and the cattle; and Allah loveth not mischief.
SHAKIR: And when he turn,s back, he runs along in the land that he may cause mischief in it and destroy the tilth and the stock, and Allah does not love mischief-making.
002.206
YUSUFALI: When it is said to him, "Fear Allah", He is led by arrogance to (more) crime. Enough for him is Hell;-An evil bed indeed (To lie on)!
PICKTHAL: And when it is said unto him: Be careful of thy duty to Allah, pride taketh him to sin. Hell will settle his account, an evil resting-place.
SHAKIR: And when it is said to him, guard against (the punish ment of) Allah; pride carries him off to sin, therefore hell is sufficient for him; and certainly it is an evil resting place.
002.207
YUSUFALI: And there is the type of man who gives his life to earn the pleasure of Allah: And Allah is full of kindness to (His) devotees.
PICKTHAL: And of mankind is he who would sell himself, seeking the pleasure of Allah; and Allah hath compassion on (His) bondmen.
SHAKIR: And among men is he who sells himself to seek the pleasure of Allah; and Allah is Affectionate to the servants.
002.208
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Enter into Islam whole-heartedly; and follow not the footsteps of the evil one; for he is to you an avowed enemy.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Come, all of you, into submission (unto Him); and follow not the footsteps of the devil. Lo! he is an open enemy for you.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! enter into submission one and all and do not follow the footsteps of Shaitan; surely he is your open enemy.
002.209
YUSUFALI: If ye backslide after the clear (Signs) have come to you, then know that Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
PICKTHAL: And if ye slide back after the clear proofs have come unto you, then know that Allah is Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: But if you slip after clear arguments have come to you, then know that Allah is Mighty, Wise.
002.210
YUSUFALI: Will they wait until Allah comes to them in canopies of clouds, with angels (in His train) and the question is (thus) settled? but to Allah do all questions go back (for decision).
PICKTHAL: Wait they for naught else than that Allah should come unto them in the shadows of the clouds with the angels? Then the case would be already judged. All cases go back to Allah (for judgment).
SHAKIR: They do not wait aught but that Allah should come to them in the shadows of the clouds along with the angels, and the matter has (already) been decided; and (all) matters are returned to Allah.

 

Section 26

2 : 211

 211. Sal banee isra-eela kam ataynahum min ayatin bayyinatin waman yubaddil niAAmata Allahi min baAAdi ma jaat-hu fa-inna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabi

Ask the Children of Israel how many a definitive portent We blessed them with! So let him who tampers with Allah's revelations know that Allah's retribution is astringent!

2 : 212

212. Zuyyina lillatheena kafaroo alhayatu alddunya wayaskharoona mina allatheena amanoo waallatheena ittaqaw fawqahum yawma alqiyamati waAllahu yarzuqu man yashao bighayri hisabin

The life of this world has been beautified in the eyes of those who disbelieve, so they make fun of those who believe. But those who discharge their duty to Allah will surely be above them in status on the Day of Judgement. Allah blesses whom He will without any restraints!
 

(The pagans and the disbelievers of Mecca, especially those born with a silver spoon in their mouths, enjoyed the comforts of this world their wealth acquired for them, however transient they be, and revelled in the high status they commanded in the community. It was, therefore, fun for them to watch the believers lead a life of stoicism, austerity, self-denial and self-restraint, of absorption in the spiritual and incessant preoccupation with worship of their Lord. Little did they realize that the affluence in which the believers revelled and the comfort they drew from their love of Allah was different from the comforts they enjoyed; it was all enduring and everlasting; it bought them incomparable and immeasurable bliss, it guaranteed them access to an Abode beyond the scope of anyone's imagination and beyond the reach of the impious. In this verse we are spelled out that guarantee and are assured that on the Day that matters the most, the status of His servants will be far higher than the status of His repudiators).
 

2 : 213

213. Kana alnnasu ommatan wahidatan fabaAAatha Allahu alnnabiyyeena mubashshireena wamunthireena waanzala maAAahumu alkitaba bialhaqqi liyahkuma bayna alnnasi feema ikhtalafoo feehi wama ikhtalafa feehi illa allatheena ootoohu min baAAdi ma jaat-humu albayyinatu baghyan baynahum fahada Allahu allatheena amanoo lima ikhtalafoo feehi mina alhaqqi bi-ithnihi waAllahu yahdee man yashao ila siratin mustaqeemin

All of mankind once subscribed to the same denomination. Then Allah sent His messengers as bearers of good tidings and as warners and through them revealed the Scripture with truth so that it might resolve the issues over which men argued with one another; and the arguments in the Scripture were contrived by the same people to whom it was revealed, even after definitive portents came to them, through jealousy and malice towards each other. So Allah, by His will, guided those who believed on issues over which they disputed. Allah guides whom He will on to the righteous path!

(The seed of Adam at one time subscribed to the same religion. But as time passed and mankind degenerated into factions, Allah kept His promise to Adam and sent His guidance to them through Noah. As expected, some responded to guidance and others succumbed to the ruse of the devil. So Allah wiped out the sycophants of the devil in the great Deluge and gave mankind a second chance. Then Moses was sent to the Children of Israel with distinct portents and the written word of guidance in the form of the Torah. But he Children of Israel riddled it with infractions, introduced in it all sorts of changes, abused its wisdom and mutilated it beyond recognition. Subsequent to Moses, Allah chose Jesus as His messenger, equipped him with awe-inspiring miracles and gave him the Gospel so that he could put the Children of Israel back on the track. That too did not work. They carried on with their hostility to the Gospel too and persuaded its adherents into introducing similar changes in their Scripture. Thus it came to pass that Allah chose the Last Prophet and revealed the last Testament to him in the form of the Qur'aan.

This, in a nutshell, is the story of mankind reflecting the never-ending combat between good and evil, between the bondsmen of Allah and the fawns of the devil, a battle which began in heaven and can only finish in heaven, the true believers in Allah entering Paradise by His leave, and the invidious adulators of Iblis occupying hell by His will).

*  *  *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed during the Battle of Ahzaab when  Muslim armies were put through their paces. Exhausted by the arduous demands of the campaign, they asked the Prophet to tell them why Allah was not coming to their rescue.

2 : 214

214. Am hasibtum an tadkhuloo aljannata walamma ya/tikum mathalu allatheena khalaw min qablikum massat-humu alba/sao waalddarrao wazulziloo hatta yaqoola alrrasoolu waallatheena amanoo maAAahu mata nasru Allahi ala inna nasra Allahi qareebun

Think you that you will enter paradise though you have not endured the like of that which befell others before you? They were beset by asperity and adversity and caught up as if in tremors until the messenger and those who believed with him beseeched : 'When will Allah's help come?' Verily Allah's help is always close at hand!
 

(In this verse the believers are reminded that the road to Paradise is strewn with all sorts of pitfalls and tripwires, hurdles and snares, mirages and delusions. Those who take them on with courage and negotiate them with resolve are assured of a matchless goal at the other end).

     *   *   *

Context of Revelation: The following verse was revealed when a wealthy Muslim in his ripe age sought the Prophet's guidance on how best to expend his wealth in charity.

2 : 215

215. Yas-aloonaka matha yunfiqoona qul ma anfaqtum min khayrin falilwalidayni waal-aqrabeena waalyatama waalmasakeeni waibni alssabeeli wama tafAAaloo min khayrin fa-inna Allaha bihi AAaleemun

They ask you (O Mohammed) how to spend their wealth. Say : 'Whatever of your wealth you wish to give in charity, give it to your parents first and then to your close relatives and to the orphans and to the destitute and the wayfarers. And whatever good you do, verily  Allah is aware of it!

*   *   *

2 : 216

 

 

216. Kutiba AAalaykumu alqitalu wahuwa kurhun lakum waAAasa an takrahoo shay-an wahuwa khayrun lakum waAAasa an tuhibboo shay-an wahuwa sharrun lakum waAllahu yaAAlamu waantum la taAAlamoona

Warfare is ordained for you though you detest it. But then, it may well be that you detest a thing which is auspicious for you, or it may also be that you cherish a thing which is inauspicious for you! Allah knows whereas you know not! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

211. Ask the Children of Israel how many clear Ayāt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) We gave them. And whoever changes Allāh's Favour after it had come to him, [e.g. renounces the Religion of Allāh (Islām) and accepts Kufr (disbelief),] then surely, Allāh is Severe in punishment.

212. Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who obey Allāh's Orders and keep away from what He has forbidden, will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. And Allāh gives (of His Bounty, Blessings, Favours, Honours, etc. on the Day of Resurrection) to whom He wills without limit.

213. Mankind were one community and Allāh sent Prophets with glad tidings and warnings, and with them He sent the Scripture in truth to judge between people in matters wherein they differed. And only those to whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it after clear proofs had come unto them through hatred, one to another. Then Allāh by His Leave guided those who believed to the truth of that wherein they differed. And Allāh guides whom He wills to a Straight Path.

214. Or think you that you will enter Paradise without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? They were afflicted with severe poverty and ailments and were so shaken that even the Messenger and those who believed along with him said, "When (will come) the Help of Allāh?" Yes! Certainly, the Help of Allāh is near!

215. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) what they should spend. Say: Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and Al­Masākin (the poor) and the wayfarers, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allāh knows it well.

216. Jihād[] (holy fighting in Allāh's Cause) is ordained for you (Muslims) though you dislike it, and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allāh knows but you do not know.


002.211
YUSUFALI: Ask the Children of Israel how many clear (Signs) We have sent them. But if any one, after Allah's favour has come to him, substitutes (something else), Allah is strict in punishment.
PICKTHAL: Ask of the Children of Israel how many a clear revelation We gave them! He who altereth the grace of Allah after it hath come unto him (for him), lo! Allah is severe in punishment.
SHAKIR: Ask the Israelites how many a clear sign have We given them; and whoever changes the favor of Allah after it has come to him, then surely Allah is severe in requiting (evil).
002.212
YUSUFALI: The life of this world is alluring to those who reject faith, and they scoff at those who believe. But the righteous will be above them on the Day of Resurrection; for Allah bestows His abundance without measure on whom He will.
PICKTHAL: Beautified is the life of the world for those who disbelieve; they make a jest of the believers. But those who keep their duty to Allah will be above them on the Day of Resurrection. Allah giveth without stint to whom He will.
SHAKIR: The life of this world is made to seem fair to those who disbelieve, and they mock those who believe, and those who guard (against evil) shall be above them on the day of resurrection; and Allah gives means of subsistence to whom he pleases without measure.
002.213
YUSUFALI: Mankind was one single nation, and Allah sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between people in matters wherein they differed; but the People of the Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His Grace Guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed. For Allah guided whom He will to a path that is straight.
PICKTHAL: Mankind were one community, and Allah sent (unto them) prophets as bearers of good tidings and as warners, and revealed therewith the Scripture with the truth that it might judge between mankind concerning that wherein they differed. And only those unto whom (the Scripture) was given differed concerning it, after clear proofs had come unto them, through hatred one of another. And Allah by His Will guided those who believe unto the truth of that concerning which they differed. Allah guideth whom He will unto a straight path.
SHAKIR: (All) people are a single nation; so Allah raised prophets as bearers of good news and as warners, and He revealed with them the Book with truth, that it might judge between people in that in which they differed; and none but the very people who were given it differed about it after clear arguments had come to them, revolting among themselves; so Allah has guided by His will those who believe to the truth about which they differed and Allah guides whom He pleases to the right path.
002.214
YUSUFALI: Or do ye think that ye shall enter the Garden (of bliss) without such (trials) as came to those who passed away before you? they encountered suffering and adversity, and were so shaken in spirit that even the Messenger and those of faith who were with him cried: "When (will come) the help of Allah?" Ah! Verily, the help of Allah is (always) near!
PICKTHAL: Or think ye that ye will enter paradise while yet there hath not come unto you the like of (that which came to) those who passed away before you? Affliction and adversity befell them, they were shaken as with earthquake, till the messenger (of Allah) and those who believed along with him said: When cometh Allah's help? Now surely Allah's help is nigh.
SHAKIR: Or do you think that you would enter the garden while yet the state of those who have passed away before you has not come upon you; distress and affliction befell them and they were shaken violently, so that the Messenger and those who believed with him said: When will the help of Allah come? Now surely the help of Allah is nigh!
002.215
YUSUFALI: They ask thee what they should spend (In charity). Say: Whatever ye spend that is good, is for parents and kindred and orphans and those in want and for wayfarers. And whatever ye do that is good, -Allah knoweth it well.
PICKTHAL: They ask thee, (O Muhammad), what they shall spend. Say: that which ye spend for good (must go) to parents and near kindred and orphans and the needy and the wayfarer. And whatsoever good ye do, lo! Allah is Aware of it.
SHAKIR: They ask you as to what they should spend. Say: Whatever wealth you spend, it is for the parents and the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, and whatever good you do, Allah surely knows it.
002.216
YUSUFALI: Fighting is prescribed for you, and ye dislike it. But it is possible that ye dislike a thing which is good for you, and that ye love a thing which is bad for you. But Allah knoweth, and ye know not.
PICKTHAL: Warfare is ordained for you, though it is hateful unto you; but it may happen that ye hate a thing which is good for you, and it may happen that ye love a thing which is bad for you. Allah knoweth, ye know not.
SHAKIR: Fighting is enjoined on you, and it is an object of dislike to you; and it may be that you dislike a thing while it is good for you, and it may be that you love a thing while it is evil for you, and Allah knows, while you do not know.

 

Section 27.

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a party of Muslim soldiers whom the Prophet had dispatched to fight the idolaters made an error in calculating the date  and commenced the battle on the first day of the auspicious month thinking it to be the last day of the previous month. Raising the issue of whether or not Islam banned bloodshed in course of the forbidden month, the idolaters impugned him with the guilt of ordering his men to do that which Allah had ordained them not to do.

2 : 217

 217. Yas-aloonaka AAani alshshahri alharami qitalin feehi qul qitalun feehi kabeerun wasaddun AAan sabeeli Allahi wakufrun bihi waalmasjidi alharami wa-ikhraju ahlihi minhu akbaru AAinda Allahi waalfitnatu akbaru mina alqatli wala yazaloona yuqatiloonakum hatta yaruddookum AAan deenikum ini istataAAoo waman yartadid minkum AAan deenihi fayamut wahuwa kafirun faola-ika habitat aAAmaluhum fee alddunya waal-akhirati waola-ika as-habu alnnari hum feeha khalidoona

They ask you (O Mohammed) about warfare during the sacred month. Say : 'Warfare during this month, no doubt, is a grim violation; but preventing men from the way of Allah, and thwarting Him and thwarting the Hallowed Mosque and evicting those who have taken shelter in it are even greater violations in the sight of Allah, for persecution is worse than bloodshed. And they will never refrain from persecuting you until they have turned you away from your religion, if they can! But whoever amongst you renounce their faith and die as disbelievers, their toils will come to a naught in the life of this world as well as in the Hereafter and they will be cast in the Fire in which they shall remain forever!
 

(In this verse the atrocities which the idolaters committed against the believers regardless of which month it was are catalogued one by one : they hindered men from gaining access to the path of Allah by openly vituperating Him; they prevented the believers from entering the Hallowed Mosque; they evicted those who took shelter under its auspicious roof; they inflicted untold suffering upon the Prophet and his associates until they were pressurized into giving up their homes and flee for their lives, each and every one of which was a far worse crime in the eyes of Allah than the honest mistake the soldiers made whilst performing the duties they were commanded to perform.

It also contains a caution that the idolaters will never let up their pressure upon the believers until they renounce their faith, and warns those who succumb to it of grim consequences).

*   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed with reference to the same issue as above when some Muslims expressed the feeling that, even if the soldiers did not commit a sin by unwittingly drawing blood during the sacred month, they may not have attained any rewards from Allah towards it, either.

2 : 218

218. Inna allatheena amanoo waallatheena hajaroo wajahadoo fee sabeeli Allahi ola-ika yarjoona rahmata Allahi waAllahu ghafoorun raheemun

Verily those who believe and those who emigrate and those who strive for the Cause of Allah, they are entitled to Allah's compassion! Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful.
 

(Allah categorically asserts in this verse that those who sincerely believe in Him, leave their homes and possessions to escape persecution and lay down their lives for the Cause of Allah are forever entitled to His mercy and compassion).

*   *   *

2 : 219

219. Yas-aloonaka AAani alkhamri waalmaysiri qul feehima ithmun kabeerun wamanafiAAu lilnnasi wa-ithmuhuma akbaru min nafAAihima wayas-aloonaka matha yunfiqoona quli alAAafwa kathalika yubayyinu Allahu lakumu al-ayati laAAallakum tatafakkaroona

They ask you for a ruling about intoxicants and gambling. Say : 'Both are iniquitous. They do contain an element of worldly gain for men, but there is more harm in them than good.' And they ask you how much to give in charity. Say : 'That which is superfluous to your requirements.' Thus does Allah elucidate His ordinances to you so that you save only that which you need in this life, -

2 : 220

220. Fee alddunya waal-akhirati wayas-aloonaka AAani alyatama qul islahun lahum khayrun wa-in tukhalitoohum fa-ikhwanukum waAllahu yaAAlamu almufsida mina almuslihi walaw shaa Allahu laaAAnatakum inna Allaha AAazeezun hakeemun

And spend the rest for the betterment of your life in the Hereafter. They question you about the orphans. Say : 'The more you improve their lot, the better it is for you. And if you mingle what is yours with what is theirs, then they become like brothers to you. And Allah can distinguish him who impairs from him who improves. Had Allah willed, He could have plunged you into hardship. Verily Allah is of infinite wisdom!

(In the first of the two verses, both intoxicants and gambling are outlawed. Although there are a few superfluous benefits accruing from them, such as a temporary sense of relief from tensions, profit from trade or windfalls in games of chance, the harm they do far outweighs the good. For instance, in the case of gambling, compulsive gamblers are known to have blown away their fortunes, resulting in penury, ruining their family lives, affecting the prospects of their children, neglect of spiritual priorities and wastage of precious time which could have otherwise been spent in performing worship and seemly deeds. Similarly, drinking quite often crosses the perimeters of relief and enters into the dangerous zone of inebriation, resulting in opprobrium, hostilities, lust and profanities and much more besides.

In the second verse the onus shifts to the treatment of orphans. The Qur'aan, and therefore Islam, has always been the champion of the underdog, - none more than the orphans, - and repeatedly admonishes Muslims to care for them, be kind to them, love them, fill in the gap which has opened up in their lives by the loss of their parents and make sure they do not have to suffer any more than what they already have. In this verse, Muslims are exhorted to be cautious when dealing with assets which belong to them. If it served their interests better by amalgamating their wealth with ours and we did it, then they become like brothers to us and are therefore entitled to receive the same attention as our brothers do. It ends with a note of caution that Allah can easily distinguish between those with questionable intentions and those who are honest, so beware!)

     *   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when an associate of the Prophet was enamoured by an idolatress and sought his permission to wed her.

2 : 221

221. Wala tankihoo almushrikati hatta yu/minna walaamatun mu/minatun khayrun min mushrikatin walaw aAAjabatkum wala tunkihoo almushrikeena hatta yu/minoo walaAAabdun mu/minun khayrun min mushrikin walaw aAAjabakum ola-ika yadAAoona ila alnnari waAllahu yadAAoo ila aljannati waalmaghfirati bi-ithnihi wayubayyinu ayatihi lilnnasi laAAallahum yatathakkaroona

Do not wed an idolatress until she becomes a believer, for verily a believing slave girl is better than a free idolatress, even if you are enamoured by her; nor wed your women to idolaters until they have become believers, for a believing slave is better than a free idolater, even if they are enamoured by him. While they beckon you to the Fire, Allah beckons you, by His will, to the Garden and to the salvation of your soul! Thus He explains His revelations to all mankind so that they heed admonition! (R)
 

(One of the most important reasons why the Qur'aan reviles the idea of marriages between Muslims and idolaters is the effect it has upon family life, especially upon the upbringing of children. When a believing man and a believing woman bind themselves with the marriage knot, they set up home in accordance with the framework recommended by the Qur'aan, striving to accomplish a common goal; they believe in the same God and cherish the same values, they forbid the same evil and enjoin the same virtue. What is good in the eyes of the father is also good in the eyes of the mother; whatever the father renounces, the mother also dose the same. This unique synthesis between the parents has a lasting impact upon the hearts and minds of children, especially during the formative years of their lives. Under the strict discipline of Islam, marriage is not only the coming together of a man and a woman in holy wedlock, but also the coming together of two families, two tribes, two communities, as well as the launching of a new generation who would grow up to be good Muslims).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

 

217. They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islāmic calendar). Say, “Fighting therein is a great (transgression)[] but a greater (transgression) with Allāh is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allāh, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al-Masjid-al-Harām (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and Al-Fitnah[] is worse than killing. And they will never cease fighting you until they turn you back from your religion (Islāmic Monotheism) if they can. And whosoever of you turns back from his religion and dies as a disbeliever, then his deeds will be lost in this life and in the Hereafter, and they will be the dwellers of the Fire. They will abide therein forever.”

218. Verily, those who have believed, and those who have emigrated (for Allāh’s Religion) and have striven hard in the Way of Allāh, all these hope for Allāh’s Mercy. And Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Merciful.

219. They ask you (O Muhammad SAW) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling.[] Say: “In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men, but the sin of them is greater than their benefit.” And they ask you what they ought to spend. Say: “That which is beyond your needs.” Thus Allāh makes clear to you His Laws in order that you may give thought.”[]

220. In (to) this worldly life and in the Hereafter. And they ask you concerning orphans. Say: “The best thing is to work honestly in their property, and if you mix your affairs with theirs, then they are your brothers. And Allāh knows him who means mischief (e.g. to swallow their property) from him who means good (e.g. to save their property). And if Allāh had wished, He could have put you into difficulties. Truly, Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.”

221. And do not marry Al-Mushrikāt (idolatresses, etc.) till they believe (worship Allāh Alone). And indeed a slave woman who believes is better than a (free) Mushrikah (idolatress, etc.), even though she pleases you. And give not (your daughters) in marriage to Al-Mushrikūn[] till they believe (in Allāh Alone) and verily, a believing slave is better than a (free) Mushrik (idolater, etc.), even though he pleases you. Those (Al-Mushrikūn) invite you to the Fire, but Allāh invites (you) to Paradise and Forgiveness by His Leave, and makes His Ayāt (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.) clear to mankind that they may remember.


 
002 : 217 
YUSUFALI: They ask thee concerning fighting in the Prohibited Month. Say: "Fighting therein is a grave (offence); but graver is it in the sight of Allah to prevent access to the 
path of Allah, to deny Him, to prevent access to the Sacred Mosque, and drive out its members." Tumult and oppression are worse than slaughter. Nor will they cease fighting 
you until they turn you back from your faith if they can. And if any of you Turn back from their faith and die in unbelief, their works will bear no fruit in this life and in the 
Hereafter; they will be companions of the Fire and will abide therein. 
PICKTHAL: They question thee (O Muhammad) with regard to warfare in the sacred month. Say: Warfare therein is a great (transgression), but to turn (men) from the way of 
Allah, and to disbelieve in Him and in the Inviolable Place of Worship, and to expel His people thence, is a greater with Allah; for persecution is worse than killing. And they will 
not cease from fighting against you till they have made you renegades from your religion, if they can. And whoso becometh a renegade and dieth in his disbelief: such are they 
whose works have fallen both in the world and the Hereafter. Such are rightful owners of the Fire: they will abide therein. 
SHAKIR: They ask you concerning the sacred month about fighting in it. Say: Fighting in it is a grave matter, and hindering (men) from Allah's way and denying Him, and 
(hindering men from) the Sacred Mosque and turning its people out of it, are still graver with Allah, and persecution is graver than slaughter; and they will not cease fighting 
with you until they turn you back from your religion, if they can; and whoever of you turns back from his religion, then he dies while an unbeliever-- these it is whose works 
shall go for nothing in this world and the hereafter, and they are the inmates of the fire; therein they shall abide. 
002.218 
YUSUFALI: Those who believed and those who suffered exile and fought (and strove and struggled) in the path of Allah,- they have the hope of the Mercy of Allah: And Allah is 
Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful. 
PICKTHAL: Lo! those who believe, and those who emigrate (to escape the persecution) and strive in the way of Allah, these have hope of Allah's mercy. Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 
SHAKIR: Surely those who believed and those who fled (their home) and strove hard in the way of Allah these hope for the mercy of Allah and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. 
002.219 
YUSUFALI: They ask thee concerning wine and gambling. Say: "In them is great sin, and some profit, for men; but the sin is greater than the profit." They ask thee how much 
they are to spend; Say: "What is beyond your needs." Thus doth Allah Make clear to you His Signs: In order that ye may consider- 
PICKTHAL: They question thee about strong drink and games of chance. Say: In both is great sin, and (some) utility for men; but the sin of them is greater than their usefulness. 
And they ask thee what they ought to spend. Say: that which is superfluous. Thus Allah maketh plain to you (His) revelations, that haply ye may reflect. 
SHAKIR: They ask you about intoxicants and games of chance. Say: In both of them there is a great sin and means of profit for men, and their sin is greater than their profit. 
And they ask you as to what they should spend. Say: What you can spare. Thus does Allah make clear to you the communications, that you may ponder 
 
002.220 
YUSUFALI: (Their bearings) on this life and the Hereafter. They ask thee concerning orphans. Say: "The best thing to do is what is for their good; if ye mix their affairs with yours, 
they are your brethren; but Allah knows the man who means mischief from the man who means good. And if Allah had wished, He could have put you into difficulties: He is indeed 
Exalted in Power, Wise." 
PICKTHAL: Upon the world and the Hereafter. And they question thee concerning orphans. Say: To improve their lot is best. And if ye mingle your affairs with theirs, then (they are) 
your brothers. Allah knoweth him who spoileth from him who improveth. Had Allah willed He could have overburdened you. Allah is Mighty, Wise. 
SHAKIR: On this world and the hereafter. And they ask you concerning the orphans Say: To set right for them (their affairs) is good, and if you become co-partners with them, they 
are your brethren; and Allah knows the mischief-maker and the pacemaker, and if Allah had pleased, He would certainly have caused you to fall into a difficulty; surely Allah is Mighty, 
Wise. 
002.221 
YUSUFALI: Do not marry unbelieving women (idolaters), until they believe: A slave woman who believes is better than an unbelieving woman, even though she allures you. Nor marry 
(your girls) to unbelievers until they believe: A man slave who believes is better than an unbeliever, even though he allures you. Unbelievers do (but) beckon you to the Fire. 
But Allah beckons by His Grace to the Garden (of bliss) and forgiveness, and makes His Signs clear to mankind: That they may celebrate His praise. 
PICKTHAL: Wed not idolatresses till they believe; for lo! a believing bondwoman is better than an idolatress though she please you; and give not your daughters in marriage to idolaters 
till they believe, for lo! a believing slave is better than an idolater though he please you. These invite unto the Fire, and Allah inviteth unto the Garden, and unto forgiveness by His grace, 
and expoundeth His revelations to mankind that haply they may remember. 
SHAKIR: And do not marry the idolatresses until they believe, and certainly a believing maid is better than an idolatress woman, even though she should please you; and do not give 
(believing women) in marriage to idolaters until they believe, and certainly a believing servant is better than an idolater, even though he should please you; these invite to the fire, and 
Allah invites to the garden and to forgiveness by His will, and makes clear His communications to men, that they may be mindful. 

 
Section 28.

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when the Prophet was asked by Muslims regarding carnal relationship with women during their menstruation periods.

2 : 222

222. Wayas-aloonaka AAani almaheedi qul huwa athan faiAAtaziloo alnnisaa fee almaheedi wala taqraboohunna hatta yathurna fa-itha tatahharna fa/toohunna min haythu amarakumu Allahu inna Allaha yuhibbu alttawwabeena wayuhibbu almutatahhireena

They ask you (O Mohammed) for a ruling about menstruation. Say to them : 'It is a period of uncleanness for women so stay away from them and do not indulge in carnal relations while they are unclean. Then, after they are cleansed, return to them as Allah has intended for you to. Allah cherishes those that are penitent and prefers those that are clean!

*   *   *

2 : 223

223. Nisaokum harthun lakum fa/too harthakum anna shi/tum waqaddimoo li-anfusikum waittaqoo Allaha waiAAlamoo annakum mulaqoohu wabashshiri almu/mineena

Your women are your tilth, so enter your tilth as you will and do that which is good for your soul and fear Allah and remember you will face Him one day! Give tidings of joy to all the believers (O Mohammed)!
 

(In this verse, whilst married men and women are encouraged to have sanctified sex with one another, - for, what else can be the purpose of marriage, if it is not to bring forth new generations who will inhabit Allah's copious earth and keep the cycle of life revolving until Allah decides to bring it to an end? - they are admonished to indulge in sex for the purpose of procreation and not for gratification of lust and unseemly deviations such as oral and anal sex).

     *   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a believer took an oath in the name of Allah that he would not visit his brother-in-law nor speak with him ever again as a result of a serious rift. The verse admonishes believers not to bind themselves with oaths in the name of Allah which prevent them from doing good to others.

2 : 224

224. Wala tajAAaloo Allaha AAurdatan li-aymanikum an tabarroo watattaqoo watuslihoo bayna alnnasi waAllahu sameeAAun AAaleemun

And do not drag Allah's name into oaths that prevent you from performing righteous deeds and from discharging your duty to Allah and from establishing peace between men.  Allah hears everything and knows everything!

2 : 225

225. La yu-akhithukumu Allahu biallaghwi fee aymanikum walakin yu-akhithukum bima kasabat quloobukum waAllahu ghafoorun haleemun

Allah will not hold you to your word for that which you inadvertently included in your oaths but He will hold you to that which you included in them with the complicity of your hearts. Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful.
 

(There are different categories of oaths which we take from time to time, depending upon circumstances : when we assert under oath an event from the past, mistakenly believing it to have happened though in actual fact it did not, such oaths may be forgiven by Allah without expiation; when we assert under oath an event from the past, knowing quite well that it did not happen, such oaths are strictly forbidden and attract expiation in lieu of breaking them; when we take an oath to do something or not to do something with a sound mind and a firm determination, such oaths should be broken, if they hamper us from doing good, and expiation is compulsory).
 
 

*   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed to stop husbands from exploiting their wives for financial gains by taking oaths to sever marital ties over indefinite periods of time (as was a common practice amongst the Arabs at the time).

2 : 226

226. Lillatheena yu/loona min nisa-ihim tarabbusu arbaAAati ashhurin fa-in faoo fa-inna Allaha ghafoorun raheemun

Those who have taken an oath to renounce their wives must wait for four months. If they reconcile with one another (at that stage), Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful.

2: 227

227. Wa-in AAazamoo alttalaqa fa-inna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleemun

But if they are firmly bent upon a divorce, then know that Allah is aware and is informed of everything!
 

(The Qur'aan lays down the ground rules for marriages and divorces between Muslims, later to become an integral part of the Mohammedan Law of Marriages and Divorce as practised in most Islamic States and some secular states with a substantial Muslim population such as India. These rules are brought to light with amazing clarity and flawless reasoning as we proceed from verse to verse set out above and below.

During the times of paganism, husbands used to ruthlessly exploit their wives by severing their conjugal ties under oath but falling short of a divorce, which rendered women virtual prisoners tied down to them with bonds of wedlock. If wives sought resumption of conjugal vows, the husbands took refuge behind the oath; and if they sought to leave, the existence of a marriage tie prevented them from leaving

The Qur'aan resolved this stalemate by introducing the idea of a cooling off period of four months after which there should either be a reconciliation between them or a divorce, giving both equal rights to decide what they wanted to do.

Although most of the following verses were revealed in response to specific incidents involving specific individuals, it should be noted that the principles contained in them apply to all Muslims across the world).
 
 

*   *   *

2 : 228

 

 

Waalmutallaqatu yatarabbasna bi-anfusihinna thalathata quroo-in wala yahillu lahunna an yaktumna ma khalaqa Allahu fee arhamihinna in kunna yu/minna biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri wabuAAoolatuhunna ahaqqu biraddihinna fee thalika in aradoo islahan walahunna mithlu allathee AAalayhinna bialmaAAroofi walilrrijali AAalayhinna darajatun waAllahu AAazeezun hakeemun

Women who have been divorced must abstain from carnal relationships for three cycles of menstruation. It is not lawful for them to hide that which Allah has placed in their wombs, if they believe in Allah and the Last Day.  In such an event, men have the right to take them back during this period, provided there is a scope for reconciliation. Women have same rights as men, in keeping with tradition, even though men have a degree of superiority over them. Allah is Infinite in Wisdom! (R)
 

(The central premise in this revelation, - as is in all the ordinances governing marriages and divorce, - is to make sure that no divorced wife leaves her husband carrying his seed, by making the 'safety period' of three menstruation cycles mandatory and by placing the onus of declaring the contents of her womb at the time of her departure squarely on the woman's shoulder, - for, who else can know the truth except her and Allah? This provision ensured that to the father belongs his seed, but gave the parents equal rights to decide whether they wished to put aside their differences and stayed together because of the pregnancy, or to part company in spite of it).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

222. They ask you concerning menstruation. Say: that is an Adha (a harmful thing for a husband to have a sexual intercourse with his wife while she is having her menses), therefore keep away from women during menses and go not unto them till they have purified (from menses and have taken a bath). And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allāh has ordained for you (go in unto them in any manner as long as it is in their vagina). Truly, Allāh loves those who turn unto Him in repentance and loves those who purify themselves (by taking a bath and cleaning and washing thoroughly their private parts, bodies, for their prayers, etc.).

223. Your wives are a tilth for you, so go to your tilth (have sexual relations with your wives in any manner as long as it is in the vagina and not in the anus), when or how you will, and send (good deeds, or ask Allāh to bestow upon you pious offspring) before you for your ownselves. And fear Allāh, and know that you are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give good tidings to the believers (O Muhammad SAW).

224. And make not Allāh's (Name) an excuse in your oaths against your doing good and acting piously, and making peace among mankind. And Allāh is All-Hearer, All-Knower (i.e. do not swear much and if you have sworn against doing something good then give an expiation for the oath and do good).[]

225. Allāh will not call you to account for that which is unintentional in your oaths, but He will call you to account for that which your hearts have earned. And Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most-Forbearing.

226. Those who take an oath[] not to have sexual relation with their wives must wait four months, then if they return (change their idea in this period), verily, Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.

227. And if they decide upon divorce, then Allāh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

228. And divorced women shall wait (as regards their marriage) for three menstrual periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what Allāh has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allāh and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses, etc.) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect, etc.) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them. And Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise.


002.222
YUSUFALI: They ask thee concerning women's courses. Say: They are a hurt and a pollution: So keep away from women in their courses, and do not approach them until they are clean. But when they have purified themselves, ye may approach them in any manner, time, or place ordained for you by Allah. For Allah loves those who turn to Him constantly and He loves those who keep themselves pure and clean.
PICKTHAL: They question thee (O Muhammad) concerning menstruation. Say: It is an illness, so let women alone at such times and go not in unto them till they are cleansed. And when they have purified themselves, then go in unto them as Allah hath enjoined upon you. Truly Allah loveth those who turn unto Him, and loveth those who have a care for cleanness.
SHAKIR: And they ask you about menstruation. Say: It is a discomfort; therefore keep aloof from the women during the menstrual discharge and do not go near them until they have become clean; then when they have cleansed themselves, go in to them as Allah has commanded you; surely Allah loves those who turn much (to Him), and He loves those who purify themselves.
002.223
YUSUFALI: Your wives are as a tilth unto you; so approach your tilth when or how ye will; but do some good act for your souls beforehand; and fear Allah. And know that ye are to meet Him (in the Hereafter), and give (these) good tidings to those who believe.
PICKTHAL: Your women are a tilth for you (to cultivate) so go to your tilth as ye will, and send (good deeds) before you for your souls, and fear Allah, and know that ye will (one day) meet Him. Give glad tidings to believers, (O Muhammad).
SHAKIR: Your wives are a tilth for you, so go into your tilth when you like, and do good beforehand for yourselves, and be careful (of your duty) to Allah, and know that you will meet Him, and give good news to the believers.
002.224
YUSUFALI: And make not Allah's (name) an excuse in your oaths against doing good, or acting rightly, or making peace between persons; for Allah is One Who heareth and knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: And make not Allah, by your oaths, a hindrance to your being righteous and observing your duty unto Him and making peace among mankind. Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: And make not Allah because of your swearing (by Him) an obstacle to your doing good and guarding (against evil) and making peace between men, and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.
002.225
YUSUFALI: Allah will not call you to account for thoughtlessness in your oaths, but for the intention in your hearts; and He is Oft-forgiving, Most Forbearing.
PICKTHAL: Allah will not take you to task for that which is unintentional in your oaths. But He will take you to task for that which your hearts have garnered. Allah is Forgiving, Clement.
SHAKIR: Allah does not call you to account for what is vain in your oaths, but He will call you to account for what your hearts have earned, and Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing.
002.226
YUSUFALI: For those who take an oath for abstention from their wives, a waiting for four months is ordained; if then they return, Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Merciful.
PICKTHAL: Those who forswear their wives must wait four months; then, if they change their mind, lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful.
SHAKIR: Those who swear that they will not go in to their wives should wait four months; so if they go back, then Allah is surely Forgiving, Merciful.
002.227
YUSUFALI: But if their intention is firm for divorce, Allah heareth and knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: And if they decide upon divorce (let them remember that) Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: And if they have resolved on a divorce, then Allah is surely Hearing, Knowing.
002.228
YUSUFALI: Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah Hath created in their wombs, if they have faith in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) over them. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
PICKTHAL: Women who are divorced shall wait, keeping themselves apart, three (monthly) courses. And it is not lawful for them that they should conceal that which Allah hath created in their wombs if they are believers in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands would do better to take them back in that case if they desire a reconciliation. And they (women) have rights similar to those (of men) over them in kindness, and men are a degree above them. Allah is Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: And the divorced women should keep themselves in waiting for three courses; and it is not lawful for them that they should conceal what Allah has created in their wombs, if they believe in Allah and the last day; and their husbands have a better right to take them back in the meanwhile if they wish for reconciliation; and they have rights similar to those against them in a just manner, and the men are a degree above them, and Allah is Mighty, Wise.


 
Section 29.
 
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a woman complained to the Prophet that her husband threatened to make use of divorce as a means of persecuting her by divorcing her and then re-marrying her before her term was up. The second part of the ordinance refers to another woman who despised her husband and voluntarily offered to return his gifts to him in lieu of a divorce.

2 : 229

229. Alttalaqu marratani fa-imsakun bimaAAroofin aw tasreehun bi-ihsanin wala yahillu lakum an ta/khuthoo mimma ataytumoohunna shay-an illa an yakhafa alla yuqeema hudooda Allahi fa-in khiftum alla yuqeema hudooda Allahi fala junaha AAalayhima feema iftadat bihi tilka hudoodu Allahi fala taAAtadooha waman yataAAadda hudooda Allahi faola-ika humu alththalimoona

Divorce is to be pronounced twice, after which either retain her with respect or release her with respect. It does not become you that you claw back any of the gifts you gave her, except if there is a fear that she may not remain within Allah's limits. But if it is feared that either of them may not remain within Allah's limits, then it is not a sin for the woman to ransom herself and leave him. These are the limits imposed by Allah so breach them not. Whoever breaches Allah's limits is a transgressor!
 

(It is important to note here that there is no room for an unhappy marriage in the ordinances of Allah because the ultimate goal of a marriage is to consummate the concept of family life so that men and women who consented to be bound together in holy wedlock may lead a happy and successful life. That is the reason why the Qur'aan simplified the protocol of marriage and divorce by making one cost-effective and the other convenient. All it takes for marriage between Muslim couples to be contracted is the presence of a priest and two witnesses and a gift which the man gives to the woman as a token of his devotion in return for her love and loyalty, which could sometimes be as little as just a cluster of dates! Likewise, all it takes for a divorce between the believing couples are two oral pronouncements of divorce after specific intervals, rendered irrevocable by the third pronouncement. In the latter part of the verse it is made clear that if the woman wishes to forgo the gifts which her husband had given her in lieu of a divorce, she too has an equal right do so).
 

2 : 230

230. Fa-in tallaqaha fala tahillu lahu min baAAdu hatta tankiha zawjan ghayrahu fa-in tallaqaha fala junaha AAalayhima an yatarajaAAa in thanna an yuqeema hudooda Allahi watilka hudoodu Allahi yubayyinuha liqawmin yaAAlamoona

And if the divorce is pronounced for the third time, the woman is no longer lawful to him until she marries another man and is divorced by him in a like manner. Then it is no sin for them to re-marry, if they feel sure that they will remain within the limits imposed by Allah. And these are the limits of Allah that He expounds for those with wisdom!
 

(Until she marries another man and the marriage is 'consummated' before the machinery of the second divorce is set into motion. This is the most important deterrent to an otherwise easy divorce because there is a huge price to pay : if the couple regret their decision to part company after the third and irrevocable pronouncement, the only way they can get back together is by the wife going through a second marriage, submitting herself to another man as his wife and then being divorced by him, - an unpalatable prospect for both, enough to make them think hard before reaching any irretrievable decisions).
 
 

*   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed with reference to a believer who had been persecuting his wife by divorcing her and re-marrying her again and again, thereby keeping her enslaved in an untenable wedlock.

2 : 231

231. Wa-itha tallaqtumu alnnisaa fabalaghna ajalahunna faamsikoohunna bimaAAroofin aw sarrihoohunna bimaAAroofin wala tumsikoohunna diraran litaAAtadoo waman yafAAal thalika faqad thalama nafsahu wala tattakhithoo ayati Allahi huzuwan waothkuroo niAAmata Allahi AAalaykum wama anzala AAalaykum mina alkitabi waalhikmati yaAAithukum bihi waittaqoo Allaha waiAAlamoo anna Allaha bikulli shay-in Aaaleemun

When you have divorced your women and they have completed their term, either retain them with respect or manumit them with respect. Retain them not for the sole purpose of persecuting them and transgress the limits. He that does so wrongs his own soul. Turn not the ordinances of Allah into a mockery. Remember the favours He has bestowed upon you and the  Book and the Wisdom He has revealed through which He exhorts you! Discharge your duty to Allah and know that Allah is aware of all things! (R)


 

EXAMPLES OF OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

229. The divorce is twice, after that, either you retain her on reasonable terms or release her with kindness. And it is not lawful for you (men) to take back (from your wives) any of your Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) which you have given them, except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allāh (e.g. to deal with each other on a fair basis). Then if you fear that they would not be able to keep the limits ordained by Allāh, then there is no sin on either of them if she gives back (the Mahr or a part of it) for her Al-Khul' (divorce)[]. These are the limits ordained by Allāh, so do not transgress them. And whoever transgresses the limits ordained by Allāh, then such are the Zālimūn (wrong-doers, etc.).

230. And if he has divorced her (the third time), then she is not lawful unto him thereafter until she has married another husband. Then, if the other husband divorces her, it is no sin on both of them that they reunite, provided they feel that they can keep the limits ordained by Allāh. These are the limits of Allāh, which He makes plain for the people who have knowledge.

231. And when you have divorced women and they have fulfilled the term of their prescribed period, either take them back on reasonable basis or set them free on reasonable basis. But do not take them back to hurt them, and whoever does that, then he has wronged himself. And treat not the Verses (Laws) of Allāh as a jest, but remember Allāh's Favours on you (i.e. Islām), and that which He has sent down to you of the Book (i.e. the Qur'ān) and Al-Hikmah (the Prophet's Sunnah - legal ways - Islāmic jurisprudence, etc.) whereby He instructs you. And fear Allāh, and know that Allāh is All-Aware of everything.


 

002.229

YUSUFALI: A divorce is only permissible twice: after that, the parties should either hold Together on equitable terms, or separate with kindness. It is not lawful for you, 
(Men), to take back any of your gifts (from your wives), except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. If ye (judges) do 
indeed fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah, there is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom. These are the limits 
ordained by Allah; so do not transgress them if any do transgress the limits ordained by Allah, such persons wrong (Themselves as well as others). 
PICKTHAL: Divorce must be pronounced twice and then (a woman) must be retained in honour or released in kindness. And it is not lawful for you that ye take from women 
aught of that which ye have given them; except (in the case) when both fear that they may not be able to keep within the limits (imposed by) Allah. And if ye fear that they 
may not be able to keep the limits of Allah, in that case it is no sin for either of them if the woman ransom herself. These are the limits (imposed by) Allah. Transgress them 
not. For whoso transgresseth Allah's limits: such are wrong-doers. 
SHAKIR: Divorce may be (pronounced) twice, then keep (them) in good fellowship or let (them) go with kindness; and it is not lawful for you to take any part of what you 
have given them, unless both fear that they cannot keep within the limits of Allah; then if you fear that they cannot keep within the limits of Allah, there is no blame on them 
for what she gives up to become free thereby. These are the limits of Allah, so do not exceed them and whoever exceeds the limits of Allah these it is that are the unjust. 
002.230 
YUSUFALI: So if a husband divorces his wife (irrevocably), He cannot, after that, re-marry her until after she has married another husband and He has divorced her. In that 
case there is no blame on either of them if they re-unite, provided they feel that they can keep the limits ordained by Allah. Such are the limits ordained by Allah, which He 
makes plain to those who understand. 
PICKTHAL: And if he hath divorced her (the third time), then she is not lawful unto him thereafter until she hath wedded another husband. Then if he (the other husband) 
divorce her it is no sin for both of them that they come together again if they consider that they are able to observe the limits of Allah. These are the limits of Allah. He 
manifesteth them for people who have knowledge. 
SHAKIR: So if he divorces her she shall not be lawful to him afterwards until she marries another husband; then if he divorces her there is no blame on them both if they 
return to each other (by marriage), if they think that they can keep within the limits of Allah, and these are the limits of Allah which He makes clear for a people who know. 
002.231 
YUSUFALI: When ye divorce women, and they fulfil the term of their ('Iddat), either take them back on equitable terms or set them free on equitable terms; but do not take 
them back to injure them, (or) to take undue advantage; if any one does that; He wrongs his own soul. Do not treat Allah's Signs as a jest, but solemnly rehearse Allah's 
favours on you, and the fact that He sent down to you the Book and Wisdom, for your instruction. And fear Allah, and know that Allah is well acquainted with all things. 
PICKTHAL: When ye have divorced women, and they have reached their term, then retain them in kindness or release them in kindness. Retain them not to their hurt so 
that ye transgress (the limits). He who doeth that hath wronged his soul. Make not the revelations of Allah a laughing-stock (by your behaviour), but remember Allah's grace 
upon you and that which He hath revealed unto you of the Scripture and of wisdom, whereby He doth exhort you. Observe your duty to Allah and know that Allah is Aware 
of all things. 
SHAKIR: And when you divorce women and they reach their prescribed time, then either retain them in good fellowship or set them free with liberality, and do not retain them 
for injury, so that you exceed the limits, and whoever does this, he indeed is unjust to his own soul; and do not take Allah's communications for a mockery, and remember the 
favor of Allah upon you, and that which He has revealed to you of the Book and the Wisdom, admonishing you thereby; and be careful (of your duty to) Allah, and know that 
Allah is the Knower of all things. 
 

 

 

Section 30.
 
Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed when a woman who was divorced by her second husband decided to re-marry her former husband, but her brother refused to let her do so.

2 : 232

232. Wa-itha tallaqtumu alnnisaa fabalaghna ajalahunna fala taAAduloohunna an yankihna azwajahunna itha taradaw baynahum bialmaAAroofi thalika yooAAathu bihi man kana minkum yu/minu biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri thalikum azka lakum waatharu waAllahu yaAAlamu waantum la taAAlamoona

When divorced women complete their waiting term, do not hinder them from re-marrying their former husbands, if it is agreed between them. This is an admonition for him among you that believes in Allah and in the Last Day. This is a more salubrious and sacrosanct course of action for you to take! Allah knows whereas you know not!

 *   *   *

2 : 233

 

 

 

233. Waalwalidatu yurdiAAna awladahunna hawlayni kamilayni liman arada an yutimma alrradaAAata waAAala almawloodi lahu rizquhunna wakiswatuhunna bialmaAAroofi la tukallafu nafsun illa wusAAaha la tudarra walidatun biwaladiha wala mawloodun lahu biwaladihi waAAala alwarithi mithlu thalika fa-in arada fisalan AAan taradin minhuma watashawurin fala junaha AAalayhima wa-in aradtum an tastardiAAoo awladakum fala junaha AAalaykum itha sallamtum ma ataytum bialmaAAroofi waittaqoo Allaha waiAAlamoo anna Allaha bima taAAmaloona baseerun

Mothers should suckle infants for two years, if they intend to complete their suckling. The responsibility of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in an apt manner rests with the father of the infant. No soul need be burdened beyond its scope, so let no mother suffer on account of her child nor a father suffer on account of the child born to him. And that which is binding upon the father is also binding upon the father's next of kin. Then, if they decide to wean the baby by mutual consent and after full consultation, it is no sin for them to do so. Nor is it wrong for you to hire a wet nurse, provided you remunerate her as agreed. And discharge your duty to Allah and know that Allah is perusing all your deeds.

2 : 234

234. Waallatheena yutawaffawna minkum wayatharoona azwajan yatarabbasna bi-anfusihinna arbaAAata ashhurin waAAashran fa-itha balaghna ajalahunna fala junaha AAalaykum feema faAAalna fee anfusihinna bialmaAAroofi waAllahu bima taAAmaloona khabeerun

Those of you who die, leaving behind your wives, let the widows abstain for a period of four months and ten days. When they have completed this period, it is no sin for you to let them do whatever they please with themselves, within the bounds of morality. Allah is aware of your actions!
 

(There are several reasons why this period of mourning has been ordained : it is a gesture of deference towards the dead; it gives the widow some scope to recover from the shock of her loss and think things over about her life and her future recourse; but above all it ensures that she is not carrying her husbands child at the time of her departure from his home).
 

2 : 235

235. Wala junaha AAalaykum feema AAarradtum bihi min khitbati alnnisa-i aw aknantum fee anfusikum AAalima Allahu annakum satathkuroonahunna walakin la tuwaAAidoohunna sirran illa an taqooloo qawlan maAAroofan wala taAAzimoo AAuqdata alnnikahi hatta yablugha alkitabu ajalahu waiAAlamoo anna Allaha yaAAlamu ma fee anfusikum faihtharoohu waiAAlamoo anna Allaha ghafoorun haleemun

There is no sin for you in modestly proposing marriage to widows in mourning or secretly cherishing their love, for Allah knows best what is in your hearts. Convey not your feelings for them except in words that are considered appropriate, nor consummate your marriage until they have completed their prescribed term.  Know that Allah is aware of what is hidden in your hearts, so beware of Him! And know that Allah is Magnanimous and Merciful! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

232. And when you have divorced women and they have fulfilled the term of their prescribed period, do not prevent them from marrying their (former) husbands, if they mutually agree on reasonable basis. This (instruction) is an admonition for him among you who believes in Allāh and the Last Day. That is more virtuous and purer for you. Allāh knows and you know not.

233. The mothers shall give suck to their children for two whole years, (that is) for those (parents) who desire to complete the term of suckling, but the father of the child shall bear the cost of the mother's food and clothing on a reasonable basis. No person shall have a burden laid on him greater than he can bear. No mother shall be treated unfairly on account of her child, nor father on account of his child. And on the (father's) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no sin on them. And if you decide on a foster suckling-mother for your children, there is no sin on you, provided you pay (the mother) what you agreed (to give her) on reasonable basis. And fear Allāh and know that Allāh is All-Seer of what you do.

234. And those of you who die and leave wives behind them, they (the wives) shall wait (as regards their marriage) for four months and ten days, then when they have fulfilled their term, there is no sin on you if they (the wives) dispose of themselves in a just and honourable manner (i.e. they can marry). And Allāh is Well-Acquainted with what you do.

235. And there is no sin on you if you make a hint of betrothal or conceal it in yourself, Allāh knows that you will remember them, but do not make a promise of contract with them in secret except that you speak an honourable saying according to the Islāmic law (e.g. you can say to her, "If one finds a wife like you, he will be happy"). And do not consummate the marriage until the term prescribed is fulfilled. And know that Allāh knows what is in your minds, so fear Him. And know that Allāh is Oft-Forgiving, Most Forbearing.


002.232
YUSUFALI: When ye divorce women, and they fulfil the term of their ('Iddat), do not prevent them from marrying their (former) husbands, if they mutually agree on equitable terms. This instruction is for all amongst you, who believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is (the course Making for) most virtue and purity amongst you and Allah knows, and ye know not.
PICKTHAL: And when ye have divorced women and they reach their term, place not difficulties in the way of their marrying their husbands if it is agreed between them in kindness. This is an admonition for him among you who believeth in Allah and the Last Day. That is more virtuous for you, and cleaner. Allah knoweth; ye know not.
SHAKIR: And when you have divorced women and they have ended-- their term (of waiting), then do not prevent them from marrying their husbands when they agree among themselves in a lawful manner; with this is admonished he among you who believes in Allah and the last day, this is more profitable and purer for you; and Allah knows while you do not know.

002.233
YUSUFALI: The mothers shall give such to their offspring for two whole years, if the father desires to complete the term. But he shall bear the cost of their food and clothing on equitable terms. No soul shall have a burden laid on it greater than it can bear. No mother shall be Treated unfairly on account of her child. Nor father on account of his child, an heir shall be chargeable in the same way. If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no blame on them. If ye decide on a foster-mother for your offspring, there is no blame on you, provided ye pay (the mother) what ye offered, on equitable terms. But fear Allah and know that Allah sees well what ye do.
PICKTHAL: Mothers shall suckle their children for two whole years; (that is) for those who wish to complete the suckling. The duty of feeding and clothing nursing mothers in a seemly manner is upon the father of the child. No-one should be charged beyond his capacity. A mother should not be made to suffer because of her child, nor should he to whom the child is born (be made to suffer) because of his child. And on the (father's) heir is incumbent the like of that (which was incumbent on the father). If they desire to wean the child by mutual consent and (after) consultation, it is no sin for them; and if ye wish to give your children out to nurse, it is no sin for you, provide that ye pay what is due from you in kindness. Observe your duty to Allah, and know that Allah is Seer of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And the mothers should suckle their children for two whole years for him who desires to make complete the time of suckling; and their maintenance and their clothing must be-- borne by the father according to usage; no soul shall have imposed upon it a duty but to the extent of its capacity; neither shall a mother be made to suffer harm on account of her child, nor a father on account of his child, and a similar duty (devolves) on the (father's) heir, but if both desire weaning by mutual consent and counsel, there is no blame on them, and if you wish to engage a wet-nurse for your children, there is no blame on you so long as you pay what you promised for according to usage; and be careful of (your duty to) Allah and know that Allah sees what you do.

002.234
YUSUFALI: If any of you die and leave widows behind, they shall wait concerning themselves four months and ten days: When they have fulfilled their term, there is no blame on you if they dispose of themselves in a just and reasonable manner. And Allah is well acquainted with what ye do.
PICKTHAL: Such of you as die and leave behind them wives, they (the wives) shall wait, keeping themselves apart, four months and ten days. And when they reach the term (prescribed for them) then there is no sin for you in aught that they may do with themselves in decency. Allah is informed of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And (as for) those of you who die and leave wives behind, they should keep themselves in waiting for four months and ten days; then when they have fully attained their term, there is no blame on you for what they do for themselves in a lawful manner; and Allah is aware of what you do.

002.235
YUSUFALI: There is no blame on you if ye make an offer of betrothal or hold it in your hearts. Allah knows that ye cherish them in your hearts: But do not make a secret contract with them except in terms Honourable, nor resolve on the tie of marriage till the term prescribed is fulfilled. And know that Allah Knoweth what is in your hearts, and take heed of Him; and know that Allah is Oft-forgiving, Most Forbearing.
PICKTHAL: There is no sin for you in that which ye proclaim or hide in your minds concerning your troth with women. Allah knoweth that ye will remember them. But plight not your troth with women except by uttering a recognised form of words. And do not consummate the marriage until (the term) prescribed is run. Know that Allah knoweth what is in your minds, so beware of Him; and know that Allah is Forgiving, Clement.
SHAKIR: And there is no blame on you respecting that which you speak indirectly in the asking of (such) women in marriage or keep (the proposal) concealed within your minds; Allah knows that you win mention them, but do not give them a promise in secret unless you speak in a lawful manner, and do not confirm the marriage tie until the writing is fulfilled, and know that Allah knows what is in your minds, therefore beware of Him, and know that Allah is Forgiving, Forbearing.

 

Section 31.
 

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed with reference to a divorce which took place before the marriage was consummated and no dowry had as yet been agreed.

2 : 236

236. La junaha AAalaykum in tallaqtumu alnnisaa ma lam tamassoohunna aw tafridoo lahunna fareedatan wamattiAAoohunna AAala almoosiAAi qadaruhu waAAala almuqtiri qadaruhu mataAAan bialmaAAroofi haqqan AAala almuhsineena

No liability rests on you if you divorce a woman whom you have not touched nor agreed to pay a dowry. But provide for them, the wealthy in accordance with his means and the poor in accordance with his. This is made incumbent upon those who are righteous.
 

(While the above verse deals with the situation where divorce has taken place before the marriage is consummated and a dowry is not yet agreed, the next verse deals with the situation where the marriage is not yet consummated but a dowry has been agreed).
 

2 : 237

237. Wa-in tallaqtumoohunna min qabli an tamassoohunna waqad faradtum lahunna fareedatan fanisfu ma faradtum illa an yaAAfoona aw yaAAfuwa allathee biyadihi AAuqdatu alnnikahi waan taAAfoo aqrabu lilttaqwa wala tansawoo alfadla baynakum inna Allaha bima taAAmaloona baseerun

And if you divorce them before the marriage is consummated but after the dowry is settled, then half of it becomes payable, except if the woman chooses to forego her share or the man who holds the marriage tie chooses to forgo his, - and it is more appropriate that he forgoes his. Do not forget the favours done to one another in the past because Allah is perusing all your deeds.

*   *   *

2 : 238

 

 

 

238. Hafithoo AAala alssalawati waalssalati alwusta waqoomoo lillahi qaniteena

Guard all your prayers, but more than most the one in the middle; and when you stand up before Allah, stand up with due deference!


2 : 239

239. Fa-in khiftum farijalan aw rukbanan fa-itha amintum faothkuroo Allaha kama AAallamakum ma lam takoonoo taAAlamoona

If you are under duress, pray standing on your feet or on horseback as the case may be. But when you are out of danger, remember Allah as the One who taught you that which you knew not before!

*   *   *

2 : 240

 

240. Waallatheena yutawaffawna minkum wayatharoona azwajan wasiyyatan li-azwajihim mataAAan ila alhawli ghayra ikhrajin fa-in kharajna fala junaha AAalaykum fee ma faAAalna fee anfusihinna min maAAroofin waAllahu AAazeezun hakeemun

Those of you who are on the verge of death and leaving behind their wives, bequeath to them provision for a whole year without their having to be turned out of their homes. But if they leave by their own free will, then there is no blame upon you for that which they do for their own betterment and are within their rights. Allah is Meritorious and Sagacious!

2 : 241

241. Walilmutallaqati mataAAun bialmaAAroofi haqqan AAala almuttaqeena

And for women who have been divorced, a similar provision should be made towards their subsistence, in keeping with tradition, and as a matter of duty for those who are abstemious.

2 : 242

242. Kathalika yubayyinu Allahu lakum ayatihi laAAallakum taAAqiloona

Thus Allah expounds His ordinances to you so that you may understand them! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

236. There is no sin on you, if you divorce women while yet you have not touched (had sexual relation with) them, nor appointed unto them their Mahr (bridal money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage). But bestow on them ( a suitable gift), the rich according to his means, and the poor according to his means, a gift of reasonable amount is a duty on the doers of good.

237. And if you divorce them before you have touched (had a sexual relation with) them, and you have appointed unto them the Mahr (bridal money given by the husbands to his wife at the time of marriage), then pay half of that (Mahr), unless they (the women) agree to forego it, or he (the husband), in whose hands is the marriage tie, agrees to forego and give her full appointed Mahr. And to forego and give (her the full Mahr) is nearer to At-Taqwa (piety, right-eousness, etc.). And do not forget liberality between yourselves. Truly, Allāh is All-Seer of what you do.

238. Guard strictly (five obligatory) As­Salawāt (the prayers) especially the middle Salāt (i.e. the best prayer ­ 'Asr).[] And stand before Allāh with obedience [and do not speak to others during the Salāt (prayers)].

239. And if you fear (an enemy), perfrom Salāt (pray) on foot or riding[]. And when you are in safety, offer the Salāt (prayer) in the manner He has taught you, which you knew not (before).

240. And those of you who die and leave behind wives should bequeath for their wives a year's maintenance and residence without turning them out, but if they (wives) leave, there is no sin on you for that which they do of themselves, provided it is honourable (e.g. lawful marriage). And Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise. [The order of this Verse has been cancelled (abrogated) by Verse 4:12].

241. And for divorced women, maintenance (should be provided) on reasonable (scale). This is a duty on Al-Muttaqūn (the pious - see V.2:2).

242. Thus Allāh makes clear His Ayāt (Laws) to you, in order that you may understand.


002.236
YUSUFALI: There is no blame on you if ye divorce women before consummation or the fixation of their dower; but bestow on them (A suitable gift), the wealthy according to his means, and the poor according to his means;- A gift of a reasonable amount is due from those who wish to do the right thing.
PICKTHAL: It is no sin for you if ye divorce women while yet ye have not touched them, nor appointed unto them a portion. Provide for them, the rich according to his means, and the straitened according to his means, a fair provision. (This is) a bounden duty for those who do good.
SHAKIR: There is no blame on you if you divorce women when you have not touched them or appointed for them a portion, and make provision for them, the wealthy according to his means and the straitened in circumstances according to his means, a provision according to usage; (this is) a duty on the doers of good (to others).
002.237
YUSUFALI: And if ye divorce them before consummation, but after the fixation of a dower for them, then the half of the dower (Is due to them), unless they remit it or (the man's half) is remitted by him in whose hands is the marriage tie; and the remission (of the man's half) is the nearest to righteousness. And do not forget Liberality between yourselves. For Allah sees well all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: If ye divorce them before ye have touched them and ye have appointed unto them a portion, then (pay the) half of that which ye appointed, unless they (the women) agree to forgo it, or he agreeth to forgo it in whose hand is the marriage tie. To forgo is nearer to piety. And forget not kindness among yourselves. Allah is Seer of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And if you divorce them before you have touched them and you have appointed for them a portion, then (pay to them) ha!f of what you have appointed, unless they relinquish or he should relinquish in whose hand is the marriage tie; and it is nearer to righteousness that you should relinquish; and do not neglect the giving of free gifts between you; surely Allah sees what you do.
002.238
YUSUFALI: Guard strictly your (habit of) prayers, especially the Middle Prayer; and stand before Allah in a devout (frame of mind).
PICKTHAL: Be guardians of your prayers, and of the midmost prayer, and stand up with devotion to Allah.
SHAKIR: Attend constantly to prayers and to the middle prayer and stand up truly obedient to Allah.
002.239
YUSUFALI: If ye fear (an enemy), pray on foot, or riding, (as may be most convenient), but when ye are in security, celebrate Allah's praises in the manner He has taught you, which ye knew not (before).
PICKTHAL: And if ye go in fear, then (pray) standing or on horseback. And when ye are again in safety, remember Allah, as He hath taught you that which (heretofore) ye knew not.
SHAKIR: But if you are in danger, then (say your prayers) on foot or on horseback; and when you are secure, then remember Allah, as. He has taught you what you did not know.
002.240
YUSUFALI: Those of you who die and leave widows should bequeath for their widows a year's maintenance and residence; but if they leave (The residence), there is no blame on you for what they do with themselves, provided it is reasonable. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise.
PICKTHAL: (In the case of) those of you who are about to die and leave behind them wives, they should bequeath unto their wives a provision for the year without turning them out, but if they go out (of their own accord) there is no sin for you in that which they do of themselves within their rights. Allah is Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: And those of you who die and leave wives behind, (make) a bequest in favor of their wives of maintenance for a year without turning (them) out, then if they themselves go away, there is no blame on you for what they do of lawful deeds by themselves, and Allah is Mighty, Wise.
002.241
YUSUFALI: For divorced women Maintenance (should be provided) on a reasonable (scale). This is a duty on the righteous.
PICKTHAL: For divorced women a provision in kindness: a duty for those who ward off (evil).
SHAKIR: And for the divorced women (too) provision (must be made) according to usage; (this is) a duty on those who guard (against evil).
002.242
YUSUFALI: Thus doth Allah Make clear His Signs to you: In order that ye may understand.
PICKTHAL: Thus Allah expoundeth unto you His revelations so that ye may understand.
SHAKIR: Allah thus makes clear to you His communications that you may understand.

 

Section 32
 
2 : 243

243. Alam tara ila allatheena kharajoo min diyarihim wahum oloofun hathara almawti faqala lahumu Allahu mootoo thumma ahyahum inna Allaha lathoo fadlin AAala alnnasi walakinna akthara alnnasi la yashkuroona

Are you aware (O Mohammed) of those who fled their homes in their thousands, fearing death! Allah said to them : 'Die!' and then brought them back to life! Allah is full of compassion towards mankind, though most of mankind tender not their gratitude!
 

(The reference in this verse is to a tribe of Jews who abandoned their township when it was beleaguered by plague and fled into the woods to escape death. But death did overtake them in due course and they perished, each and every one of them. However, some time later, in response to the lamentations of a Jewish Oracle, Allah took pity upon them and brought them back to life. The lesson in this parable is that, no matter how fast you run and how far you go, death will overtake you when the moment of parting arrives, and that Allah who inflicts death is also capable of bestowing life, if He wills.

It has a bearing on hypocrites who used to say that had their brethren not gone to the battlefield to fight wars for the Muslims, they would not have been slain!').
 

2 : 244

244. Waqatiloo fee sabeeli Allahi waiAAlamoo anna Allaha sameeAAun AAaleemun

Strive for the Cause of Allah and bear in mind that Allah hears everything and He knows everything!

2 : 245

245. Man tha allathee yuqridu Allaha qardan hasanan fayudaAAifahu lahu adAAafan katheeratan waAllahu yaqbidu wayabsutu wa-ilayhi turjaAAoona

Who is it that will lend Allah a munificent loan so that He may repay it to him in a greater measure? Allah can increase or decrease your means, and to Him must you return!
 

(Seeking a munificent loan from His bondsmen by Allah is a gesture of great compassion from Him because, though He gave us life and He gave us a generous provision, He is asking us to spend towards His cause in such tender terms, with a Divine Guarantee that it will be paid back in a much greater measure! Is there anyone who will decline Him so small a favour and yet look upon himself as His devout bondsman?)

* * *

The reference in the following verses is to the slaying of Goliath by David, with a few subtle differences from the Biblical version :

2 : 246

246. Alam tara ila almala-i min banee isra-eela min baAAdi moosa ith qaloo linabiyyin lahumu ibAAath lana malikan nuqatil fee sabeeli Allahi qala hal AAasaytum in kutiba AAalaykumu alqitalu alla tuqatiloo qaloo wama lana alla nuqatila fee sabeeli Allahi waqad okhrijna min diyarina waabna-ina falamma kutiba AAalayhimu alqitalu tawallaw illa qaleelan minhum waAllahu AAaleemun bialththalimeena

Are you aware of how, when a group among the Children of Israel who succeeded Moses said to an Oracle of theirs: 'Appoint for us a king so that we may strive for the Cause of Allah!' He said : 'What if you refuse to fight, once warfare is ordained for you?' They said: 'Why should we refuse to fight in Allah's way when we and our children have been driven out from our homes?' Yet, when warfare was ordained for them, they did turn their faces away, all but a few of them. Allah is well aware of who the contumacious are!
 

(For many years after the death of Moses, the Children of Israel were without a leader and degenerated into an embroiled community with no sense of direction, disobeyed every Commandment of Allah contained in the Torah, took to idol worship, committed acts of gross indecency and became a lost generation. They were subsequently subjugated by Goliath, a descendant of the tribe of Aad, whose kingdom lay between Egypt and Palestine. He was an implacable ruler, repressive and ruthless, plundered the towns belonging to the Children of Israel, committed all sorts of atrocities on them, took their men prisoners and drove them out of their settlements. Without help and guidance, they suffered their pitiful plight until an Oracle was born in their midst who showed great signs of promise. So they approached him and sought him to appoint a king for them who could rid them of the tyrannical Goliath and restore their fortune, promising to take up arms and fight for their own emancipation).
 

2 : 247

247. Waqala lahum nabiyyuhum inna Allaha qad baAAatha lakum taloota malikan qaloo anna yakoonu lahu almulku AAalayna wanahnu ahaqqu bialmulki minhu walam yu/ta saAAatan mina almali qala inna Allaha istafahu AAalaykum wazadahu bastatan fee alAAilmi waaljismi waAllahu yu/tee mulkahu man yashao waAllahu wasiAAun AAaleemun

When their Oracle told them : 'Allah has chosen Saul to be your king,' they said : 'How could he be our king when we are more deserving of the kingdom than him, and he has not even been given material affluence?' He said : 'Allah has chosen him above you and increased him abundantly in wisdom and in stature. Allah bestows His kingdom upon whom He will! And Allah is Profound and Erudite!
 

(Saul was a descendant of Jacob and a mighty warrior who was endowed by Allah with a formidable physical stature, though born in penury. When the Oracle was inspired to appoint him as their king, the Children of Israel contested the choice on all sorts of flimsy grounds but without success because 'Allah bestows His kingdom on whom He will!'

It is made clear in this verse that it is the will of Allah that determines who our rulers should be and not their wealth. We watch on our television screens day in and day out how our triumphant politicians brag about their gains, putting them down to their own endeavour and performance, without once conceding that they won because their Lord chose them to win so that they may serve those who serve Him!).

2 : 248

248. Waqala lahum nabiyyuhum inna ayata mulkihi an ya/tiyakumu alttabootu feehi sakeenatun min rabbikum wabaqiyyatun mimma taraka alu moosa waalu haroona tahmiluhu almala-ikatu inna fee thalika laayatan lakum in kuntum mu/mineena

And their Oracle said to them : 'The sign of his accession would be that there shall come to you the ark containing a segment of reassurance from your Lord and a remnant of that which the descendants of Moses and the descendants of Aaron left behind, carried by angels. Therein is a portent for you, if you are truly believers! (R)
 

(According to many Islamic scholars The Ark of the Covenant was a chest made of acacia wood and inlaid with gold, containing tablets on which the Ten Commandments were inscribed. It was said to possess miraculous powers because of which Moses kept it with him, especially during his armed conflicts. However, subsequently it was stolen by Goliath and carried away to his ow kingdom. That was why the Oracle declared it as a token of Saul's legitimacy so that the Children of Israel were convinced of his Divine credentials and accepted him as their undisputed king).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

243. Did you (O Muhammad SAW) not think of those who went forth from their homes in thousands, fearing death? Allāh said to them, "Die". And then He restored them to life. Truly, Allāh is full of Bounty to mankind, but most men thank not.

244. And fight in the Way of Allāh and know that Allāh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

245. Who is he that will lend to Allāh a goodly loan so that He may multiply it to him many times? And it is Allāh that decreases or increases (your provisions), and unto Him you shall return.

246. Have you not thought about the group of the Children of Israel after (the time of) Musā (Moses)? When they said to a Prophet of theirs, "Appoint for us a king and we will fight in Allāh's Way." He said, "Would you then refrain from fighting, if fighting was prescribed for you?" They said, "Why should we not fight in Allāh's Way while we have been driven out of our homes and our children (families have been taken as captives)?" But when fighting was ordered for them, they turned away, all except a few of them. And Allāh is All-Aware of the Zālimūn (polytheists and wrong-doers).

247. And their Prophet (Samuel <><>) said to them, "Indeed Allāh has appointed Talūt (Saul) as a king over you." They said, "How can he be a king over us when we are better fitted than him for the kingdom, and he has not been given enough wealth." He said: "Verily, Allāh has chosen him above you and has increased him abundantly in knowledge and stature. And Allāh grants His Kingdom to whom He wills. And Allāh is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower."

248. And their Prophet (Samuel <><>) said to them: Verily! The sign of His Kingdom is that there shall come to you At-Tābūt (a wooden box), wherein is Sakinah[] (peace and reassurance) from your Lord and a remnant of that which Musā (Moses) and Hārūn (Aaron) left behind, carried by the angels. Verily, in this is a sign for you if you are indeed believers.


002.243
YUSUFALI: Didst thou not Turn by vision to those who abandoned their homes, though they were thousands (In number), for fear of death? Allah said to them: "Die": Then He restored them to life. For Allah is full of bounty to mankind, but Most of them are ungrateful.
PICKTHAL: Bethink thee (O Muhammad) of those of old, who went forth from their habitations in their thousands, fearing death, and Allah said unto them: Die; and then He brought them back to life. Lo! Allah is a Lord of Kindness to mankind, but most of mankind give not thanks.
SHAKIR: Have you not considered those who went forth from their homes, for fear of death, and they were thousands, then Allah said to them, Die; again He gave them life; most surely Allah is Gracious to people, but most people are not grateful.
002.244
YUSUFALI: Then fight in the cause of Allah, and know that Allah Heareth and knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: Fight in the way of Allah, and know that Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: And fight in the way of Allah, and know that Allah is Hearing, Knowing.
002.245
YUSUFALI: Who is he that will loan to Allah a beautiful loan, which Allah will double unto his credit and multiply many times? It is Allah that giveth (you) Want or plenty, and to Him shall be your return.
PICKTHAL: Who is it that will lend unto Allah a goodly loan, so that He may give it increase manifold? Allah straiteneth and enlargeth. Unto Him ye will return.
SHAKIR: Who is it that will offer of Allah a goodly gift, so He will multiply it to him manifold, and Allah straitens and amplifies, and you shall be returned to Him.
002.246
YUSUFALI: Hast thou not Turned thy vision to the Chiefs of the Children of Israel after (the time of) Moses? they said to a prophet (That was) among them: "Appoint for us a king, that we May fight in the cause of Allah." He said: "Is it not possible, if ye were commanded to fight, that that ye will not fight?" They said: "How could we refuse to fight in the cause of Allah, seeing that we were turned out of our homes and our families?" but when they were commanded to fight, they turned back, except a small band among them. But Allah Has full knowledge of those who do wrong.
PICKTHAL: Bethink thee of the leaders of the Children of Israel after Moses, how they said unto a prophet whom they had: Set up for us a king and we will fight in Allah's way. He said: Would ye then refrain from fighting if fighting were prescribed for you? They said: Why should we not fight in Allah's way when we have been driven from our dwellings with our children? Yet, when fighting was prescribed for them, they turned away, all save a few of them. Allah is aware of evil-doers.
SHAKIR: Have you not considered the chiefs of the children of Israel after Musa, when they said to a prophet of theirs: Raise up for us a king, (that) we may fight in the way of Allah. He said: May it not be that you would not fight if fighting is ordained for you? They said: And what reason have we that we should not fight in the way of Allah, and we have indeed been compelled to abandon our homes and our children. But when fighting was ordained for them, they turned back, except a few of them, and Allah knows the unjust.
002.247
YUSUFALI: Their Prophet said to them: "Allah hath appointed Talut as king over you." They said: "How can he exercise authority over us when we are better fitted than he to exercise authority, and he is not even gifted, with wealth in abundance?" He said: "Allah hath Chosen him above you, and hath gifted him abundantly with knowledge and bodily prowess: Allah Granteth His authority to whom He pleaseth. Allah careth for all, and He knoweth all things."
PICKTHAL: Their Prophet said unto them: Lo! Allah hath raised up Saul to be a king for you. They said: How can he have kingdom over us when we are more deserving of the kingdom than he is, since he hath not been given wealth enough? He said: Lo! Allah hath chosen him above you, and hath increased him abundantly in wisdom and stature. Allah bestoweth His Sovereignty on whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing.
SHAKIR: And their prophet said to them: Surely Allah has raised Talut to be a king over you. They said: How can he hold kingship over us while we have a greater right to kingship than he, and he has not been granted an abundance of wealth? He said: Surely Allah has chosen him in preference to you, and He has increased him abundantly in knowledge and physique, and Allah grants His kingdom to whom He pleases, and Allah is Amplegiving, Knowing.
002.248
YUSUFALI: And (further) their Prophet said to them: "A Sign of his authority is that there shall come to you the Ark of the covenant, with (an assurance) therein of security from your Lord, and the relics left by the family of Moses and the family of Aaron, carried by angels. In this is a symbol for you if ye indeed have faith."
PICKTHAL: And their Prophet said unto them: Lo! the token of his kingdom is that there shall come unto you the ark wherein is peace of reassurance from your Lord, and a remnant of that which the house of Moses and the house of Aaron left behind, the angels bearing it. Lo! herein shall be a token for you if (in truth) ye are believers.
SHAKIR: And the prophet said to them: Surely the sign of His kingdom is, that there shall come to you the chest in which there is tranquillity from your Lord and residue of the relics of what the children of Musa and the children of Haroun have left, the angels bearing it; most surely there is a sign in this for those who believe.

 


 
Section 33.
 

2 : 249

249. Falamma fasala talootu bialjunoodi qala inna Allaha mubtaleekum binaharin faman shariba minhu falaysa minnee waman lam yatAAamhu fa-innahu minnee illa mani ightarafa ghurfatan biyadihi fashariboo minhu illa qaleelan minhum falamma jawazahu huwa waallatheena amanoo maAAahu qaloo la taqata lana alyawma bijaloota wajunoodihi qala allatheena yathunnoona annahum mulaqoo Allahi kam min fi-atin qaleelatin ghalabat fi-atan katheeratan bi-ithni Allahi waAllahu maAAa alssabireena

And when Saul set out with his armies, he said to them : 'Allah will test you by the ordeal of the stream. Whoever drinks from it is not of me and whoever drinks not from it is of me, except him who takes a swig from the hollow of his palm! But they all drank from it except a few of them. And when he and those with him who believed crossed that stream, they said : 'We have no more strength left in us this day to take on Goliath and his army!' But those of them who were firmly convinced of the inevitability of their tryst with Allah said : 'How often has a small force prevailed over a mighty force by the leave of Allah!' Allah is with those that are equanimous!
 

(The ordeal of the stream was to see how many men would overcome the pangs of thirst and abide by his command and how many would surrender to the craving and ignore his command. The verse also highlights that, if we believe in Allah and put our trust in Him, we can accomplish our goals no matter how tough they are and how inadequate our defences might be because Allah is the protecting friend of those who believe in Him).
 

2 : 250

250. Walamma barazoo lijaloota wajunoodihi qaloo rabbana afrigh AAalayna sabran wathabbit aqdamana waonsurna AAala alqawmi alkafireena

When they confronted Goliath and his army in the battlefield, they said : 'Our Lord! Bestow on us strength of endurance and make our foothold firm and give us victory over those who do not believe in you!'

2 : 251

251. Fahazamoohum bi-ithni Allahi waqatala dawoodu jaloota waatahu Allahu almulka waalhikmata waAAallamahu mimma yashao walawla dafAAu Allahi alnnasa baAAdahum bibaAAdin lafasadati al-ardu walakinna Allaha thoo fadlin AAala alAAalameena

So they vanquished the enemy by Allah's leave and David slew Goliath; and Allah gave him the kingdom and the wisdom and taught him all that which He wished to learn. And if Allah does not repulse some men by means of other men, there would be chaos on the earth! But Allah bestows His Grace on all mankind.
 

(David who slew Goliath in the battle was, according to this tradition, a warrior in the army of Saul. Allah chose him to be His messenger, gave him the kingdom of Saul after his death and Prophethood and Knowledge and the Psalms and taught him the language of birds and of animals. 'Repulsing of the iniquitous at the hands of the righteous delves into the realm of Divine Law which brings about an ideal balance between good and evil, strength and meekness, affluence and penury, happiness and sorrow, and establishes order in the world).

*   *   *

2 : 252

 

 

 

252. Tilka ayatu Allahi natlooha AAalayka bialhaqqi wa-innaka lamina almursaleena

These are the eclectic portents of Allah which We recite to you with Truth (O Mohammed) and affirm that you are, indeed, one amongst our chosen messengers!


2 : 253

253. Tilka alrrusulu faddalna baAAdahum AAala baAAdin minhum man kallama Allahu warafaAAa baAAdahum darajatin waatayna AAeesa ibna maryama albayyinati waayyadnahu biroohi alqudusi walaw shaa Allahu ma iqtatala allatheena min baAAdihim min baAAdi ma jaat-humu albayyinatu walakini ikhtalafoo faminhum man amana waminhum man kafara walaw shaa Allahu ma iqtataloo walakinna Allaha yafAAalu ma yureedu

Of these messengers are some whom We caused to excel others; and of them are some with whom Allah spoke; and of them are some whom He exalted above the rest.  And We gave Jesus, son of Mary, many a miracle and supported him with the Holy Spirit. If Allah had so willed, their descendants would not have fought with each other after clear signs had come to them, but they did oppose each other, some choosing to be believers and some choosing to be disbelievers. If Allah had willed, they would not have fought between themselves, but Allah does what He will! (R)
 

(This verse elucidates that, even though all messengers are alike in significance, they are not the same in status. With some He has spoken, - as was the case with Moses, - and some He exalted above the others, - as was the case with the Last of His Prophets whom He has appointed a witness against all mankind. In a world which He created, the Will that matters the most is His! He decides who will be a believer and who will be an agnostic;  He decides who will be rich and who will be poor; some He ennobles and some He disgraces; some He forgives and some He punishes).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

249. Then when Talūt (Saul) set out with the army, he said: "Verily! Allāh will try you by a river. So whoever drinks thereof, he is not of me, and whoever tastes it not, he is of me, except him who takes (thereof) in the hollow of his hand." Yet, they drank thereof, all, except a few of them. So when he had crossed it (the river), he and those who believed with him, they said: "We have no power this day against Jalūt (Goliath) and his hosts." But those who knew with certainty that they were to meet their Lord, said: "How often a small group overcame a mighty host by Allāh's Leave?" And Allāh is with As-Sābirin (the patient ones, etc.).

250. And when they advanced to meet Jalūt (Goliath) and his forces, they invoked: "Our Lord! Pour forth on us patience and make us victorious over the disbelieving people."

251. So they routed them by Allāh's Leave and Dawūd (David) killed Jalūt (Goliath), and Allāh gave him [Dawūd (David)] the kingdom [after the death of Talūt (Saul) and Samuel] and Al­Hikmah (Prophethood)[], and taught him of that which He willed. And if Allāh did not check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief. But Allāh is full of Bounty to the 'Alamīn (mankind, jinns and all that exists).

252. These are the Verses of Allāh, We recite them to you (O Muhammad SAW) in truth, and surely, you are one of the Messengers (of Allāh)[].

253. Those Messengers! We preferred some to others; to some of them Allāh spoke (directly); others He raised to degrees (of honour); and to 'Iesa (Jesus), the son of Maryam (Mary), We gave clear proofs and evidences, and supported him with Rūh-ul-Qudus [Jibrael (Gabriel)]. If Allāh had willed, succeeding generations would not have fought against each other, after clear Verses of Allāh had come to them, but they differed - some of them believed and others disbelieved. If Allāh had willed, they would not have fought against one another, but Allāh does what He likes.



002.249
YUSUFALI: When Talut set forth with the armies, he said: "Allah will test you at the stream: if any drinks of its water, He goes not with my army: Only those who taste not of it go with me: A mere sip out of the hand is excused." but they all drank of it, except a few. When they crossed the river,- He and the faithful ones with him,- they said: "This day We cannot cope with Goliath and his forces." but those who were convinced that they must meet Allah, said: "How oft, by Allah's will, Hath a small force vanquished a big one? Allah is with those who steadfastly persevere."
PICKTHAL: And when Saul set out with the army, he said: Lo! Allah will try you by (the ordeal of) a river. Whosoever therefore drinketh thereof he is not of me, and whosoever tasteth it not he is of me, save him who taketh (thereof) in the hollow of his hand. But they drank thereof, all save a few of them. And after he had crossed (the river), he and those who believed with him, they said: We have no power this day against Goliath and his hosts. But those who knew that they would meet Allah exclaimed: How many a little company hath overcome a mighty host by Allah's leave! Allah is with the steadfast.
SHAKIR: So when Talut departed with the forces, he said: Surely Allah will try you with a river; whoever then drinks from it, he is not of me, and whoever does not taste of it, he is surely of me, except he who takes with his hand as much of it as fills the hand; but with the exception of a few of them they drank from it. So when he had crossed it, he and those who believed with him, they said: We have today no power against Jalut and his forces. Those who were sure that they would meet their Lord said: How often has a small party vanquished a numerous host by Allah's permission, and Allah is with the patient.
002.250
YUSUFALI: When they advanced to meet Goliath and his forces, they prayed: "Our Lord! Pour out constancy on us and make our steps firm: Help us against those that reject faith."
PICKTHAL: And when they went into the field against Goliath and his hosts they said: Our Lord! Bestow on us endurance, make our foothold sure, and give us help against the disbelieving folk.
SHAKIR: And when they went out against Jalut and his forces they said: Our Lord, pour down upon us patience, and make our steps firm and assist us against the unbelieving people.
002.251
YUSUFALI: By Allah's will they routed them; and David slew Goliath; and Allah gave him power and wisdom and taught him whatever (else) He willed. And did not Allah Check one set of people by means of another, the earth would indeed be full of mischief: But Allah is full of bounty to all the worlds.
PICKTHAL: So they routed them by Allah's leave and David slew Goliath; and Allah gave him the kingdom and wisdom, and taught him of that which He willeth. And if Allah had not repelled some men by others the earth would have been corrupted. But Allah is a Lord of Kindness to (His) creatures.
SHAKIR: So they put them to flight by Allah's permission. And Dawood slew Jalut, and Allah gave him kingdom and wisdom, and taught him of what He pleased. And were it not for Allah's repelling some men with others, the earth would certainly be in a state of disorder; but Allah is Gracious to the creatures.
002.252
YUSUFALI: These are the Signs of Allah: we rehearse them to thee in truth: verily Thou art one of the messengers.
PICKTHAL: These are the portents of Allah which We recite unto thee (Muhammad) with truth, and lo! thou art of the number of (Our) messengers;
SHAKIR: These are the communications of Allah: We recite them to you with truth; and most surely you are (one) of the messengers.
002.253
YUSUFALI: Those messengers We endowed with gifts, some above others: To one of them Allah spoke; others He raised to degrees (of honour); to Jesus the son of Mary We gave clear (Signs), and strengthened him with the holy spirit. If Allah had so willed, succeeding generations would not have fought among each other, after clear (Signs) had come to them, but they (chose) to wrangle, some believing and others rejecting. If Allah had so willed, they would not have fought each other; but Allah Fulfilleth His plan.
PICKTHAL: Of those messengers, some of whom We have caused to excel others, and of whom there are some unto whom Allah spake, while some of them He exalted (above others) in degree; and We gave Jesus, son of Mary, clear proofs (of Allah's Sovereignty) and We supported him with the holy Spirit. And if Allah had so wiled it, those who followed after them would not have fought one with another after the clear proofs had come unto them. But they differed, some of them believing and some disbelieving. And if Allah had so willed it, they would not have fought one with another; but Allah doeth what He will.
SHAKIR: We have made some of these messengers to excel the others among them are they to whom Allah spoke, and some of them He exalted by (many degrees of) rank; and We gave clear miracles to Isa son of Marium, and strengthened him with the holy spirit. And if Allah had pleased, those after them would not have fought one with another after clear arguments had come to them, but they disagreed; so there were some of them who believed and others who denied; and if Allah had pleased they would not have fought one with another, but Allah brings about what He intends.


 


Section 34
 

2 : 254

254. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo anfiqoo mimma razaqnakum min qabli an ya/tiya yawmun la bayAAun feehi wala khullatun wala shafaAAatun waalkafiroona humu alththalimoona

O those of you who believe! Spend some of that which we have bestowed upon you before the coming of the Day when no barter will be allowed, nor any friendship recognized, nor redemption conceded! As for the disbelievers, they will forever be the losers!
 

(Why? Because, obsessed as they are with the transient comforts of this world, they have done nothing to enhance the chances of gaining greater and long-lasting comforts in the Abode of the Hereafter).

 

2 : 255

255. Allahu la ilaha illa huwa alhayyu alqayyoomu la ta/khuthuhu sinatun wala nawmun lahu ma fee alssamawati wama fee al-ardi man tha allathee yashfaAAu AAindahu illa bi-ithnihi yaAAlamu ma bayna aydeehim wama khalfahum wala yuheetoona bishay-in min AAilmihi illa bima shaa wasiAAa kursiyyuhu alssamawati waal-arda wala yaooduhu hifthuhuma wahuwa alAAaliyyu alAAatheemu

Allah! There is no other God but Him, the Omnipresent, the Eternal! He drowses not nor falls asleep. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth. Who is there that dares intercede with Him except by His leave! He knows that which is ahead of them and that which is behind them while they have no share in His knowledge other than that which He concedes! His Throne encompasses all the heavens and the entire earth and He never tires of keeping His vigil over them. He is the August and He is the Transcendent!
 

(This is one of the most important verses in the whole of Qur'aan called ‘Ayat-ul-Kursī’ or the ‘Verse of the Throne’,  which is recited as often as possible by the Muslims because it contains a comprehensive adulation in honour of our Lord and epitomizes His unquestionable Oneness, His Greatness, His Profusion, His Omnipresence, His Omnipotence, His Ubiquity and His Transcendence!).
 

2 : 256

256. La ikraha fee alddeeni qad tabayyana alrrushdu mina alghayyi faman yakfur bialttaghooti wayu/min biAllahi faqadi istamsaka bialAAurwati alwuthqa la infisama laha waAllahu sameeAAun AAaleemun

There need be no ambiguity in religion, for the right path has become distinct from the path of error. He who recants false deities and believes in Allah alone has secured himself with a firm knot that will never unfurl. Allah hears and knows everything!
 

(Once we accept a religion as a true religion that leads us to the righteous path and enables us to gain the Everlasting, there is no need for us to become embroiled in controversies and contraventions. As for the disbeliever who wishes to come on to this track, he should first and foremost renounce the false deities whom he has apotheosized and put his total faith in Allah alone - a prime stipulation for attaining redemption).
 

2 : 257

257. Allahu waliyyu allatheena amanoo yukhrijuhum mina alththulumati ila alnnoori waallatheena kafaroo awliyaohumu alttaghootu yukhrijoonahum mina alnnoori ila alththulumati ola-ika as-habu alnnari hum feeha khalidoona

Allah is the sentinel of those who believe; He brings them out of darkness and into light. As for those who disbelieve, their stalwarts are their false deities, who bring them out of light and take them into darkness! These are they who have been consigned to the Fire and will abide therein forever! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

254. O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the Zālimūn (wrong-doers, etc.).

255. Allāh! Lā ilāha illa Huwa (none has the right to be worshipped but He), the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber, nor sleep overtake Him. To Him belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on earth. Who is he that can intercede with Him except with His Permission? He knows what happens to them (His creatures) in this world, and what will happen to them in the Hereafter . And they will never compass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His Kursī[] extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great. [This Verse 2:255 is called Ayat-ul-Kursī.]

256. There is no compulsion in religion. Verily, the Right Path has become distinct from the wrong path. Whoever disbelieves in Tāghūt[] and believes in Allāh, then he has grasped the most trustworthy handhold that will never break. And Allāh is All-Hearer, All-Knower.

257. Allāh is the Walī (Protector or Guardian) of those who believe. He brings them out from darkness into light. But as for those who disbelieve, their Auliyā (supporters and helpers) are Tāghūt [false deities and false leaders, etc.], they bring them out from light into darkness. Those are the dwellers of the Fire, and they will abide therein forever.


002.254
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Spend out of (the bounties) We have provided for you, before the Day comes when no bargaining (Will avail), nor friendship nor intercession. Those who reject Faith they are the wrong-doers.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! spend of that wherewith We have provided you ere a day come when there will be no trafficking, nor friendship, nor intercession. The disbelievers, they are the wrong-doers.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! spend out of what We have given you before the day comes in which there is no bargaining, neither any friendship nor intercession, and the unbelievers-- they are the unjust.
002.255
YUSUFALI: Allah! There is no god but He,-the Living, the Self-subsisting, Eternal. No slumber can seize Him nor sleep. His are all things in the heavens and on earth. Who is there can intercede in His presence except as He permitteth? He knoweth what (appeareth to His creatures as) before or after or behind them. Nor shall they compass aught of His knowledge except as He willeth. His Throne doth extend over the heavens and the earth, and He feeleth no fatigue in guarding and preserving them for He is the Most High, the Supreme (in glory).
PICKTHAL: Allah! There is no deity save Him, the Alive, the Eternal. Neither slumber nor sleep overtaketh Him. Unto Him belongeth whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth. Who is he that intercedeth with Him save by His leave? He knoweth that which is in front of them and that which is behind them, while they encompass nothing of His knowledge save what He will. His throne includeth the heavens and the earth, and He is never weary of preserving them. He is the Sublime, the Tremendous.
SHAKIR: Allah is He besides Whom there is no god, the Everliving, the Self-subsisting by Whom all subsist; slumber does not overtake Him nor sleep; whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His; who is he that can intercede with Him but by His permission? He knows what is before them and what is behind them, and they cannot comprehend anything out of His knowledge except what He pleases, His knowledge extends over the heavens and the earth, and the preservation of them both tires Him not, and He is the Most High, the Great.
002.256
YUSUFALI: Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error. And he who rejecteth false deities and believeth in Allah hath grasped a firm handhold which will never break. Allah is Hearer, Knower.
SHAKIR: There is no compulsion in religion; truly the right way has become clearly distinct from error; therefore, whoever disbelieves in the Shaitan and believes in Allah he indeed has laid hold on the firmest handle, which shall not break off, and Allah is Hearing, Knowing.
002.257
YUSUFALI: Allah is the Protector of those who have faith: from the depths of darkness He will lead them forth into light. Of those who reject faith the patrons are the evil ones: from light they will lead them forth into the depths of darkness. They will be companions of the fire, to dwell therein (For ever).
PICKTHAL: Allah is the Protecting Guardian of those who believe. He bringeth them out of darkness into light. As for those who disbelieve, their patrons are false deities. They bring them out of light into darkness. Such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein.
SHAKIR: Allah is the guardian of those who believe. He brings them out of the darkness into the light; and (as to) those who disbelieve, their guardians are Shaitans who take them out of the light into the darkness; they are the inmates of the fire, in it they shall abide.


 

 

Section 35.
 

2 : 258

258. Alam tara ila allathee hajja ibraheema fee rabbihi an atahu Allahu almulka ith qala ibraheemu rabbiya allathee yuhyee wayumeetu qala ana ohyee waomeetu qala ibraheemu fa-inna Allaha ya/tee bialshshamsi mina almashriqi fa/ti biha mina almaghribi fabuhita allathee kafara waAllahu la yahdee alqawma alththalimeena

Are you aware of the one who argued with Abraham about his Lord because Allah gave him the kingdom? When Abraham said to him : 'My Lord is He who imparts life and inflicts death', he said : 'I too give life and cause death!' Abraham said : 'Allah causes the sun to rise in the East! Can you cause it to rise in the West?' and thus did the disbeliever come to lose his wits! Allah guides not the contumacious!
 

(The reference is to the wearer of a crown, - any king who receives his kingdom from Allah and yet, instead of being grateful to Him, altercates over His prowess. Being a king, he may well have the power of life and death over his subjects, but being a man, he has no power to change the course of nature as devised by Him and Him alone.

According to some commentators, this conversation took place between Nimrod, the first man who is believed to have worn a crown upon his head, and Abraham, although there are others who opine that it took place in Egypt between him and Pharaoh. But regardless of who he was, the very fact that he existed proved beyond doubt the hegemony of Allah who created him from a drop of seed and fashioned him and put that crown upon his head! He will then turn him into a heap of dust and will then bring him back to life all over again).
 

2 : 259

259. Aw kaallathee marra AAala qaryatin wahiya khawiyatun AAala AAurooshiha qala anna yuhyee hathihi Allahu baAAda mawtiha faamatahu Allahu mi-ata AAamin thumma baAAathahu qala kam labithta qala labithtu yawman aw baAAda yawmin qala bal labithta mi-ata AAamin faonthur ila taAAamika washarabika lam yatasannah waonthur ila himarika walinajAAalaka ayatan lilnnasi waonthur ila alAAithami kayfa nunshizuha thumma naksooha lahman falamma tabayyana lahu qala aAAlamu anna Allaha AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun

Or about him who, while passing through a township that was razed to the ground, said: 'How can Allah bring this township back to life after its demise?' So Allah kept him dead for an hundred years and then brought him back to life and said : 'How long have you lingered here?' He replied : 'Perhaps a day or even less!' He said : 'Nay, you lingered here for an hundred years! Look at your food and drink that have rotted and look at your mule!  And so that We may make an example out of you for mankind, watch how We rebuild his bone structure and then encase them in flesh! When the point made came home to him, he said : 'I know now that Allah is Omnipotent over all things!'
 

(The reference is to yet another Oracle of the Children of Israel who, whilst passing through the ruins of a township which was razed to the ground by invaders from abroad, wondered within himself how would Allah put that township together again and breath a new life into it. After he tied his mule to a tree and lay down in its shade for a nap, Allah caused his soul to be gathered and left him and his mule dead for one hundred years. When he was raised and asked if he could remember for how long had he tarried in that town, he said a day or perhaps even less. But it was brought home to him from the evidence of decay which his mule had sustained as a result of death, as well as the state of the township which had been rebuilt by people who returned to it whilst he lay dead, that he had tarried there for over a century and that Allah has the power to inflict death and bestow life upon anyone He wills).
 

2 : 260

260. Wa-ith qala ibraheemu rabbi arinee kayfa tuhyee almawta qala awa lam tu/min qala bala walakin liyatma-inna qalbee qala fakhuth arbaAAatan mina alttayri fasurhunna ilayka thumma ijAAal AAala kulli jabalin minhunna juz-an thumma odAAuhunna ya/teenaka saAAyan waiAAlam anna Allaha AAazeezun hakeemun

And when Abraham said to his Lord : 'O Lord! Show me how you bring the dead back to life!' He said : 'Do you not believe it?' Abraham said :  'Yes, but I ask merely to reassure my heart!' His Lord said : 'Fetch four birds and let them get accustomed to you; then place a piece of each on different hills and call them! They will come to you running at once! And know that Allah is Meritorious and Sagacious! (R)
 

(According to some commentators, when Abraham saw a body lying on the seashore, some of it eaten by fish who dwell in water, and some of it by beasts who dwell on land and some of it by birds who fly in air, he was amazed by Allah's power to put that man together again and raise him as he once used to be, and prayed to Allah to show how He did it).



OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

258. Have you not looked at him who disputed with Ibrāhim (Abraham) about his Lord (Allāh), because Allāh had given him the kingdom? When Ibrāhim (Abraham) said (to him): "My Lord (Allāh) is He Who gives life and causes death." He said, "I give life and cause death." Ibrāhim (Abraham) said, "Verily! Allāh causes the sun to rise from the east; then cause it you to rise from the west." So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allāh guides not the people, who are Zālimūn (wrong-doers, etc.).

259. Or like the one who passed by a town and it had tumbled over its roofs. He said: "Oh! How will Allāh ever bring it to life after its death?" So Allāh caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: "How long did you remain (dead)?" He (the man) said: "(Perhaps) I remained (dead) a day or part of a day". He said: "Nay, you have remained (dead) for a hundred years, look at your food and your drink, they show no change; and look at your donkey! And thus We have made of you a sign for the people. Look at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh". When this was clearly shown to him, he said, "I know (now) that Allāh is Able to do all things."

260. And (remember) when Ibrāhim (Abraham) said, "My Lord! Show me how You give life to the dead." He (Allāh) said: "Do you not believe?" He [Ibrāhim (Abraham)] said: "Yes (I believe), but to be stronger in Faith." He said: "Take four birds, then cause them to incline towards you (then slaughter them, cut them into pieces), and then put a portion of them on every hill, and call them, they will come to you in haste. And know that Allāh is All-Mighty, All-Wise."


 
002.258 
YUSUFALI: Hast thou not Turned thy vision to one who disputed with Abraham About his Lord, because Allah had granted him power? Abraham said: "My Lord is He Who Giveth life and death." He said: "I give life and death". Said Abraham: "But it is Allah that causeth the sun to rise from the east: Do thou then cause him to rise from the West." Thus was he confounded who (in arrogance) rejected faith. Nor doth Allah Give guidance to a people unjust.
PICKTHAL: Bethink thee of him who had an argument with Abraham about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom; how, when Abraham said: My Lord is He Who giveth life and causeth death, he answered: I give life and cause death. Abraham said: Lo! Allah causeth the sun to rise in the East, so do thou cause it to come up from the West. Thus was the disbeliever abashed. And Allah guideth not wrongdoing folk.
SHAKIR: Have you not considered him (Namrud) who disputed with Ibrahim about his Lord, because Allah had given him the kingdom? When Ibrahim said: My Lord is He who gives life and causes to die, he said: I give life and cause death. Ibrahim said: So surely Allah causes the sun to rise from the east, then make it rise from the west; thus he who disbelieved was confounded; and Allah does not guide aright the unjust people.
002.259
YUSUFALI: Or (take) the similitude of one who passed by a hamlet, all in ruins to its roofs. He said: "Oh! how shall Allah bring it (ever) to life, after (this) its death?" but Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him up (again). He said: "How long didst thou tarry (thus)?" He said: (Perhaps) a day or part of a day." He said: "Nay, thou hast tarried thus a hundred years; but look at thy food and thy drink; they show no signs of age; and look at thy donkey: And that We may make of thee a sign unto the people, Look further at the bones, how We bring them together and clothe them with flesh." When this was shown clearly to him, he said: "I know that Allah hath power over all things."
PICKTHAL: Or (bethink thee of) the like of him who, passing by a township which had fallen into utter ruin, exclaimed: How shall Allah give this township life after its death? And Allah made him die a hundred years, then brought him back to life. He said: How long hast thou tarried? (The man) said: I have tarried a day or part of a day. (He) said: Nay, but thou hast tarried for a hundred years. Just look at thy food and drink which have not rotted! Look at thine ass! And, that We may make thee a token unto mankind, look at the bones, how We adjust them and then cover them with flesh! And when (the matter) became clear unto him, he said: I know now that Allah is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: Or the like of him (Uzair) who passed by a town, and it had fallen down upon its roofs; he said: When will Allah give it life after its death? So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years, then raised him to life. He said: How long have you tarried? He said: I have tarried a day, or a part of a day. Said He: Nay! you have tarried a hundred years; then look at your food and drink-- years have not passed over it; and look at your ass; and that We may make you a sign to men, and look at the bones, how We set them together, then clothed them with flesh; so when it became clear to him, he said: I know that Allah has power over all things.
002.260
YUSUFALI: When Abraham said: "Show me, Lord, how You will raise the dead, " He replied: "Have you no faith?" He said "Yes, but just to reassure my heart." Allah said, "Take four birds, draw them to you, and cut their bodies to pieces. Scatter them over the mountain-tops, then call them back. They will come swiftly to you. Know that Allah is Mighty, Wise."
PICKTHAL: And when Abraham said (unto his Lord): My Lord! Show me how Thou givest life to the dead, He said: Dost thou not believe? Abraham said: Yea, but (I ask) in order that my heart may be at ease. (His Lord) said: Take four of the birds and cause them to incline unto thee, then place a part of them on each hill, then call them, they will come to thee in haste, and know that Allah is Mighty, Wise.
SHAKIR: And when Ibrahim said: My Lord! show me how Thou givest life to the dead, He said: What! and do you not believe? He said: Yes, but that my heart may be at ease. He said: Then take four of the birds, then train them to follow you, then place on every mountain a part of them, then call them, they will come to you flying; and know that Allah is Mighty, Wise.

 

Section 36
 
Context of Revelation: The following verse was revealed to applaud the generosity of two of the Prophet's close associates who made laudable contributions towards the battle of Tabuk.

2 : 261

261. Mathalu allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahum fee sabeeli Allahi kamathali habbatin anbatat sabAAa sanabila fee kulli sunbulatin mi-atu habbatin waAllahu yudaAAifu liman yashao waAllahu wasiAAun AAaleemun

The likeness of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is similar to the germ that brings forth seven ears, each ear bearing an hundred grain in turn! And Allah will enhance the provision for those whom He will much more than that, for Allah is Copious and Wise!
 
 

*   *   *

2 : 262

 

262. Allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahum fee sabeeli Allahi thumma la yutbiAAoona ma anfaqoo mannan wala athan lahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona

Those who spend their wealth in Allah's way and do not cause embarrassment nor offence to anyone over that which they spent, their reward is with their Lord and they have no cause for concern nor for distress!
 

(Embarrassment is caused when he who gave makes it a point of publicizing his charity, and offence is caused if the publicizing is done for no other reason than naming and shaming the recipient in front of others)
 

2 : 263

263. Qawlun maAAroofun wamaghfiratun khayrun min sadaqatin yatbaAAuha athan waAllahu ghaniyyun haleemun

A kind word and a sense of tolerance are better than the charity that is followed by abuse! Allah is Copious and Compassionate!
 

(The admonition in this verse is, even if you are unable to help him that seeks your help, be gentle and courteous in turning him down so that his feelings are not hurt. Even if he makes a nuisance of himself, forgive him for his churlish behaviour).
 

2 : 264

 

 

264. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo la tubtiloo sadaqatikum bialmanni waal-atha kaallathee yunfiqu malahu ri-aa alnnasi wala yu/minu biAllahi waalyawmi al-akhiri famathaluhu kamathali safwanin AAalayhi turabun faasabahu wabilun fatarakahu saldan la yaqdiroona AAala shay-in mimma kasaboo waAllahu la yahdee alqawma alkafireena

O those of you who believe! Let not your charity go a waste by causing embarrassment or offence through it, - like him who spends his wealth only to impress people and believes not either in Allah or in the Last Day! His semblance is similar to that of a rock camouflaged by dust; when a passing shower lands on it, it becomes once again like a scabrous rock! They control none of what they have gained, and Allah gives no guidance to the disbelieving folk.
 

(The comparison here is between a believer who spends his wealth in order to attain Allah's accord and a hypocrite who blows away his wealth on vulgarities because, at the root of his profligacy, there is no love of Allah nor fear of the Last Day. He is like a boulder covered by dust that becomes bare and shows its true texture after every passing shower).
 

2 : 265

265. Wamathalu allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahumu ibtighaa mardati Allahi watathbeetan min anfusihim kamathali jannatin birabwatin asabaha wabilun faatat okulaha diAAfayni fa-in lam yusibha wabilun fatallun waAllahu bima taAAmaloona baseerun

And the semblance of those who spend their wealth to gain Allah's accord and to strengthen their hearts is like that of a garden that grows on a slant. If it rains, it produces twice its yield; but if it rains not, even a passing shower suffices it. Allah is perusing all your deeds!
 

(In this verse, the true believer who spends his wealth towards righteous causes in order to gain Allah's accord is compared with a copious tree which always produces bounteous crop whether the rainfall it received is adequate or inadequate).
 

2 : 266

266. Ayawaddu ahadukum an takoona lahu jannatun min nakheelin waaAAnabin tajree min tahtiha al-anharu lahu feeha min kulli alththamarati waasabahu alkibaru walahu thurriyyatun duAAafao faasabaha iAAsarun feehi narun faihtaraqat kathalika yubayyinu Allahu lakumu al-ayati laAAallakum tatafakkaroona

Would any of you choose to be like him who has a garden of date palms and grapes with rivers flowing underneath it and a variety of fruits growing for him; but he is too old to cope and his children are too weak to help; and then there comes along a fiery wind which sets it ablaze? Thus does Allah annotate His revelations so that you introspect! (R)
 

(In this verse the question asked is, how would we like to be the proud owners of a copious garden and fathers of loyal children if on account of our senility we are unable to tend to it, and on account of their tender years, our children are unable to help, and in the mean time there comes along a fiery storm and sets it ablaze? Of what good is a garden to us if it does not benefit us, and of what use are the children to us if they cannot help us when we need it the most? We would not! If we have a garden but we cannot reap its harvest, it is as good as not having one; if we have children but we cannot avail their service when we need them, it is as good as being childless; if we have dreams without the ability to make them come true, they are better off drowned in the slumber from which they emerged; if we have wealth but do not know how to enjoy it, what can the difference be between affluence and penury!)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

261. The likeness of those who spend their wealth in the Way of Allāh, is as the likeness of a grain (of corn); it grows seven ears, and each ear has a hundred grains. Allāh gives manifold increase to whom He pleases. And Allāh is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.

262. Those who spend their wealth in the Cause of Allāh, and do not follow up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury, their reward is with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

263. Kind words and forgiving of faults are better than Sadaqah (charity) followed by injury. And Allāh is Rich (Free of all wants) and He is Most-Forbearing.

264. O you who believe! Do not render in vain your Sadaqah (charity) by reminders of your generosity or by injury, like him who spends his wealth to be seen of men, and he does not believe in Allāh, nor in the Last Day. His likeness is the likeness of a smooth rock on which is a little dust; on it falls heavy rain which leaves it bare. They are not able to do anything with what they have earned. And Allāh does not guide the disbelieving people.

265. And the likeness of those who spend their wealth seeking Allāh's Pleasure while they in their ownselves are sure and certain that Allāh will reward them (for their spending in His Cause), is the likeness of a garden on a height; heavy rain falls on it and it doubles its yield of harvest. And if it does not receive heavy rain, light rain suffices it. And Allāh is All-Seer of (knows well) what you do.

266. Would any of you wish to have a garden with date-palms and vines, with rivers flowing underneath, and all kinds of fruits for him therein, while he is striken with old age, and his children are weak (not able to look after themselves), then it is struck with a fiery whirlwind, so that it is burnt? Thus does Allāh make clear His Ayāt (proofs, evidences, verses) to you that you may give thought[].


  
002.261 
YUSUFALI: The parable of those who spend their substance in the way of Allah is that of a grain of corn: it groweth seven ears, and each ear Hath a hundred grains. Allah 
giveth manifold increase to whom He pleaseth: And Allah careth for all and He knoweth all things. 
PICKTHAL: The likeness of those who spend their wealth in Allah's way is as the likeness of a grain which groweth seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains. Allah giveth 
increase manifold to whom He will. Allah is All-Embracing, All-Knowing. 
SHAKIR: The parable of those who spend their property in the way of Allah is as the parable of a grain growing seven ears (with) a hundred grains in every ear; and Allah 
multiplies for whom He pleases; and Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing 
002.262 
YUSUFALI: Those who spend their substance in the cause of Allah, and follow not up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury,-for them their reward is with 
their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve. 
PICKTHAL: Those who spend their wealth for the cause of Allah and afterward make not reproach and injury to follow that which they have spent; their reward is with their 
Lord, and there shall no fear come upon them, neither shall they grieve. 
SHAKIR: (As for) those who spend their property in the way of Allah, then do not follow up what they have spent with reproach or injury, they shall have their reward from 
their Lord, and they shall have no fear nor shall they grieve. 
002.263 
YUSUFALI: Kind words and the covering of faults are better than charity followed by injury. Allah is free of all wants, and He is Most-Forbearing. 
PICKTHAL: A kind word with forgiveness is better than almsgiving followed by injury. Allah is Absolute, Clement. 
SHAKIR: Kind speech and forgiveness is better than charity followed by injury; and Allah is Self-sufficient, Forbearing. 
002.264 
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! cancel not your charity by reminders of your generosity or by injury,- like those who spend their substance to be seen of men, but believe neither 
in Allah nor in the Last Day. They are in parable like a hard, barren rock, on which is a little soil: on it falls heavy rain, which leaves it (Just) a bare stone. They will be able to do 
nothing with aught they have earned. And Allah guideth not those who reject faith. 
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Render not vain your almsgiving by reproach and injury, like him who spendeth his wealth only to be seen of men and believeth not in Allah 
and the Last Day. His likeness is as the likeness of a rock whereon is dust of earth; a rainstorm smiteth it, leaving it smooth and bare. They have no control of aught of that 
which they have gained. Allah guideth not the disbelieving folk. 
SHAKIR: O you who believe! do not make your charity worthless by reproach and injury, like him who spends his property to be seen of men and does not believe in Allah 
and the last day; so his parable is as the parable of a smooth rock with earth upon it, then a heavy rain falls upon it, so it leaves it bare; they shall not be able to gain anything 
of what they have earned; and Allah does not guide the unbelieving people. 
002.265 
YUSUFALI: And the likeness of those who spend their substance, seeking to please Allah and to strengthen their souls, is as a garden, high and fertile: heavy rain falls on it but 
makes it yield a double increase of harvest, and if it receives not Heavy rain, light moisture sufficeth it. Allah seeth well whatever ye do. 
PICKTHAL: And the likeness of those who spend their wealth in search of Allah's pleasure, and for the strengthening of their souls, is as the likeness of a garden on a height. 
The rainstorm smiteth it and it bringeth forth its fruit twofold. And if the rainstorm smite it not, then the shower. Allah is Seer of what ye do. 
SHAKIR: And the parable of those who spend their property to seek the pleasure of Allah and for the certainty 'of their souls is as the parable of a garden on an elevated ground, 
upon which heavy rain falls so it brings forth its fruit twofold but if heavy rain does not fall upon it, then light rain (is sufficient); and Allah sees what you do. 
002.266 
YUSUFALI: Does any of you wish that he should have a garden with date-palms and vines and streams flowing underneath, and all kinds of fruit, while he is stricken with old age, 
and his children are not strong (enough to look after themselves)- that it should be caught in a whirlwind, with fire therein, and be burnt up? Thus doth Allah make clear to you 
(His) Signs; that ye may consider. 
PICKTHAL: Would any of you like to have a garden of palm-trees and vines, with rivers flowing underneath it, with all kinds of fruit for him therein; and old age hath stricken him 
and he hath feeble offspring; and a fiery whirlwind striketh it and it is (all) consumed by fire. Thus Allah maketh plain His revelations unto you, in order that ye may give thought. 
SHAKIR: Does one of you like that he should have a garden of palms and vines with streams flowing beneath it; he has in it all kinds of fruits; and old age has overtaken him and 
he has weak offspring, when, (lo!) a whirlwind with fire in it smites it so it becomes blasted; thus Allah makes the communications clear to you, that you may reflect. 
 


 

 

 

Section 37.

 


Context of Revelation
: The following verse was revealed to rebuke those who give towards charity from that which they earned by unfair means.

2 : 267

267. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo anfiqoo min tayyibati ma kasabtum wamimma akhrajna lakum mina al-ardi wala tayammamoo alkhabeetha minhu tunfiqoona walastum bi-akhitheehi illa an tughmidoo feehi waiAAlamoo anna Allaha ghaniyyun hameedun

O those of you who believe! Give alms from the things you earned with honesty and from that which We enabled you to grow from earth; but covet not the unclean with the intention of spending it in charity, if you would not touch it for your own needs except with abashment! And know that Allah is Copious and Praiseworthy!

(In other words, do not pray to Allah for a windfall on the lottery, promising Him that if He blessed you with a jackpot, you would give away half of it in charity!)
 
 

*   *   *

2 : 268

 

268. Alshshaytanu yaAAidukumu alfaqra waya/murukum bialfahsha-i waAllahu yaAAidukum maghfiratan minhu wafadlan waAllahu wasiAAun Aaaleemun

The devil threatens you with penury and lures you into indecency while Allah promises you forgiveness from Him and His benefactions! Allah is Ubiquitous and Erudite!
 

(The devil threatens you that, if you spend your wealth in charity as Allah wants you to, you would become bankrupt, and lures you into spending it on vulgarities which give you some joy in return. As opposed to that Allah promises you redemption and rewards in return for your generosity, if you spend your wealth on philanthropic causes).
 

2 : 269

269. Yu/tee alhikmata man yashao waman yu/ta alhikmata faqad ootiya khayran katheeran wama yaththakkaru illa oloo al-albabi

He bestows wisdom upon whom He will; and he who has received wisdom from Him has received virtue in a great measure! But none pay heed except the wise!

2 : 270

270. Wama anfaqtum min nafaqatin aw nathartum min nathrin fa-inna Allaha yaAAlamuhu wama lilththalimeena min ansarin

Whatever you have spent in charity, or have vowed to spend, Allah is aware of it. The contumacious have no cohorts!

2 : 271

271. In tubdoo alssadaqati faniAAimma hiya wa-in tukhfooha watu/tooha alfuqaraa fahuwa khayrun lakum wayukaffiru AAankum min sayyi-atikum waAllahu bima taAAmaloona khabeerun

If you give alms with ostentation, it still is a good thing to do; but if you give alms to those who deserve without ostentation, it is an even a better thing to do and it will remit some of your indiscretions. Allah is cognizant of all your deeds!

2 : 272

272. Laysa AAalayka hudahum walakinna Allaha yahdee man yashao wama tunfiqoo min khayrin fali-anfusikum wama tunfiqoona illa ibtighaa wajhi Allahi wama tunfiqoo min khayrin yuwaffa ilaykum waantum la tuthlamoona

Guiding men is not your task (O Mohammed) for it is up to Allah to guide whom He will! If you spend a good thing on charity, it is for your own good, especially if you spend it for no other reason than seeking Allah's accord! Whatever good things you spend, you will be paid back in full and will not be wronged!

*   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verse was revealed in honour of four hundred refugees who immigrated to Madina and led an austere and pious life, without ever stretching their hands for alms despite their abysmal poverty.

2 : 273

273. Lilfuqara-i allatheena ohsiroo fee sabeeli Allahi la yastateeAAoona darban fee al-ardi yahsabuhumu aljahilu aghniyaa mina alttaAAaffufi taAArifuhum biseemahum la yas-aloona alnnasa ilhafan wama tunfiqoo min khayrin fa-inna Allaha bihi AAaleemun

Let your charity be for those who are unable to travel in the land for livelihood because of their devotion to Allah. Even though their reticence is often mistaken by unthinking men as a sign of affluence, you will recognize their true plight from the expression on their faces. If they do not clamour for charity, it is only out of self-esteem, so whatever good things you spend for them, Allah becomes aware of it! (R)
 

(Let your charity go to people like them who spend most of their time in offering worship to Allah and the rest in serving those who worship Him. They do not engage in trade because of their preoccupations nor do they stretch their hands for alms because of their pride.  But their faces bear unmistakable imprints of suffering and stress, if you look beyond the cloak of reticence and restraint behind which they screen themselves).


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

267. O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it save if you close your eyes and tolerate therein. And know that Allāh is Rich (Free of all wants), and Worthy of all praise.

268. Shaitān (Satan) threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahshā (evil deeds, illegal sexual intercourse, sins etc.); whereas Allāh promises you Forgiveness from Himself and Bounty, and Allāh is All-Sufficient for His creatures' needs, All-Knower.

269. He grants Hikmah[] to whom He pleases, and he, to whom Hikmah is granted, is indeed granted abundant good. But none remember (will receive admonition) except men of understanding.

270. And whatever you spend for spendings (e.g., in Sadaqah - charity, etc. for Allāh's Cause) or whatever vow you make, be sure Allāh knows it all. And for the Zālimūn (wrong-doers, etc.) there are no helpers.

271. If you disclose your Sadaqāt (alms-giving), it is well, but if you conceal it, and give it to the poor, that is better for you. (Allāh) will forgive you some of your sins. And Allāh is Well-Acquainted with what you do.

272. Not upon you (Muhammad SAW) is their guidance, but Allāh guides whom He wills. And whatever you spend in good, it is for yourselves, when you spend not except seeking Allāh's Countenance. And whatever you spend in good, it will be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.

273. (Charity is) for Fuqarā (the poor), who in Allāh's Cause are restricted (from travel), and cannot move about in the land (for trade or work). The one who knows them not, thinks that they are rich because of their modesty. You may know them by their mark, they do not beg of people at all.[] And whatever you spend in good, surely Allāh knows it well.


002.267
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Give of the good things which ye have (honourably) earned, and of the fruits of the earth which We have produced for you, and do not even aim at getting anything which is bad, in order that out of it ye may give away something, when ye yourselves would not receive it except with closed eyes. And know that Allah is Free of all wants, and worthy of all praise.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Spend of the good things which ye have earned, and of that which We bring forth from the earth for you, and seek not the bad (with intent) to spend thereof (in charity) when ye would not take it for yourselves save with disdain; and know that Allah is Absolute, Owner of Praise.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! spend (benevolently) of the good things that you earn and or what We have brought forth for you out of the earth, and do not aim at what is bad that you may spend (in alms) of it, while you would not take it yourselves unless you have its price lowered, and know that Allah is Self-sufficient, Praiseworthy.
002.268
YUSUFALI: The Evil one threatens you with poverty and bids you to conduct unseemly. Allah promiseth you His forgiveness and bounties. And Allah careth for all and He knoweth all things.
PICKTHAL: The devil promiseth you destitution and enjoineth on you lewdness. But Allah promiseth you forgiveness from Himself with bounty. Allah is All-Embracing, All-knowing.
SHAKIR: Shaitan threatens you with poverty and enjoins you to be niggardly, and Allah promises you forgiveness from Himself and abundance; and Allah is Ample-giving, Knowing.
002.269
YUSUFALI: He granteth wisdom to whom He pleaseth; and he to whom wisdom is granted receiveth indeed a benefit overflowing; but none will grasp the Message but men of understanding.
PICKTHAL: He giveth wisdom unto whom He will, and he unto whom wisdom is given, he truly hath received abundant good. But none remember except men of understanding.
SHAKIR: He grants wisdom to whom He pleases, and whoever is granted wisdom, he indeed is given a great good and none but men of understanding mind.
002.270
YUSUFALI: And whatever ye spend in charity or devotion, be sure Allah knows it all. But the wrong-doers have no helpers.
PICKTHAL: Whatever alms ye spend or vow ye vow, lo! Allah knoweth it. Wrong-doers have no helpers.
SHAKIR: And whatever alms you give or (whatever) vow you vow, surely Allah knows it; and the unjust shall have no helpers.
002.271
YUSUFALI: If ye disclose (acts of) charity, even so it is well, but if ye conceal them, and make them reach those (really) in need, that is best for you: It will remove from you some of your (stains of) evil. And Allah is well acquainted with what ye do.
PICKTHAL: If ye publish your almsgiving, it is well, but if ye hide it and give it to the poor, it will be better for you, and will atone for some of your ill-deeds. Allah is Informed of what ye do.
SHAKIR: If you give alms openly, it is well, and if you hide it and give it to the poor, it is better for you; and this will do away with some of your evil deeds; and Allah is aware of what you do.
002.272
YUSUFALI: It is not required of thee (O Messenger), to set them on the right path, but Allah sets on the right path whom He pleaseth. Whatever of good ye give benefits your own souls, and ye shall only do so seeking the "Face" of Allah. Whatever good ye give, shall be rendered back to you, and ye shall not Be dealt with unjustly.
PICKTHAL: The guiding of them is not thy duty (O Muhammad), but Allah guideth whom He will. And whatsoever good thing ye spend, it is for yourselves, when ye spend not save in search of Allah's Countenance; and whatsoever good thing ye spend, it will be repaid to you in full, and ye will not be wronged.
SHAKIR: To make them walk in the right way is not incumbent on you, but Allah guides aright whom He pleases; and whatever good thing you spend, it is to your own good; and you do not spend but to seek Allah's pleasure; and whatever good things you spend shall be paid back to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.
002.273
YUSUFALI: (Charity is) for those in need, who, in Allah's cause are restricted (from travel), and cannot move about in the land, seeking (For trade or work): the ignorant man thinks, because of their modesty, that they are free from want. Thou shalt know them by their (Unfailing) mark: They beg not importunately from all the sundry. And whatever of good ye give, be assured Allah knoweth it well.
PICKTHAL: (Alms are) for the poor who are straitened for the cause of Allah, who cannot travel in the land (for trade). The unthinking man accounteth them wealthy because of their restraint. Thou shalt know them by their mark: They do not beg of men with importunity. And whatsoever good thing ye spend, lo! Allah knoweth it.
SHAKIR: (Alms are) for the poor who are confined in the way of Allah-- they cannot go about in the land; the ignorant man thinks them to be rich on account of (their) abstaining (from begging); you can recognise them by their mark; they do not beg from men importunately; and whatever good thing you spend, surely Allah knows it.

 

 

 

Section 38.
 

Context of Revelation: The following verse was revealed when an associate of the Prophet gave away in charity everything his in order to earn Allah's accord, - a quarter of it by night, a quarter of it by day, a quarter of it in private and a quarter of it in public.

2 : 274

274. Allatheena yunfiqoona amwalahum biallayli waalnnahari sirran waAAalaniyatan falahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona

Those who spend their wealth in Allah's way, whether by night or by day, whether secretly or openly, their reward is in the safe-keeping of their Lord and they need have no cause for concern nor for distress!
 

(By giving precedence to 'by night' over 'by day' and 'secretly' over 'openly', preference is being shown in a very subtle manner that charity which is not given a face of ostentation is better in the sight of Allah).

*   *   *

2 : 275

275. Allatheena ya/kuloona alrriba la yaqoomoona illa kama yaqoomu allathee yatakhabbatuhu alshshaytanu mina almassi thalika bi-annahum qaloo innama albayAAu mithlu alrriba waahalla Allahu albayAAa waharrama alrriba faman jaahu mawAAithatun min rabbihi faintaha falahu ma salafa waamruhu ila Allahi waman AAada faola-ika as-habu alnnari hum feeha khalidoona

Those who charge interest will rise from their graves before Allah swaying like men whom the devil has warped by his touch! This is because they say : 'Though lucre is similar to interest, Allah permits lucre but prohibits interest!' So, he to whom comes an admonition from his Lord and refrains from charging it after that, whatever he has already charged in the past will be deemed lawful for him, and Allah will take care of his future affairs. But he who persists with it belongs to the fire and will abide in it for a very long time.

(This verse is of great significance in the Economics of Islam because it reviles the practice of charging interests on moneys lent, often exorbitant and indefensible, and delivers a stern warning to those who indulge in it, subject to certain concessions that are more than reasonable).
 

2 : 276

276. Yamhaqu Allahu alrriba wayurbee alssadaqati waAllahu la yuhibbu kulla kaffarin atheemin

Allah has hereby vilified the practice of charging interests and replaced it with charity. Allah cherishes not those who are thankless and sinful!

(The proscription of usury is taken a step farther in this verse according to which those who spend their wealth in charity are placed far above those who earn their wealth through such unfair means)
 

2 : 277

277. Inna allatheena amanoo waAAamiloo alssalihati waaqamoo alssalata waatawoo alzzakata lahum ajruhum AAinda rabbihim wala khawfun AAalayhim wala hum yahzanoona

Those who believe and perform righteous deeds and perpetuate worship and give to the deserving their due, their reward is in the safe-keeping of their Lord and they have no cause for concern nor for distress!

(The harsh words of warning are followed in this verse by the promise of reward to those who act righteously, and render unto Allah His due through worship and render unto mankind their due through charity,  - a promise which is in the safe-keeping of Allah).

*   *   *

Context of Revelation : The following verses were revealed admonishing the believers who were engaged in financial dealings before Interest was outlawed by Islam to write off all the outstanding interests owed to them.

2 : 278

278. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo ittaqoo Allaha watharoo ma baqiya mina alrriba in kuntum mu/mineena

O those of you who believe! Discharge your duty to Allah and waive the outstanding owed to you by way of interests, if you are truly believers!

2 : 279

279. Fa-in lam tafAAaloo fa/thanoo biharbin mina Allahi warasoolihi wa-in tubtum falakum ruoosu amwalikum la tathlimoona wala tuthlamoona

And if you do this not, prepare yourselves for a war with Allah and His messenger! But if you repent, then you are entitled to recover your principal sum, so that you neither sustain a loss yourselves nor inflict it on others!
 

(Waive the outstanding sum owed to you by way of interests so that you neither sustain a loss nor inflict it upon others, or prepare yourselves for a war against two of the most potent adversaries in the world : Allah and His messenger!

The Prophet once stated that, whoever waives a debt in view of the hardship and penury of the debtor, Allah will provide him with His shelter on the Day when no other shelter will be available to anyone!).
 

2 : 280

280. Wa-in kana thoo AAusratin fanathiratun ila maysaratin waan tasaddaqoo khayrun lakum in kuntum taAAlamoona

And if the debtor is of limited means, give him time until his plight improves. However, if you write off the entire debt as a gesture of charity, it is so much the better for you,  - if you but knew!

2 : 281

281. Waittaqoo yawman turjaAAoona feehi ila Allahi thumma tuwaffa kullu nafsin ma kasabat wahum la yuthlamoona

And guard yourselves against a Day on which you will be brought back to Allah when every soul will be paid in full towards what it had earned and none will be wronged! (R)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

274. Those who spend their wealth (in Allāh's Cause) by night and day, in secret and in public, they shall have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.[]

275. Those who eat Ribā[] (usury) will not stand (on the Day of Resurrection) except like the standing of a person beaten by Shaitān (Satan) leading him to insanity. That is because they say: "Trading is only like Ribā (usury)," whereas Allāh has permitted trading and forbidden Ribā (usury). So whosoever receives an admonition from his Lord and stops eating Ribā (usury) shall not be punished for the past; his case is for Allāh (to judge); but whoever returns [to Ribā (usury)], such are the dwellers of the Fire - they will abide therein.

276. Allāh will destroy Ribā (usury) and will give increase for Sadaqāt (deeds of charity, alms, etc.) And Allāh likes not the disbelievers, sinners.

277. Truly those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and perform As-Salāt (Iqāmat-as-Salāt), and give Zakāt, they will have their reward with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.

278. O you who believe! Be afraid of Allāh and give up what remains (due to you) from Ribā (usury) (from now onward), if you are (really) believers[].

279. And if you do not do it, then take a notice of war from Allāh and His Messenger[] but if you repent, you shall have your capital sums. Deal not unjustly (by asking more than your capital sums), and you shall not be dealt with unjustly (by receiving less than your capital sums).

280. And if the debtor is in a hard time (has no money), then grant him time till it is easy for him to repay, but if you remit it by way of charity, that is better for you if you did but know.[]

281. And be afraid of the Day when you shall be brought back to Allāh. Then every person shall be paid what he earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.


002.274
YUSUFALI: Those who (in charity) spend of their goods by night and by day, in secret and in public, have their reward with their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
PICKTHAL: Those who spend their wealth by night and day, by stealth and openly, verily their reward is with their Lord, and their shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
SHAKIR: (As for) those who spend their property by night and by day, secretly and openly, they shall have their reward from their Lord and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.
002.275
YUSUFALI: Those who devour usury will not stand except as stand one whom the Evil one by his touch Hath driven to madness. That is because they say: "Trade is like usury," but Allah hath permitted trade and forbidden usury. Those who after receiving direction from their Lord, desist, shall be pardoned for the past; their case is for Allah (to judge); but those who repeat (The offence) are companions of the Fire: They will abide therein (for ever).
PICKTHAL: Those who swallow usury cannot rise up save as he ariseth whom the devil hath prostrated by (his) touch. That is because they say: Trade is just like usury; whereas Allah permitteth trading and forbiddeth usury. He unto whom an admonition from his Lord cometh, and (he) refraineth (in obedience thereto), he shall keep (the profits of) that which is past, and his affair (henceforth) is with Allah. As for him who returneth (to usury) - Such are rightful owners of the Fire. They will abide therein.
SHAKIR: Those who swallow down usury cannot arise except as one whom Shaitan has prostrated by (his) touch does rise. That is because they say, trading is only like usury; and Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury. To whomsoever then the admonition has come from his Lord, then he desists, he shall have what has already passed, and his affair is in the hands of Allah; and whoever returns (to it)-- these arc the inmates of the fire; they shall abide in it.
002.276
YUSUFALI: Allah will deprive usury of all blessing, but will give increase for deeds of charity: For He loveth not creatures ungrateful and wicked.
PICKTHAL: Allah hath blighted usury and made almsgiving fruitful. Allah loveth not the impious and guilty.
SHAKIR: Allah does not bless usury, and He causes charitable deeds to prosper, and Allah does not love any ungrateful sinner.
002.277
YUSUFALI: Those who believe, and do deeds of righteousness, and establish regular prayers and regular charity, will have their reward with their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve.
PICKTHAL: Lo! those who believe and do good works and establish worship and pay the poor-due, their reward is with their Lord and there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
SHAKIR: Surely they who believe and do good deeds and keep up prayer and pay the poor-rate they shall have their reward from their Lord, and they shall have no fear, nor shall they grieve.
002.278
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! Fear Allah, and give up what remains of your demand for usury, if ye are indeed believers.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! Observe your duty to Allah, and give up what remaineth (due to you) from usury, if ye are (in truth) believers.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! Be careful of (your duty to) Allah and relinquish what remains (due) from usury, if you are believers.
002.279
YUSUFALI: If ye do it not, Take notice of war from Allah and His Messenger: But if ye turn back, ye shall have your capital sums: Deal not unjustly, and ye shall not be dealt with unjustly.
PICKTHAL: And if ye do not, then be warned of war (against you) from Allah and His messenger. And if ye repent, then ye have your principal (without interest). Wrong not, and ye shall not be wronged.
SHAKIR: But if you do (it) not, then be apprised of war from Allah and His Messenger; and if you repent, then you shall have your capital; neither shall you make (the debtor) suffer loss, nor shall you be made to suffer loss.
002.280
YUSUFALI: If the debtor is in a difficulty, grant him time Till it is easy for him to repay. But if ye remit it by way of charity, that is best for you if ye only knew.
PICKTHAL: And if the debtor is in straitened circumstances, then (let there be) postponement to (the time of) ease; and that ye remit the debt as almsgiving would be better for you if ye did but know.
SHAKIR: And if (the debtor) is in straitness, then let there be postponement until (he is in) ease; and that you remit (it) as alms is better for you, if you knew.
002.281
YUSUFALI: And fear the Day when ye shall be brought back to Allah. Then shall every soul be paid what it earned, and none shall be dealt with unjustly.
PICKTHAL: And guard yourselves against a day in which ye will be brought back to Allah. Then every soul will be paid in full that which it hath earned, and they will not be wronged.
SHAKIR: And guard yourselves against a day in which you shall be returned to Allah; then every soul shall be paid back in full what it has earned, and they shall not be dealt with unjustly.

 


Section 39.
 
2 : 282

 282. Ya ayyuha allatheena amanoo itha tadayantum bidaynin ila ajalin musamman faoktuboohu walyaktub baynakum katibun bialAAadli wala ya/ba katibun an yaktuba kama AAallamahu Allahu falyaktub walyumlili allathee AAalayhi alhaqqu walyattaqi Allaha rabbahu wala yabkhas minhu shay-an fa-in kana allathee AAalayhi alhaqqu safeehan aw daAAeefan aw la yastateeAAu an yumilla huwa falyumlil waliyyuhu bialAAadli waistashhidoo shaheedayni min rijalikum fa-in lam yakoona rajulayni farajulun waimraatani mimman tardawna mina alshshuhada-i an tadilla ihdahuma fatuthakkira ihdahuma al-okhra wala ya/ba alshshuhadao itha ma duAAoo wala tas-amoo an taktuboohu sagheeran aw kabeeran ila ajalihi thalikum aqsatu AAinda Allahi waaqwamu lilshshahadati waadna alla tartaboo illa an takoona tijaratan hadiratan tudeeroonaha baynakum falaysa AAalaykum junahun alla taktubooha waashhidoo itha tabayaAAtum wala yudarra katibun wala shaheedun wa-in tafAAaloo fa-innahu fusooqun bikum waittaqoo Allaha wayuAAallimukumu Allahu waAllahu bikulli shay-in AAaleemun

O those of you who believe! If you are entering into any transaction for a fixed term, it is best to put it in writing; and let there be a scribe among you who will write with fairness; and let no scribe whom Allah has taught how to write decline to write; and let him who is incurring the debt dictate it, being mindful of his duty to Allah who is his Lord and making no wanton omissions therein; and if he who is incurring the debt an imbecile or a senile and unable to dictate, then let anyone who is able to safeguard his interests dictate with fairness; and let there be two witnesses present who are men from your brotherhood; but if two men are not available, then a man and two women of your choice so that if one forgets, the other may remind her; and let no witness refuse to come when summoned. Do not neglect to record it, whether the transaction is major or minor, specifying all the term of the contract. It is fairer in the sight of Allah, for it provides an accurate testimony and is the best way of eliminating mistrust between you. In the case of merchandise you are transferring amongst yourselves from hand to hand, it is no sin for you if you write this not; but when buying and selling, let there be witnesses present, and let no harm be done to the scribe nor to the witness, for if you harm them, it is a sin. Discharge your duty to Allah and know that Allah is teaching you and that Allah is Omnipotent over all things!

2 : 283

283. Wa-in kuntum AAala safarin walam tajidoo katiban farihanun maqboodatun fa-in amina baAAdukum baAAdan falyu-addi allathee i/tumina amanatahu walyattaqi Allaha rabbahu wala taktumoo alshshahadata waman yaktumha fa-innahu athimun qalbuhu waAllahu bima taAAmaloona AAaleemun

If you are on a journey and a scribe is not available, then a pledge in hand shall suffice; and if one of you entrusts to the other the item pledged, then let him who was entrusted return it to its owner according to the terms of the pact. Fear Allah and suppress not testimony, for he that suppresses testimony has a guilty heart! Allah is cognizant of all your deeds! (R)
 

(Both these verses dealing at length with the ethics of monetary transactions between individuals form an integral part of the Jurisprudence of Islam and are incorporated in the Civil Procedure Code of most Islamic countries all over the world. The stipulations contained in them are fair and prudent, safeguarding the interests of both the parties to the contract, with a special emphasis on protecting those who cannot protect themselves. They also deal with duties and obligations of the scribe who records the transaction and witnesses who bear witness to it, the most important, the most proficient, the most erudite and candid witness of all being Allah Himself, to whom we are answerable in the end.

The concept of Notary Public was introduced for the first time by the Qur'aan through this, the longest Surah  in this Tractate, which is now a prevalent practice in virtually all countries  of the world)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

282. O you who believe! When you contract a debt for a fixed period, write it down. Let a scribe write it down in justice between you. Let not the scribe refuse to write as Allāh has taught him, so let him write. Let him (the debtor) who incurs the liability dictate, and he must fear Allāh, his Lord, and diminish not anything of what he owes. But if the debtor is of poor understanding, or weak, or is unable himself to dictate, then let his guardian dictate in justice. And get two witnesses out of your own men. And if there are not two men (available), then a man and two women, such as you agree for witnesses, so that if one of them (two women) errs, the other can remind her. And the witnesses should not refuse when they are called on (for evidence). You should not become weary to write it (your contract), whether it be small or big, for its fixed term, that is more just with Allāh; more solid as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves, save when it is a present trade which you carry out on the spot among yourselves, then there is no sin on you if you do not write it down. But take witnesses whenever you make a commercial contract. Let neither scribe nor witness suffer any harm, but if you do (such harm), it would be wickedness in you. So be afraid of Allāh; and Allāh teaches you. And Allāh is the All-Knower of each and everything.

283. And if you are on a journey and cannot find a scribe, then let there be a pledge taken (mortgaging)[]; then if one of you entrust the other, let the one who is entrusted discharge his trust (faithfully), and let him be afraid of Allāh, his Lord. And conceal not the evidence for he, who hides it, surely his heart is sinful. And Allāh is All-Knower of what you do.


002.282
YUSUFALI: O ye who believe! When ye deal with each other, in transactions involving future obligations in a fixed period of time, reduce them to writing Let a scribe write down faithfully as between the parties: let not the scribe refuse to write: as Allah Has taught him, so let him write. Let him who incurs the liability dictate, but let him fear His Lord Allah, and not diminish aught of what he owes. If they party liable is mentally deficient, or weak, or unable Himself to dictate, Let his guardian dictate faithfully, and get two witnesses, out of your own men, and if there are not two men, then a man and two women, such as ye choose, for witnesses, so that if one of them errs, the other can remind her. The witnesses should not refuse when they are called on (For evidence). Disdain not to reduce to writing (your contract) for a future period, whether it be small or big: it is juster in the sight of Allah, More suitable as evidence, and more convenient to prevent doubts among yourselves but if it be a transaction which ye carry out on the spot among yourselves, there is no blame on you if ye reduce it not to writing. But take witness whenever ye make a commercial contract; and let neither scribe nor witness suffer harm. If ye do (such harm), it would be wickedness in you. So fear Allah; For it is Good that teaches you. And Allah is well acquainted with all things. If ye are on a journey, and cannot find a scribe, a pledge with possession (may serve the purpose). And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, let the trustee (faithfully) discharge his trust, and let him Fear his Lord conceal not evidence; for whoever conceals it, - his heart is tainted with sin. And Allah knoweth all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: O ye who believe! When ye contract a debt for a fixed term, record it in writing. Let a scribe record it in writing between you in (terms of) equity. No scribe should refuse to write as Allah hath taught him, so let him write, and let him who incurreth the debt dictate, and let him observe his duty to Allah his Lord, and diminish naught thereof. But if he who oweth the debt is of low understanding, or weak, or unable himself to dictate, then let the guardian of his interests dictate in (terms of) equity. And call to witness, from among your men, two witnesses. And if two men be not (at hand) then a man and two women, of such as ye approve as witnesses, so that if the one erreth (through forgetfulness) the other will remember. And the witnesses must not refuse when they are summoned. Be not averse to writing down (the contract) whether it be small or great, with (record of) the term thereof. That is more equitable in the sight of Allah and more sure for testimony, and the best way of avoiding doubt between you; save only in the case when it is actual merchandise which ye transfer among yourselves from hand to hand. In that case it is no sin for you if ye write it not. And have witnesses when ye sell one to another, and let no harm be done to scribe or witness. If ye do (harm to them) lo! it is a sin in you. Observe your duty to Allah. Allah is teaching you. And Allah is knower of all things.
SHAKIR: O you who believe! when you deal with each other in contracting a debt for a fixed time, then write it down; and let a scribe write it down between you with fairness; and the scribe should not refuse to write as Allah has taught him, so he should write; and let him who owes the debt dictate, and he should be careful of (his duty to) Allah, his Lord, and not diminish anything from it; but if he who owes the debt is unsound in understanding, or weak, or (if) he is not able to dictate himself, let his guardian dictate with fairness; and call in to witness from among your men two witnesses; but if there are not two men, then one man and two women from among those whom you choose to be witnesses, so that if one of the two errs, the second of the two may remind the other; and the witnesses should not refuse when they are summoned; and be not averse to writing it (whether it is) small or large, with the time of its falling due; this is more equitable in the sight of Allah and assures greater accuracy in testimony, and the nearest (way) that you may not entertain doubts (afterwards), except when it is ready merchandise which you give and take among yourselves from hand to hand, then there is no blame on you in not writing it down; and have witnesses when you barter with one another, and let no harm be done to the scribe or to the witness; and if you do (it) then surely it will be a transgression in you, and be careful of (your duty) to Allah, Allah teaches you, and Allah knows all things.
002.283
YUSUFALI: If ye are on a journey, and cannot find a scribe, a pledge with possession (may serve the purpose). And if one of you deposits a thing on trust with another, Let the trustee (Faithfully) discharge His trust, and let him fear his Lord. Conceal not evidence; for whoever conceals it,- His heart is tainted with sin. And Allah Knoweth all that ye do.
PICKTHAL: If ye be on a journey and cannot find a scribe, then a pledge in hand (shall suffice). And if one of you entrusteth to another let him who is trusted deliver up that which is entrusted to him (according to the pact between them) and let him observe his duty to Allah his Lord. Hide not testimony. He who hideth it, verily his heart is sinful. Allah is Aware of what ye do.
SHAKIR: And if you are upon a journey and you do not find a scribe, then (there may be) a security taken into possession; but if one of you trusts another, then he who is trusted should deliver his trust, and let him be careful (of his duty to) Allah, his Lord; and do not conceal testimony, and whoever conceals it, his heart is surely sinful; and Allah knows what you do.


 
 
Section 40.
 
2 : 284

284. Lillahi ma fee alssamawati wama fee al-ardi wa-in tubdoo ma fee anfusikum aw tukhfoohu yuhasibkum bihi Allahu fayaghfiru liman yashao wayuAAaththibu man yashao waAllahu AAala kulli shay-in qadeerun

To Allah belongs whatever is in the heavens and whatever is on the earth! And whether you disclose that which is in your heart or hide it, Allah will hold you responsible for it! He will forgive whom He will and He will punish whom He will. Allah is able to do all things!
 

(It is in the Nature of the Beast that we as human beings quite often entertain unwholesome feelings in our hearts and impious thoughts in our minds. Some we know to be wrong and abandon them without putting them into practice; Allah does not take us to task over these because as humans we err and as Allah He forgives. But if we conceive these feelings and these thoughts with the firm intention of putting them into practice, knowing it quite well that they are pernicious and harmful, He will surely take us to task for it, sometimes even before we act on them, because he is well aware of what we are thinking, what we are planning and what we are doing!)
 

2 : 285

285. Amana alrrasoolu bima onzila ilayhi min rabbihi waalmu/minoona kullun amana biAllahi wamala-ikatihi wakutubihi warusulihi la nufarriqu bayna ahadin min rusulihi waqaloo samiAAna waataAAna ghufranaka rabbana wa-ilayka almaseeru

The messenger believes in that which has been revealed to him by his Lord as do the rest of the believers. Collectively they believe in Allah and His angels and His Scriptures and His messengers and pledge: 'We believe in all His messengers without discrimination!' and say : 'We hear and we obey! Forgive us O Lord of ours, for it is to you that we all must return!'
 

(This verse, as are many others before this and after this, is the core and cornerstone of our Faith and therefore merits elaboration : Believing in Allah incorporates a complexity which could sometimes be overlooked; when we say we believe in Allah, we mean we believe that Allah is One; that there is no other God except Him; that there are no partners who share His Divine kingdom; that we believe in all His beautiful names and His wondrous attribute; that we acknowledge He is Erudite and Omnipotent and that nothing is beyond the scope of His knowledge and power; when we say we believe in His Angels, we mean that they do exist; that they are free of sin; that they are chaste and they act as intermediaries between Allah and His messengers; when we say we believe in all His Scriptures, we mean that we believe that all His Scriptures were inspired by Allah in His  messengers; that they contain His messages to all mankind and they stand on the plinth of truth; when we say we believe in His messengers, we mean we believe that they are the emissaries of Allah who have been sent by Him to mankind as bearers of good tidings and warner; that they are free of guilt; that they are chaste; that they are men; that they are the guardians of His Scriptures; that they rank above all men; that some of them outrank the others and that we discriminate not between them).
 

2 : 286

286. La yukallifu Allahu nafsan illa wusAAaha laha ma kasabat waAAalayha ma iktasabat rabbana la tu-akhithna in naseena aw akhta/na rabbana wala tahmil AAalayna isran kama hamaltahu AAala allatheena min qablina rabbana wala tuhammilna ma la taqata lana bihi waoAAfu AAanna waighfir lana wairhamna anta mawlana faonsurna AAala alqawmi alkafireena

Allah places not upon any soul a burden more than what it can carry! In its favour rests that which is good and to its detriment rests that which is bad. 'Our Lord! Condemn us not for that which we omit or for that which we commit! Our Lord! Lay not upon us such a weight as you laid upon those before us! Our Lord! Place not upon us a burden which we are ill-equipped to carry! Forgive us and redeem us and show mercy towards us! You are our Guardian and hence grant us victory over the disbelievers! (R)
 

(An apt and a befitting conclusion to the longest and the most important Surah in the entire Qur'aan because of its complexity and enormity; its dimensions touching every aspect of our lives, its spirit permeating the innermost corners of our spirits; its effulgence lighting up the darkest recesses of our minds; its essence sinking into the deepest chambers of our hearts!)


 

OTHER TRANSLATIONS BY MUHSIN, YUSUFALI, PICKTHAL AND SHAKIR:

MUHSIN:

284. To Allāh belongs all that is in the heavens and all that is on the earth, and whether you disclose what is in your ownselves or conceal it, Allāh will call you to account for it. Then He forgives whom He wills and punishes whom He wills. And Allāh is Able to do all things.

285. . The Messenger (Muhammad SAW) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers. Each one believes in Allāh, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers. They say, "We make no distinction between one another of His Messengers" - and they say, "We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Your Forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the return (of all)."

286. Allāh burdens not a person beyond his scope. He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned. "Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget or fall into error, our Lord! Lay not on us a burden like that which You did lay on those before us (Jews and Christians); our Lord! Put not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Pardon us and grant us Forgiveness. Have mercy on us. You are our Maulā (Patron, Suppor-ter and Protector, etc.) and give us victory over the disbelieving people.[]"


002.284
YUSUFALI: To Allah belongeth all that is in the heavens and on earth. Whether ye show what is in your minds or conceal it, Allah Calleth you to account for it. He forgiveth whom He pleaseth, and punisheth whom He pleaseth, for Allah hath power over all things.
PICKTHAL: Unto Allah (belongeth) whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth; and whether ye make known what is in your minds or hide it, Allah will bring you to account for it. He will forgive whom He will and He will punish whom He will. Allah is Able to do all things.
SHAKIR: Whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is Allah's; and whether you manifest what is in your minds or hide it, Allah will call you to account according to it; then He will forgive whom He pleases and chastise whom He pleases, and Allah has power over all things.
002.285
YUSUFALI: The Messenger believeth in what hath been revealed to him from his Lord, as do the men of faith. Each one (of them) believeth in Allah, His angels, His books, and His messengers. "We make no distinction (they say) between one and another of His messengers." And they say: "We hear, and we obey: (We seek) Thy forgiveness, our Lord, and to Thee is the end of all journeys."
PICKTHAL: The messenger believeth in that which hath been revealed unto him from his Lord and (so do) believers. Each one believeth in Allah and His angels and His scriptures and His messengers - We make no distinction between any of His messengers - and they say: We hear, and we obey. (Grant us) Thy forgiveness, our Lord. Unto Thee is the journeying.
SHAKIR: The messenger believes in what has been revealed to him from his Lord, and (so do) the believers; they all believe in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers; We make no difference between any of His messengers; and they say: We hear and obey, our Lord! Thy forgiveness (do we crave), and to Thee is the eventual course.
002.286
YUSUFALI: On no soul doth Allah Place a burden greater than it can bear. It gets every good that it earns, and it suffers every ill that it earns. (Pray:) "Our Lord! Condemn us not if we forget or fall into error; our Lord! Lay not on us a burden Like that which Thou didst lay on those before us; Our Lord! Lay not on us a burden greater than we have strength to bear. Blot out our sins, and grant us forgiveness. Have mercy on us. Thou art our Protector; Help us against those who stand against faith."
PICKTHAL: Allah tasketh not a soul beyond its scope. For it (is only) that which it hath earned, and against it (only) that which it hath deserved. Our Lord! Condemn us not if we forget, or miss the mark! Our Lord! Lay not on us such a burden as thou didst lay on those before us! Our Lord! Impose not on us that which we have not the strength to bear! Pardon us, absolve us and have mercy on us, Thou, our Protector, and give us victory over the disbelieving folk.
SHAKIR: Allah does not impose upon any soul a duty but to the extent of its ability; for it is (the benefit of) what it has earned and upon it (the evil of) what it has wrought: Our Lord! do not punish us if we forget or make a mistake; Our Lord! do not lay on us a burden as Thou didst lay on those before us, Our Lord do not impose upon us that which we have not the strength to bear; and pardon us and grant us protection and have mercy on us, Thou art our Patron, so help us against the unbelieving people.
 

                                   

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 SURAH 3